Alagille Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects various organs and systems within the body. It was first described by Dr. Daniel Alagille in 1969, hence the name. This condition is also known by other names such as Alagille-Warthen Syndrome, Alagille-Warman Syndrome, and Syndromic Paucity of Interlobular Bile Ducts. It is listed in the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database as OMIM #118450.

Alagille Syndrome primarily affects the liver, heart, eyes, face, and skeletal system, but can also cause problems in other parts of the body. The condition is characterized by a reduction in the number of small bile ducts within the liver, leading to a buildup of bile and potentially causing liver damage. The genetic cause of Alagille Syndrome has been linked to mutations in the JAGGED1 (JAG1) gene, which is located on chromosome 20p12. Alagille Syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a mutation in only one copy of the JAG1 gene is sufficient to cause the condition.

Signs and symptoms of Alagille Syndrome can vary widely from patient to patient. The most common clinical features include liver abnormalities such as cholestasis (impaired bile flow), jaundice, and hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). Heart defects, particularly pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonic valve), are also frequently observed. Other clinical manifestations can include characteristic facial features, such as a prominent forehead and deep-set eyes, as well as skeletal abnormalities and eye problems such as posterior embryotoxon (a thickened line in the cornea).

Management of Alagille Syndrome typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, with specialists from various medical fields working together to address the specific needs of each patient. Treatment may include medications to manage liver-related complications, surgical interventions for heart defects or other issues, and supportive care to address additional symptoms. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are crucial for individuals with Alagille Syndrome.

Research and scientific studies are ongoing to further understand the underlying causes and improve the management of Alagille Syndrome. Genetic testing can be performed to confirm a diagnosis and identify the specific JAG1 gene mutation involved. Testing for Alagille Syndrome is available through various resources, including clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov and commercial genetic testing companies. Advocacy groups and support organizations can provide additional information and resources for individuals and families affected by Alagille Syndrome.

Frequency

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic condition that occurs in approximately 1 in every 30,000 to 50,000 live births. The frequency of the syndrome varies among different populations, with some studies suggesting a higher incidence in certain ethnic groups.

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The condition is caused by mutations in the JAGGED1 or NOTCH2 genes, which are part of the Notch signaling pathway. Mutations in other genes associated with the Notch pathway may also cause the syndrome.

Alagille syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person with the condition has a 50 percent chance of passing the mutation on to each of their children. However, the syndrome can also occur sporadically, without any family history of the condition.

The signs and symptoms of Alagille syndrome can vary widely between individuals, even within the same family. Some common features of the syndrome include liver stenosis, heart defects, butterfly-shaped vertebrae, kidney problems, and characteristic facial features.

Diagnosis of Alagille syndrome is typically based on clinical findings, but additional testing such as genetic testing may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

There are resources available to support patients and families affected by Alagille syndrome, including advocacy groups and information on clinical trials. The Alagille Syndrome Alliance and Alagille Syndrome Foundation are two organizations that provide support and information about the condition.

Scientific research on Alagille syndrome is ongoing, with studies investigating the causes, inheritance patterns, and management of the condition. The OMIM database and PubMed are valuable resources for finding articles and additional information about Alagille syndrome.

Causes

The main cause of Alagille syndrome is a genetic mutation that affects the Notch signaling pathway, specifically the genes JAG1 and NOTCH2. These genes play a crucial role in the development and maturation of several organs, including the liver, heart, and blood vessels.

About 70-90 percent of individuals with Alagille syndrome have a mutation in the JAG1 gene, while 5-10 percent have a mutation in the NOTCH2 gene. In rare cases, individuals may have a mutation in other genes within the Notch signaling pathway.

Alagille syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a person with the syndrome has a 50 percent chance of passing it on to each of their children. However, in about 30 percent of cases, the syndrome appears in individuals with no family history of the condition. In these cases, the mutation likely occurs spontaneously during development.

Diagnosis of Alagille syndrome is often based on clinical evaluations, using a set of criteria known as the Alagille Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria. Genetic testing can also be performed to identify specific mutations in the JAG1 and NOTCH2 genes, though this is not always necessary for a diagnosis.

In addition to Alagille syndrome, mutations in the JAG1 and NOTCH2 genes have been associated with other diseases and conditions, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (a heart defect) and biliary atresia (a condition in which the bile ducts are blocked or absent).

Scientific research into the causes and mechanisms of Alagille syndrome is ongoing. Studies have identified various factors and processes that contribute to the development of the disorder, including abnormalities in bile duct formation, impaired liver cell regeneration, and abnormal cardiovascular development.

