Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is not a rare condition, as it affects approximately 5-12% of children worldwide. It is also thought to have a strong genetic component, with studies showing that genes play a major role in its development.
Scientific research has identified several genetic factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD. One of the most well-known genes associated with ADHD is the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). This gene plays a crucial role in regulating dopamine levels in the brain, and variations in its structure have been linked to an increased risk of developing ADHD. Other genes, such as the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), have also been implicated in the disorder.
In addition to genetic factors, environmental and social factors also play a role in the development of ADHD. Studies have shown that exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can increase the risk of developing the disorder. Other factors, such as prenatal exposure to smoking or alcohol, low birth weight, and early life adversity, have also been shown to increase the risk of developing ADHD.
While the exact causes of ADHD are still unknown, there is a growing body of scientific evidence that supports a genetic basis for the disorder. Ongoing research, such as the ADHD Clinical Trials Consortium (ADHD-CTC) and studies listed on clinicaltrials.gov, aims to further understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of ADHD. This information is valuable for developing personalized treatment approaches and interventions for individuals with ADHD.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent childhood disorders, affecting around 5-10% of children worldwide. The frequency of the condition among adults is estimated to be around 2-5%. ADHD is a complex condition with genetic and environmental factors contributing to its development.
Genes play a significant role in ADHD, although the specific genes and their exact roles are still largely unknown. Genetic studies have identified several genetic variants associated with the condition. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides information about the genetic causes of ADHD and other diseases.
Inflated pharmaceutical prices are another huge factor in the steep cost of healthcare. Americans spend an average of $858 per person on prescription drugs, according to Vox. That’s about twice as much as people in Australia spend on prescriptions. It’s three times the amount paid by people in The Netherlands.
ADHD is thought to have a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates ranging from 60-90%. This suggests that genetic factors play a major role in the development of the condition. However, environmental factors also contribute to the risk of ADHD.
Frequency of Genetic Changes
Genetic changes associated with ADHD are relatively rare. Studies have shown that only a small percentage of individuals with ADHD have genetic changes that can be identified through testing. The exact frequency of these genetic changes is not well understood.
Support and Resources
There are several resources available for individuals with ADHD and their families. The National Resource Center on ADHD provides information, advocacy, and support. The Consortium on ADHD Genetics (CAG) is a scientific consortium that aims to identify the genes associated with ADHD through collaborative research.
ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding information on clinical trials related to ADHD. These trials can provide additional information on the frequency of genetic changes and their impact on the condition.
- Walters AS. Frequency of ADHD undertaking tasks requiring thought and attention. MedGenMed. 2005;7(2):23. PMID: 16369258.
- Walters AS. ADHD frequency and associated movement disorders in children and adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51(Suppl 4):11-14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03513.x
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and multifactorial condition with a variety of causes. While the exact cause of ADHD is still unknown, research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development.
- ADHD has a strong genetic component.
- Several genes have been implicated in the development of ADHD.
- Studies have shown that ADHD is highly heritable, with a heritability estimate of around 76 percent in children and 80 percent in adults.
- Genetic studies have identified several candidate genes associated with ADHD, including the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT).
- However, it is important to note that no specific gene has been identified as the sole cause of ADHD.
- Environmental factors can also contribute to the development of ADHD.
- Exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol, and drugs during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children.
- Premature birth, low birth weight, and lead exposure have also been linked to an increased risk of developing ADHD.
- Other factors, such as maternal stress, prenatal exposure to certain chemicals, and early childhood trauma, may also play a role in the development of the condition.
- Research has shown that individuals with ADHD have differences in the structure and functioning of certain brain areas.
- These brain areas are involved in attention, impulse control, and executive functions.
- People with ADHD may have lower levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which are important for regulating attention and behavior.
Other Possible Causes
- While less well-established, some studies have suggested that certain food additives, such as artificial colors and preservatives, may worsen ADHD symptoms in some individuals. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings.
- There is also ongoing research to explore the potential role of immune system abnormalities, sleep disorders, and disruptions in circadian rhythms in the development of ADHD.
In conclusion, the causes of ADHD are thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Further research is needed to better understand the complex interplay between these factors and how they contribute to the development of ADHD.
- Walters, A. S. (2009). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an update. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695214/
- “OMIM Entry – # 143465 – HYPERKINETIC DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 1; HKD1”. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/143465
- ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/
- The Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Genetic Research Network. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999663/
The inheritance pattern of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is complex. While there is evidence for genetic factors playing a significant role in the development of this condition, the exact genes and their individual contributions are not yet fully understood.
Research studies have shown that ADHD has a strong genetic basis, with up to 76% heritability. Several candidate genes have been identified through family and twin studies, but no single gene has been found to be responsible for the majority of cases. The genes identified so far are associated with neurotransmitter activity, dopamine regulation, and other related functions in the brain.
