Clopidogrel resistance is a condition where patients do not respond to the benefits of clopidogrel, a medication that helps prevent blood clots from forming in the body. This resistance can be caused by genetic factors, specifically genes like CYP2C19 and P2RY12. Some patients have an inherited genetic variation that results in poor activity of these genes, leading to reduced effectiveness of clopidogrel. It is estimated that up to 30 percent of the population may have this genetic variation.

Clopidogrel resistance is classified as a rare condition and is associated with an increased risk of harmful events such as heart attacks and strokes. Patients with clopidogrel resistance may require alternative drugs or higher doses of clopidogrel to achieve the desired effect of preventing blood clot formation.

There are scientific resources and databases available to learn more about clopidogrel resistance and the genes associated with it. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides information on the genetic causes of diseases, including clopidogrel resistance. PubMed is another valuable resource that offers access to thousands of scientific articles and studies related to this condition.

Additionally, clinicaltrialsgov can provide information about ongoing research studies and clinical trials on clopidogrel resistance. Patient advocacy groups also offer support and resources for individuals affected by clopidogrel resistance, aiming to raise awareness and provide further information on the condition and available treatment options.

Frequency

Clopidogrel resistance, which is classified as poor response to the drug clopidogrel, is associated with a frequency of approximately 30-40 percent in patients. This condition is often caused by genetic factors, specifically mutations in the genes CYP2C19 and P2RY12.

The frequency of CYP2C19-related clopidogrel resistance varies among different populations and ethnicities. It has been found to be more common in individuals of Asian descent, with a frequency of approximately 60 percent. In contrast, it is less common in individuals of European descent, with a frequency of approximately 20-30 percent.

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To learn more about the frequency of clopidogrel resistance and its causes, there are several resources available. PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov provide additional information through scientific articles and clinical trials. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database also provides information on the genetic basis and inheritance patterns of diseases associated with clopidogrel resistance.

  • Additional resources and support can be found through advocacy and patient support groups, such as the Clopidogrel Resistance Support Center, which helps patients find information and resources related to their condition.
  • Genetic testing can also be performed to determine an individual’s genetic risk for clopidogrel resistance. This testing can identify mutations in the CYP2C19 and P2RY12 genes, which are associated with a higher risk of developing clopidogrel resistance.
  • Preventing the formation of harmful blood clots is crucial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Clopidogrel and other similar drugs, known as antiplatelet agents, work by inhibiting the activity of certain genes involved in clot formation.

It is important for patients and healthcare providers to stay informed about the frequency of clopidogrel resistance and the associated genetic factors. This information can guide treatment decisions and help improve patient outcomes.

Causes

P2RY12 is the most important gene associated with clopidogrel resistance. It is estimated that about 30% of patients have a reduced response to this drug due to genetic factors. The frequency of poor response to clopidogrel can vary depending on the population studied and the definition used for resistance.

The patient’s genetic information plays a crucial role in determining their response to clopidogrel. Variations in the P2RY12 gene can affect the activity of the receptor and ultimately impact the drug’s effectiveness in preventing clot formation. Some of these variations are classified as loss-of-function alleles, meaning they result in reduced activity of the P2RY12 receptor.

In addition to genetic factors, poor response to clopidogrel can also be caused by other medical conditions or medications. Certain diseases, such as diabetes and heart conditions, have been associated with an increased risk of clopidogrel resistance. Other drugs that interfere with the metabolism of clopidogrel, such as proton pump inhibitors and certain antidepressants, can also reduce its effectiveness.

Research has shown that there is a strong genetic component to clopidogrel resistance. Inheritance of specific alleles of the CYP2C19 gene, which is responsible for the metabolism of clopidogrel, has been linked to poor response to the drug. Patients with reduced CYP2C19 enzyme activity are more likely to have a diminished response to clopidogrel.

Testing for genetic variants associated with clopidogrel resistance can help identify patients who are at higher risk of treatment failure. This information can inform treatment decisions and help personalize therapy for these patients.