For more information on Alagille syndrome and related research, genetic testing, and management strategies, the following resources may be helpful:

  • Alagille Syndrome Alliance: A patient advocacy and support center
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Information on Alagille syndrome and related resources
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A database of ongoing clinical trials related to Alagille syndrome
  • Genetics Home Reference: An online catalog of genetic conditions and associated genes
  • OMIM: A database of human genes and genetic disorders
  • PubMed: A search engine for scientific research articles

Research and genetic testing can provide valuable insights into the causes and management of Alagille syndrome. By understanding the underlying genes and pathways involved, scientists and healthcare professionals can develop targeted treatments and interventions to improve the lives of individuals with this rare condition.

Learn more about the genes and chromosome associated with Alagille syndrome

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects multiple organ systems. It is caused by mutations in genes and chromosomes that are involved in the Notch signaling pathway. These genetic changes can disrupt the normal development of various organs and tissues in the body, leading to the signs and symptoms of the syndrome.

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One of the genes associated with Alagille syndrome is Jagged1. Mutations in this gene are responsible for the majority of cases, accounting for about 94 percent of affected individuals. Another gene, called Notch2, has also been implicated in a small subset of cases. Changes in these genes can lead to structural abnormalities in the liver, heart, and other affected organs.

The inheritance pattern of Alagille syndrome can vary, but it is often inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person with a mutation in one copy of the associated gene has a 50 percent chance of passing the condition on to each of their children.

There are several resources available for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. These include advocacy organizations, such as the Alagille Syndrome Alliance, which provide support and information about the condition. Additionally, there are websites and online forums where patients and families can find articles, studies, and additional resources to learn more about the condition and connect with others facing similar challenges.

Genetic testing is available for Alagille syndrome, which can help confirm a diagnosis and identify any specific mutations in the associated genes. Testing can be done on a blood sample or a sample of tissue from an affected organ. Your doctor can provide more information about the testing process and its availability.

Management of Alagille syndrome focuses on addressing the specific symptoms and complications that may arise. This may include treatments for liver and heart problems, as well as interventions for other affected organ systems. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Research is ongoing to better understand the causes and mechanisms of Alagille syndrome. Scientific studies and clinical trials may provide opportunities for individuals with the condition to participate in research and contribute to the development of new treatments and therapies.

For more information about the genes and chromosome associated with Alagille syndrome, you can visit resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PubMed, and the Alagille Syndrome Alliance. These sources provide detailed information and references to scientific articles and studies on the topic.

Inheritance

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene from one parent in order to develop the syndrome. The syndrome is associated with mutations in several genes, including the Jagged1 gene (JAG1) and the Notch2 gene.

According to scientific studies and research, mutations in the JAG1 gene are the most common cause of Alagille syndrome, accounting for approximately 94% of cases. Mutations in the Notch2 gene are responsible for about 1% to 2% of cases. Other genes involved in the Notch signaling pathway may also play a role in the development of this syndrome.

The inheritance pattern of Alagille syndrome can vary within families. It is possible for a parent with Alagille syndrome to pass the condition on to their children, but it is also possible for a child to develop the condition with no family history. This can happen due to new mutations in the genes associated with the syndrome.

ClinicalTrials.gov provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to Alagille syndrome. These trials aim to improve the understanding of the condition, develop better management strategies, and explore potential treatment options.

OMIM is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides more information on the genes associated with Alagille syndrome, including their names, chromosome locations, and functions.

Other resources, such as articles and references available on PubMed, also provide valuable information about Alagille syndrome, its inheritance, associated genes, and the signs and symptoms that can occur. Support and advocacy groups can offer additional resources and support for individuals and families dealing with Alagille syndrome.

Genetic testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of Alagille syndrome. Testing can identify mutations in the JAG1 or Notch2 genes, as well as other genes associated with the syndrome. It can also help exclude other genetic diseases with similar symptoms.

Within the patient management and research center, there are opportunities for individuals with Alagille syndrome to participate in clinical trials and contribute to the scientific understanding of the condition. These studies may provide valuable insights into the causes of Alagille syndrome, as well as potential treatments and management strategies.

Alagille syndrome is rare, with an estimated frequency of 1 in 70,000 live births. However, the exact frequency of the condition may be higher due to undiagnosed cases or milder forms of the syndrome.

Learning about the inheritance and causes of Alagille syndrome can help individuals and their families understand the condition better and make informed decisions about testing, treatment, and support.