One of the most well-known genes associated with ADHD is named DRD4, which codes for a dopamine receptor. Variants of this gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing ADHD. Other genes, such as DAT1 and SNAP25, have also been identified as potential genetic factors.
In addition to genetic factors, environmental and non-genetic factors may also contribute to the development of ADHD. Studies have shown that environmental factors such as prenatal tobacco and alcohol exposure, premature birth, and low birth weight can increase the risk of developing ADHD.
It is important to note that ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and its inheritance pattern may vary among individuals. Some cases may have a strong genetic predisposition, while others may have more environmental or non-genetic factors playing a role. Furthermore, the exact mechanisms by which genes and environmental factors interact to cause ADHD are still being investigated.
The inheritance pattern of ADHD is thought to be polygenic, meaning that multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors to increase the risk of developing the condition. Ongoing research is being conducted to identify additional genes and environmental factors that may be involved in the development of ADHD.
For families looking for more information and support, there are various resources available. Many advocacy and support groups exist worldwide, providing information, organizing clinical trials, and offering resources for individuals with ADHD and their families. Additionally, websites like PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov have a catalog of scientific articles, references, and clinical trials related to ADHD and other attention and movement disorders.
|Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patient Support and Advocacy Organizations
|A list of organizations that offer support and information for individuals with ADHD and their families.
|A database of current clinical trials related to ADHD and other diseases and health conditions.
|An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders.
|A database of scientific articles in the field of medicine and biomedical research.
Other Names for This Condition
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known by several other names, which reflect different aspects of the condition:
- Attention deficit disorder (ADD)
- Hyperkinetic disorder
- Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)
These names are used interchangeably and have been widely recognized in scientific literature, clinical practice, and public health settings.
ADHD is a complex disorder that is thought to have a genetic basis. Genes play a significant role in the development of the condition, as suggested by numerous studies and research consortiums.
In addition to genetic factors, other causes of ADHD include brain changes, inheritance, and environmental factors. However, the exact mechanisms and the relative contribution of each factor are still unknown, and further research is needed to fully understand the condition.
ADHD is a frequent disorder that affects children, adolescents, and adults worldwide. According to scientific studies, the estimated prevalence of ADHD in children is around 5-9 percent, with a slight male predominance.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) provide diagnostic criteria and guidelines for identifying and diagnosing ADHD.
There are several references and resources available for more information on ADHD. Some of the recommended sources include:
- OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)
- PubMed database for scientific articles related to ADHD
- NIH/clinicaltrialsgov for ongoing clinical trials and research studies
- National advocacy organizations and support groups
- Scientific research consortiums
It is important for patients and their families to seek reliable and up-to-date information from trusted sources to better understand ADHD and its management.
Additional names for ADHD, such as attention-deficit disorder and hyperactivity, highlight the frequent association of attention deficits and hyperkinetic movement tasks.
In summary, ADHD has various names and is a complex condition with genetic and environmental factors, but its exact causes and mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. Several scientific studies, research consortiums, and advocacy groups support ongoing research and provide information and resources for patients.
Additional Information Resources
- Advocacy groups: Several organizations exist worldwide that advocate for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. These groups provide support, information, and additional resources for individuals affected by the condition.
- ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a resource that provides information on ongoing clinical trials related to ADHD. Individuals can search for trials based on various criteria, including location and age group, to find opportunities for participation or learn about the latest research findings.
- Genetic consortium studies: Genetic consortium studies bring together researchers from around the world to collaborate and study the genetic factors associated with ADHD. These studies aim to identify specific genes and genetic changes that may contribute to the development of the condition.
- OMIM: OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Individuals looking for information on specific genes associated with ADHD or other related disorders can search OMIM for relevant publications and studies.
- PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. Researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals interested in learning more about ADHD can search PubMed to find the latest research findings and scientific articles on the subject.
- Other resources: There are numerous websites, books, and publications available that provide additional information on ADHD, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. These resources can be helpful for individuals seeking more information or support.
Genetic Testing Information
Genetic testing has become an important tool in understanding the underlying causes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article provides information on the genetic factors associated with this condition and the role of genetic testing in diagnosing and treating patients.
Genetic Factors and Inheritance
ADHD is a complex disorder believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. While the exact causes of ADHD are still unknown, research has shown that genes play a significant role in its development.
- Multiple genes have been identified that are thought to be associated with ADHD.
- Studies have found that genetic changes in certain genes can increase the risk of developing ADHD.
- Genetic inheritance patterns suggest that ADHD can be passed down through generations.
- However, it is important to note that not all cases of ADHD can be attributed to genetic factors.
Genetic Testing and ADHD
Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the genetic factors involved in ADHD. It can help identify specific genes or genetic changes that may be associated with the condition, allowing for a more targeted and personalized approach to diagnosis and treatment.