References:

  1. Scientific articles on clopidogrel resistance – PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=clopidogrel+resistance
  2. Additional information on clopidogrel resistance and related genes – OMIM: https://www.omim.org/search/?index=entry&search=clopidogrel+resistance
  3. Resources for genetic testing and advocacy – Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases
  4. Conducting clinical trials related to clopidogrel resistance – ClinicalTrials.gov: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=clopidogrel+resistance
  5. EPub catalog of articles on clopidogrel resistance: http://europepmc.org/search/?query=clopidogrel+resistance

Learn more about the gene associated with Clopidogrel resistance

Resistance to clopidogrel, a commonly prescribed antiplatelet drug, can have harmful consequences for heart patients. This resistance is often caused by a genetic variation in the P2RY12 gene. Testing for this gene helps identify individuals who may have a higher risk of being resistant to clopidogrel, allowing for personalized treatment options.

Scientific studies have classified the P2RY12 gene as one of the main causes of clopidogrel resistance. Additional research and clinical trials have provided valuable information on the function of this gene and its association with clot formation. Patient advocacy groups and genetic resources such as OMIM and PubMed offer further support and information on this condition.

See also  KCNE1 gene

Clopidogrel resistance is a rare occurrence, affecting only a small percentage of individuals. However, the poor activity of the CYP2C19-related gene, which is responsible for converting clopidogrel into its active form, can lead to a reduced response to the drug. Understanding the inheritance patterns and frequency of this resistance can help guide treatment decisions and identify patients who may require alternative therapies.

Learning more about the genes associated with clopidogrel resistance can provide important insights into other diseases and conditions related to blood clots and the formation of clots. Catalogs of genes and information resources offer a wealth of scientific articles and data that can support further research in this field.

If you are interested in finding out more about the gene associated with clopidogrel resistance, you can refer to scientific articles available on PubMed and other reputable sources. Additionally, websites like ClinicalTrials.gov provide information on ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to clopidogrel resistance and other genetic factors impacting drug response.

Inheritance

In the context of clopidogrel resistance, genetic inheritance plays a significant role. Multiple articles, studies, and clinical trials have been conducted to understand the genetic basis for resistance to clopidogrel, a drug associated with poor prevention of harmful clot formation in patients with heart conditions.

Genetic studies have identified several genes that are involved in the metabolism and activity of clopidogrel. One of the most well-known genes is CYP2C19, which encodes an enzyme responsible for metabolizing clopidogrel into its active form. Variations in this gene can result in reduced enzyme activity, leading to reduced effectiveness of the drug.

Additional genes, such as P2Y12, have also been found to affect clopidogrel’s function in preventing blood clot formation. These genetic variations can contribute to the development of resistance to the drug.

Patients with clopidogrel resistance may have a higher risk of developing complications from blood clots, such as heart attacks and strokes. Understanding the genetic basis for resistance is crucial in developing personalized treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Genetic testing can help identify individuals who may be at risk for clopidogrel resistance. By analyzing specific genes associated with drug metabolism and activity, healthcare providers can determine the likelihood of poor response to clopidogrel and explore alternative treatment options.

Resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable scientific references and information on the genetic inheritance of clopidogrel resistance. These resources help researchers and clinicians learn more about the genetic basis of this condition and support advocacy for more genetic testing in clinical practice.

Although clopidogrel resistance is a relatively rare condition, with an estimated frequency of around 20% to 30%, understanding the genetic factors involved can provide valuable insights into the development of other clot-related diseases and their treatment.

In conclusion, genetic inheritance plays a significant role in clopidogrel resistance. Genes such as CYP2C19 and P2Y12 have been identified as being associated with reduced drug activity and poor response to clopidogrel. Genetic testing and information from scientific resources help clinicians and researchers understand the genetic basis of clopidogrel resistance and develop personalized treatment approaches.