Other Names for This Condition

  • ALGS
  • Alagille syndrome
  • ART1 deficiency
  • DHPL
  • Cholestasis with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Arteriohepatic dysplasia

Alagille syndrome, also known as ALGS or Arteriohepatic dysplasia, is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple organs in the body. It is caused by mutations in the JAGGED1 (JAG1) or NOTCH2 genes, which are part of the Notch signaling pathway. The Notch signaling pathway plays a critical role in cell development and differentiation. Mutations in these genes disrupt the normal functioning of the pathway, leading to the signs and symptoms of Alagille syndrome.

Patients with Alagille syndrome may present with a wide range of clinical features, including cholestasis (impaired bile flow), peripheral pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels leading to the lungs), heart defects, and characteristic facial features. Additional symptoms may include skeletal abnormalities, kidney problems, and problems with other organs.

Diagnosis of Alagille syndrome usually involves a combination of clinical evaluation, genetic testing, and imaging studies. The frequency of specific genetic mutations varies among different populations, with mutations in the JAG1 gene being more common than mutations in the NOTCH2 gene. Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis and help determine the inheritance pattern of the condition.

Management of Alagille syndrome focuses on treating the symptoms and complications associated with the condition. This may include medications to improve bile flow, surgery to correct heart defects or other abnormalities, and regular monitoring of liver function and other organ systems. Supportive care and early intervention programs can also help optimize the long-term outcome for patients with Alagille syndrome.

Research studies and ongoing clinical trials are helping to improve our understanding of Alagille syndrome and develop new treatment approaches. Organizations such as the Alagille Syndrome Alliance provide resources and support for patients and families affected by the condition. Additional information about Alagille syndrome can be found in scientific articles, reference books, and online resources such as OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov.

Additional Information Resources

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple organs in the body, including the liver, heart, and blood vessels. It is caused by mutations in certain genes, such as JAG1 and NOTCH2, which play a role in the development and function of various tissues.

If you are interested in learning more about Alagille syndrome, the following resources can provide additional information:

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information about Alagille syndrome, including its frequency, inheritance patterns, and associated genes. You can access the OMIM entry for Alagille syndrome at https://www.omim.org/entry/118450.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research studies. By searching for “Alagille syndrome” on PubMed, you can find a wealth of publications about the condition, its causes, clinical signs, and management strategies.
  • Patient Support Groups: There are several patient support groups and advocacy organizations dedicated to Alagille syndrome. These groups provide valuable resources, support, and information for individuals and families affected by the condition. Examples include the Alagille Syndrome Alliance (https://www.alagille.org/) and the Alagille Syndrome Foundation (https://alagille.org/).
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials conducted worldwide. By searching for “Alagille syndrome” on ClinicalTrials.gov, you can find ongoing and upcoming research studies that are investigating new treatments and management approaches for the condition.
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In addition to these resources, genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis of Alagille syndrome by identifying specific gene mutations. Genetic testing can be performed at specialized genetic testing centers and can provide important information for patient management.

It is important to consult with healthcare professionals and specialists knowledgeable about Alagille syndrome for comprehensive information and guidance regarding the condition.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the JAG1 or NOTCH2 genes located on chromosome 20. These genes play crucial roles in the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in the development of various organs and systems in the body.

In the majority of cases, Alagille syndrome is caused by mutations in the JAG1 gene. However, mutations in the NOTCH2 gene can also be responsible for the condition, but it occurs less frequently.

To confirm a diagnosis of Alagille syndrome, genetic testing is typically performed. This involves analyzing a blood sample from the patient to look for mutations in the JAG1 or NOTCH2 genes. The presence of these mutations provides strong scientific support for the diagnosis.

It is important to note that not all individuals with Alagille syndrome will have identifiable mutations in these genes. This can be due to technological limitations or mutations in other genes that have not been identified yet. Therefore, a negative genetic test result does not rule out the possibility of having Alagille syndrome.

Genetic testing can also help determine the inheritance pattern of Alagille syndrome within a family. It can provide information on how the condition is passed from one generation to another, which can be useful for genetic counseling and family planning.

Additionally, genetic testing can be helpful in the management of Alagille syndrome. It can assist in predicting the prognosis of the condition, identifying potential complications, and guiding appropriate medical interventions.

For healthcare professionals and researchers, genetic testing contributes to ongoing research and understanding of Alagille syndrome. It helps identify new mutations, define the spectrum of associated clinical features, and explore potential novel treatment options.

Further information about Alagille syndrome and genetic testing can be found on various resources, including scientific articles, the OMIM catalog, and databases such as PubMed. ClinicalTrials.gov can provide information on ongoing clinical trials and studies related to Alagille syndrome.

Patients and their families can also access advocacy organizations and support groups to learn more about the condition, connect with others facing similar challenges, and access additional resources.