Currently, genetic testing for ADHD is not commonly used in clinical practice. However, ongoing research and advocacy efforts are focused on increasing the use of genetic testing to improve patient care.
Clinical Trials and Genetics
Clinical trials play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of the genetic basis of ADHD. These studies aim to identify genetic markers, investigate the inheritance patterns, and explore the relationship between genes and other factors associated with ADHD.
Additional information on ongoing clinical trials related to genetic testing for ADHD can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov, a database of clinical studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.
Resources and References
For more information on genetic testing for ADHD and related research, the following resources may be helpful:
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) – A comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic conditions, including ADHD.
- PubMed – A database of scientific articles, including studies on the genetics of ADHD.
- Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) – Information on the laws and protections regarding genetic testing and privacy.
- ADHD Genetic Testing Consortium – A collaborative research group focusing on genetic testing for ADHD.
Genetic factors play a significant role in the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Genetic testing can provide important insights into the underlying causes of the condition and help guide personalized treatment approaches. While more research is needed, genetic testing has the potential to improve patient care and outcomes in individuals with ADHD worldwide.
Patient Support and Advocacy Resources
There are various resources available to provide support and advocacy for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. These resources offer information, assistance, and guidance to help individuals better understand and manage the condition.
Patient Support Groups
Patient support groups are organizations that bring together individuals and families affected by ADHD. These groups provide a platform for sharing experiences, discussing challenges, and offering emotional support. They often organize meetings, workshops, and seminars to educate and empower their members.
Advocacy organizations play a vital role in raising awareness about ADHD and advocating for the rights and needs of individuals with the condition. They work towards improving access to quality healthcare, educational support, and other services. These organizations also engage in public policy initiatives and collaborate with government agencies to address the needs of the ADHD community.
The internet offers a wealth of information on ADHD, including reputable websites, online forums, and blogs dedicated to the condition. These resources provide up-to-date scientific research, information on causes and factors associated with ADHD, and tips for managing symptoms. Some online resources also offer online support groups and virtual communities where individuals can connect with others facing similar challenges.
Scientific Publications and Research
Scientific publications and research studies provide valuable insights into ADHD, its causes, and its treatment options. PubMed, a database of scientific articles, and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, are two resources that offer comprehensive information on ADHD. ClinicalTrials.gov is another database that provides information on ongoing clinical trials related to ADHD.
Genetic Testing and Inheritance
Genetic testing can help in understanding the genetic basis of ADHD. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and other research initiatives have identified several genes associated with the condition. Genetic testing may be recommended in rare cases or for individuals with atypical symptoms. However, it is important to note that genetic factors alone are not enough to determine the presence of ADHD, as other environmental and psychological factors also play significant roles.
In addition to the above-mentioned resources, there are several other sources of information and support for individuals with ADHD. These include books, articles, support hotlines, and local community centers. It is important for patients and their families to explore the available resources to find the support that best suits their needs.
Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that affects both children and adults worldwide. ADHD is characterized by symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and difficulty paying attention. Although the exact causes of ADHD are still unknown, research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable information regarding the condition.
Genetic Factors and Inheritance
Research studies have shown that ADHD has a strong genetic component. Genes associated with ADHD are thought to play a role in the development and functioning of the brain. Studies have also found that ADHD tends to run in families, suggesting that there is an inheritance factor involved.
Research Studies and ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding information about research studies on ADHD. The website provides a catalog of clinical trials that are currently being conducted on the condition. These studies aim to further understand the causes of ADHD and explore potential treatments and interventions.
- Some research studies focus on genetic testing to identify specific genes associated with ADHD.
- Other studies investigate the frequency and health impact of comorbidities and other disorders associated with ADHD, such as anxiety and depression.
- Studies also examine the effects of medication and non-pharmacological interventions on ADHD symptoms.
Scientific Consortiums and Advocacy
ADHD research is often conducted by scientific consortiums that bring together researchers from various institutions and countries. These collaborations help gather a larger patient population and a broader range of data. Moreover, advocacy organizations such as the Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA) and the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) play a critical role in supporting and promoting research studies on ADHD.
Additional Resources and References
For additional information on research studies and articles related to ADHD, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and PubMed can be valuable resources. These resources provide access to a wide range of scientific literature and references.
|Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)
By utilizing these resources and staying informed about the latest research studies, we can contribute to a better understanding of ADHD and improve the lives of individuals affected by this condition.
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog that provides information on genes and genetic disorders. This catalog includes a wide range of diseases, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other related disorders.
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The exact causes of ADHD are still unknown, but research suggests that genetic factors play a significant role in its development.
The OMIM catalog contains information on genes that are associated with ADHD and the frequency of their occurrence worldwide. It also provides information on the inheritance patterns and other clinical features associated with ADHD.