Other Names for This Condition

Clopidogrel resistance is also known by several other names, including:

  • Clopidogrel poor metabolizer
  • Clopidogrel non-responder
  • Clopidogrel hyporesponder
  • Clopidogrel low responder

In scientific literature, this condition may be referred to as:

  • Clopidogrel resistance
  • Clopidogrel non-responsiveness
  • Clopidogrel antiplatelet resistance

The condition is classified as a genetic condition due to its association with specific genes and their inheritance patterns. The most common genetic cause of clopidogrel resistance is related to the CYP2C19 gene, which affects the metabolism of the drug in the body.

Patients with clopidogrel resistance have a higher risk of forming blood clots in their arteries, which can lead to serious cardiovascular complications like heart attacks and strokes.

If you want to learn more about the condition, you can find additional information and resources from:

  • The National Institutes of Health’s Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)
  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM)
  • PubMed, where you can find research articles and studies about clopidogrel resistance (PubMed)
  • ClinicalTrials.gov, where you can search for clinical trials and studies related to the condition (ClinicalTrials.gov)

In addition, several patient advocacy and support organizations offer resources and information for individuals with clopidogrel resistance, including information about testing, genetic counseling, and preventive measures to reduce the risk of clot formation.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources for learning more about clopidogrel resistance:

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive database of clinical trials. You can find information about ongoing and completed trials related to clopidogrel resistance on their website.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a widely used resource for finding scientific articles on various topics. Searching for keywords like “clopidogrel resistance” can help you find more information on the subject.
  • OMIM: OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a database that provides information on genetic diseases and associated genes. You can find information about the genes associated with clopidogrel resistance on their website.
  • GeneReviews: GeneReviews is a comprehensive resource that provides information on inherited conditions and associated genes. You can find information about clopidogrel resistance and its genetic causes on their website.
  • Advocacy and Support Groups: There are various advocacy and support groups that provide resources and information for patients with clopidogrel resistance. These organizations can help you learn more about the condition and connect with others who are facing similar challenges.
  • Additional References: There are many scientific articles and publications that provide more in-depth information on clopidogrel resistance. These can be found by searching through scientific databases and referencing the citations of relevant articles.

It is important to note that clopidogrel resistance is a relatively rare condition, and most patients respond well to the drug. However, for those who do experience resistance, further testing and exploration of potential causes is recommended. Genetic factors, particularly variations in the CYP2C19 gene, have been associated with poor clopidogrel response. Understanding the underlying genetic mechanisms can help develop more effective treatment strategies.

Preventing harmful clot formation in the body is crucial for patients with heart diseases. Clopidogrel, along with other antiplatelet drugs, helps prevent clot formation and reduce the associated risk. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have clopidogrel resistance, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management.

See also  PGAM2 gene

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an important tool in understanding the genetic basis of resistance to clopidogrel. It can provide valuable information about inheritance patterns and the specific genes involved in this condition.

Genes such as P2RY12 and CYP2C19 have been identified as being related to clopidogrel resistance. Variations in these genes can affect the function of the proteins they encode, leading to reduced activity of clopidogrel and an increased risk of blood clot formation.

Genetic testing for clopidogrel resistance can help healthcare providers determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individuals with this condition. By identifying specific gene variants, healthcare providers can tailor treatment strategies to prevent clot formation and reduce the risk of harmful cardiovascular events.

There are several online resources available to learn more about genetic testing for clopidogrel resistance. The ClinicalTrials.gov website provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to genetic testing and clopidogrel resistance. PubMed is another valuable resource, offering access to scientific articles and research studies on this topic.

Advocacy organizations and patient support groups can also provide valuable information and resources on genetic testing for clopidogrel resistance. These organizations often have additional information on the causes, frequency, and clinical implications of genetic variants associated with poor clopidogrel response.

In summary, genetic testing can provide critical information about the genetic basis of clopidogrel resistance, helping healthcare providers develop personalized treatment plans. Resources such as ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and advocacy organizations can provide further information and support for individuals with this condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an online resource that provides reliable information about genetic and rare diseases. GARD aims to help patients, families, and healthcare professionals better understand these conditions and find the support they need.