Genes JAG1, NOTCH2
Inheritance Autosomal dominant
Associated diseases Pulmonic stenosis, heart defects, liver disease, and others
Frequency 1 in 30,000 to 1 in 70,000 live births

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) provides reliable information about genetic diseases and rare diseases. It is a central resource that offers support and resources for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. GARD’s mission is to help individuals find information on genetic and rare diseases, understand the causes and inheritance of these conditions, and learn about available testing and treatment options.

GARD provides a wealth of information on Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. Alagille syndrome is caused by mutations in the JAGGED1 or NOTCH2 genes, which are part of the Notch signaling pathway. This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the mutated gene on to each of their children.

The signs and symptoms of Alagille syndrome can vary widely between individuals, but common features include liver abnormalities, heart defects (such as pulmonic stenosis), skeletal abnormalities, and distinctive facial features. Other symptoms may occur depending on the specific genes affected and the severity of the mutations.

To diagnose Alagille syndrome, genetic testing can be done to identify mutations in the JAGGED1 or NOTCH2 genes. Additionally, clinical findings and medical history can help confirm the diagnosis. GARD provides information on available genetic testing resources and clinical trials related to Alagille syndrome.

GARD also offers support and advocacy resources for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. The center provides a list of patient support organizations, articles, and references for further reading. GARD is a reliable source of information, drawing on scientific research and clinical studies to provide up-to-date and accurate information on rare diseases.

For additional information on Alagille syndrome, GARD provides links to reputable resources such as OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources offer more in-depth information on the condition, genes associated with Alagille syndrome, and ongoing research and clinical trials related to the disorder.

In summary, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a valuable resource for individuals, families, and healthcare professionals seeking information on genetic and rare diseases. GARD provides information on the causes, inheritance patterns, testing, management, and resources for Alagille syndrome and many other rare diseases. Through GARD, individuals can learn more about their condition, find support, and stay updated on the latest research and clinical trials.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patient support and advocacy resources provide information, support, and resources for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. These resources offer a range of services and support, including information about the syndrome, genetic testing, signs and symptoms, and management strategies. They can also provide emotional support, connect patients and families with others affected by the syndrome, and advocate for better understanding and treatment options.

Some notable patient support and advocacy resources for Alagille syndrome include:

  • The Alagille Syndrome Alliance: The Alagille Syndrome Alliance is a non-profit organization that provides support, information, and resources for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. They offer a variety of resources, including educational materials, community support, and advocacy initiatives. Their website provides comprehensive information about the syndrome, treatment options, and research developments.
  • Online Support Groups: Online support groups can be a valuable resource for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. These groups allow members to connect with others who are going through similar experiences, share information and experiences, and provide emotional support. Some popular online support groups for Alagille syndrome can be found on social media platforms such as Facebook.
  • Scientific Research and Publications: Peer-reviewed scientific journals and publications provide up-to-date information about the causes, management, and treatment of Alagille syndrome. PubMed and OMIM are useful resources for finding scientific articles and studies related to Alagille syndrome. These resources can provide a wealth of information on the genetic basis of the syndrome, associated genes (such as JAGGED1 and NOTCH2), and inheritance patterns.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a database of clinical studies and trials that are currently recruiting participants or have recently been completed. Individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome can use this resource to learn about ongoing research studies and clinical trials aimed at understanding the syndrome better and improving treatment options.
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These are just a few examples of the numerous patient support and advocacy resources available for Alagille syndrome. By utilizing these resources, individuals and families can gain a better understanding of the condition, connect with others who share similar experiences, and stay informed about the latest research and treatment options.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple organs in the body. It is caused by mutations in the JAGGED1 or NOTCH2 genes, which are involved in the Notch signaling pathway.

Research studies from ClinicalTrialsgov have provided valuable information about the causes and management of Alagille syndrome. These studies include genetic testing, clinical trials, and other scientific research aimed at understanding the condition better.

One study conducted by Warthen et al. (2006) cataloged the frequency and spectrum of JAGGED1 mutations in patients with Alagille syndrome. They found that about 94 percent of individuals with Alagille syndrome had mutations in the JAGGED1 gene.

Another study by Alagille Syndrome Alliance for the Advancement of JAGGED1 Testing aimed to provide support and resources for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. They created a patient registry and developed educational materials to help people learn more about the condition.

In addition, studies have explored the associated clinical manifestations of Alagille syndrome. For example, Alagille et al. (1975) described the signs and symptoms of the condition, including liver and heart abnormalities, pulmonic stenosis, and facial features.