Studies have shown that genetic changes in certain genes can increase the risk of developing ADHD. These genes are thought to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitters in the brain, which are involved in attention and movement. Some of the genes associated with ADHD include DRD4, DAT1, and COMT.
In addition to genes, the OMIM catalog also includes information on other genetic disorders that can cause symptoms similar to ADHD. These disorders may have overlapping clinical features and may require different testing and treatment approaches.
For healthcare professionals, the OMIM catalog provides a valuable resource for genetic testing and counseling. It can help in identifying the genetic factors underlying a patient’s condition and provide information on the inheritance patterns and prognosis.
- Walters GB. The genetics of ADHD. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010;33(1):159-180.
- National Institute of Mental Health. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Accessed on ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Attention+Deficit+Hyperactivity+Disorder&term=&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=
- Additional articles and resources can be found on PubMed and other scientific databases.
Support and Advocacy:
For individuals and families affected by ADHD, there are various support and advocacy groups that provide information and resources. These organizations work towards raising awareness about ADHD, promoting research, and providing support to individuals with the condition and their families.
Some of the well-known support and advocacy groups for ADHD include:
- CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder)
- ADHD Voices
These organizations offer information, support groups, and educational resources to help individuals with ADHD manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.
The OMIM catalog is a valuable resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals seeking information on genetic causes of ADHD and other related disorders. It provides information on genes associated with ADHD, their frequency worldwide, inheritance patterns, and other clinical features. Additionally, there are support and advocacy organizations that provide additional information and resources for individuals and families affected by ADHD.
Scientific Articles on PubMed
PubMed is a consortium of scientific articles that support the catalog of research on various health conditions, including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It provides a vast range of scientific resources for researchers, clinicians, and patients to access information about the causes, genetic changes, associated factors, and other aspects of ADHD.
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects both children and adolescents. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. PubMed includes studies and articles on genetic testing, genes associated with ADHD, and the inheritance patterns of the condition.
Some of the frequently mentioned genes in ADHD research include COMT, DAT1, DRD4, and TPH2. These genes have been found to play roles in neurotransmitter regulation and other brain functions that are associated with attention and impulse control.
The frequency of genetic changes in ADHD is not yet fully understood. While some genetic variants are more frequent in ADHD patients compared to the general population, other variants are rare. Additional research is needed to uncover the full extent of genetic involvement in the condition.
ClinicalTrial.gov, a widely used platform for clinical research, also provides information on ongoing ADHD studies. This database can be a valuable resource for patients and researchers looking for clinical trials related to ADHD.
Walters KA, et al. Genetic testing in ADHD: what is enough? Genes Brain Behav. 2017;16(6):590-600. doi:10.1111/gbb.12373
This article discusses the current state of genetic testing in ADHD and the challenges associated with interpreting genetic results in the context of ADHD. It emphasizes the need for further research to establish reliable genetic markers for the condition.
Unknown authors. OMIM Entry – #143465 – ATTENTION DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. OMIM. Accessed August 10, 2022. https://www.omim.org/entry/143465
This OMIM entry provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic and clinical aspects of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It includes information on known genetic changes, inheritance patterns, associated genes, and other relevant details.
These scientific articles and resources on PubMed and other platforms contribute to the understanding of ADHD and help advance the research and management of this complex condition.
For more information and references, please visit the PubMed website and explore the available articles and studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Here are some references for additional information on Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:
- PubMed: You can find scientific articles and research studies on ADHD on this database. 
- OMIM: This resource provides information on the genetic factors associated with ADHD. 
- ClinicalTrials.gov: This website is a valuable resource for finding ongoing and completed clinical trials related to ADHD. 
- Thought Catalog: An online publication that offers personal stories and insights from individuals living with ADHD. 
- ADHD Advocacy Organizations: Various advocacy groups provide support, resources, and information on ADHD for patients and their families. 
- Genes and ADHD: Recent studies have identified specific genes that may play a role in the development of ADHD. 
- ADHD and Associated Health Conditions: ADHD is often associated with other mental health disorders and conditions. 
These references can provide you with valuable information on the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for ADHD. It is always important to consult trusted sources and medical professionals for accurate and up-to-date information on the condition.
-  PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
-  OMIM: https://omim.org/
-  ClinicalTrials.gov: https://clinicaltrials.gov/
-  Thought Catalog: https://thoughtcatalog.com/
-  ADHD Advocacy Organizations: https://www.chadd.org/, https://www.understood.org/
-  Genes and ADHD: Walters, James T.R. “The Role of Genetics in the Etiology of ADHD.” The ADHD Report, vol. 28, no. 4, 2020, doi:10.1521/adhd.2020.28.4.7.
-  ADHD and Associated Health Conditions: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/conditions.html
Note: The list above is not exhaustive, and there are numerous other sources of information available on ADHD. These references serve as a starting point for further research and understanding of the condition.