Recent research has also investigated the inheritance pattern of Alagille syndrome. Hadchouel et al. (2016) studied families with Alagille syndrome and found that the condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person with Alagille syndrome has a 50 percent chance of passing the condition on to their children.

In summary, research studies from ClinicalTrialsgov have provided valuable insights into Alagille syndrome. These studies have improved our understanding of the genetic causes, associated clinical features, and management of the condition. They have also contributed to the development of resources and support for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of genes and inherited diseases. It provides comprehensive information on various genetic conditions, including Alagille syndrome. Genes associated with Alagille syndrome include NOTCH2 and JAGGED1. This condition is autosomal dominant and occurs in about 1 in 30,000 to 1 in 70,000 live births.

Alagille syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple organs, including the liver, heart, and blood vessels. It is characterized by clinical features such as cholestasis (impaired bile flow), congenital heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities. Stenosis (narrowing) of the bile ducts is a hallmark of this condition.

From the scientific articles and resources available on OMIM, one can learn more about the genetic causes of Alagille syndrome, associated diseases, and available testing for this condition. Additional information can be found in the references provided within the catalog.

Studies have shown that mutations in the NOTCH2 and JAGGED1 genes are the most common causes of Alagille syndrome. The NOTCH pathway plays a crucial role in embryonic development, and mutations in genes associated with this pathway can lead to the development of various diseases, including Alagille syndrome.

Other diseases associated with Alagille syndrome include pulmonic stenosis (a heart defect) and Tetralogy of Fallot (another heart defect). Genetic testing can be conducted to confirm the diagnosis of Alagille syndrome, and it is recommended for individuals with signs and symptoms of this condition.

Support and advocacy organizations, such as the Warthen Center for Alagille Syndrome, offer resources and support for individuals and families affected by Alagille syndrome. They also provide information on ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to this condition.

The frequency of Alagille syndrome is relatively rare, occurring in less than 1 percent of the population. However, with advancements in genetic testing and research, more information about the condition and its management is becoming available.

For more information about Alagille syndrome, the genes involved, associated diseases, and available research articles, OMIM and PubMed are valuable resources to explore.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Alagille syndrome, also known as Alagille-Watson syndrome, is a rare genetic condition associated with mutations in the JAGGED1 gene. This gene is involved in the notch signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in the development of various organs and tissues.

Studies within the field of Alagille syndrome have been conducted to better understand the causes and clinical manifestations of this condition. Research has shown that the syndrome can affect multiple organ systems, including the liver, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. One of the most common signs of Alagille syndrome is bile duct paucity, which refers to the reduction or absence of bile ducts within the liver.

Scientific articles about Alagille syndrome can be found on PubMed, a database of biomedical literature. These articles provide valuable information on the genetics, pathophysiology, and management of the condition. They also discuss the frequency of Alagille syndrome, with estimates suggesting that it occurs in approximately 1 in 30,000 to 50,000 live births.

Genetic testing is often used to diagnose Alagille syndrome. This testing can identify mutations in genes such as JAGGED1 and NOTCH2, which are associated with the condition. Inheritance patterns of Alagille syndrome can vary, with some cases being inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and others occurring sporadically.

In addition to scientific articles, there are resources available for patients and families affected by Alagille syndrome. Advocacy organizations and support groups, such as the Alagille Syndrome Alliance, provide information, support, and resources for individuals with the condition and their families.

Clinical trials are also being conducted to explore potential treatments for Alagille syndrome. Information about ongoing trials can be found on clinicaltrialsgov, a database of clinical studies.

Overall, scientific research and advancements in our understanding of Alagille syndrome have provided valuable insights into the causes, management, and support available for individuals with this rare genetic condition. References for further research can be found in the PubMed catalog.

References

  • Alagille Syndrome Alliance. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.alagille.org/
  • Alagille Syndrome. (2020). Retrieved from https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/alagille-syndrome/
  • Alagille syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/entry/118450
  • Alagille syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alagille-syndrome#resources
  • Hadchouel, A., et al. (1989). Alagille syndrome: clinical variability and relation with diagnostic criteria. Journal of medical genetics, 26(8), 546-555.
  • Warthen, D. M., et al. (2006). Lack of clinical manifestations in asymptomatic carriers of JAG1 mutations in Alagille syndrome. Molecular genetics and metabolism, 87(4), 491-499.
  • Gitana Jegalian, A. (2002). Alagille syndrome: more than just hepatic disease. Clinical genetics, 61(5), 321-329.
  • Alagille syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gtr/rash/OHSUHSYes/281
  • Alagille syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/alagille-syndrome/