For individuals with poor response to clopidogrel, GARD provides information about the genetic factors that can contribute to this condition. Clopidogrel resistance is a term used to describe the diminished ability of an individual to respond to the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel, a drug commonly used to prevent blood clots.

Research has shown that genetic variations in the P2RY12 gene can be associated with poor response to clopidogrel. These variations affect the function and activity of the P2Y12 receptor, which is involved in blood clot formation. The P2RY12 gene is cataloged in the OMIM database, which provides additional information on its structure, function, and associated diseases.

CYP2C19-related clopidogrel resistance is one of the most studied genetic causes of poor response to clopidogrel. The CYP2C19 gene codes for an enzyme that helps metabolize clopidogrel in the body. Genetic variations in this gene can lead to reduced enzyme activity, resulting in the formation of less active clopidogrel metabolites. GARD provides links to scientific articles and studies on CYP2C19-related clopidogrel resistance from PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov.

In addition, GARD offers resources for patients and families to learn more about clopidogrel resistance, including advocacy organizations, patient support groups, and clinical trial information. These resources can provide valuable information and support to individuals affected by this rare condition.

GARD also provides information on the inheritance patterns and frequency of genetic variations associated with poor response to clopidogrel. The Genetic Testing Registry can help individuals find laboratories that offer testing for these genes. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database contains more detailed information about the genes and their associated diseases.

In summary, GARD is a valuable resource for individuals seeking information about genetic and rare diseases, including clopidogrel resistance. It provides a range of resources and references to help individuals better understand this condition and find support.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

For patients and their families seeking additional information and support related to clopidogrel resistance, there are various resources available. These resources provide information about the condition, its causes, testing options, and available support networks.

1. Genetic Support and Advocacy Organizations:

  • – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides a wealth of information on P2RY12 and other genes associated with clopidogrel resistance.
  • – Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): GARD offers information on genetic diseases and associated resources, including support groups and advocacy organizations.

2. Scientific Research and Studies:

  • – PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles about various medical conditions, including clopidogrel resistance. It helps individuals learn more about the genetic factors and research studies related to this condition.
  • – ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov provides information on ongoing and completed clinical trials related to clopidogrel resistance and its treatment. Patients can find information about potential new treatments and opportunities to participate in clinical trials.

3. Patient Education and Information:

  • – Clot Connect: Clot Connect is an online resource that provides information about blood clots and clotting disorders. It offers articles and educational materials on various aspects of clot formation and prevention.
  • – CYP2C19-related Information: CYP2C19 is a gene involved in clopidogrel metabolism. Patients can find information about the gene’s function and its impact on clopidogrel activity.

These resources can help patients and their families better understand clopidogrel resistance and find support networks. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized information and guidance related to this condition.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

  • Clopidogrel Resistance: Articles on PubMed – A collection of articles discussing clopidogrel resistance is available on the PubMed database. These articles provide valuable insights into the condition and can help researchers learn more about the associated genetic factors, other genes related to platelet reactivity, and the role of P2Y12 receptor activity in the poor response to clopidogrel.
  • Inheritance of Clopidogrel Resistance: OMIM – The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database offers information on the genetic inheritance patterns associated with clopidogrel resistance. This resource provides details about different genes involved in this condition and their impact on the body’s response to the drug.
  • Clinical Trials on Clopidogrel Resistance: ClinicalTrialsgov – ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive platform that catalogs ongoing and completed clinical trials. By searching for “clopidogrel resistance” in the database, researchers can find relevant clinical trials investigating this condition and related genetic factors. These trials test the efficacy of different drugs and therapeutic interventions to prevent clot formation in patients with poor response to clopidogrel.
  • CYP2C19-Related Genetic Testing: ClinicalTrialsgov Resources – ClinicalTrials.gov provides resources for genetic testing related to CYP2C19 gene variations. This gene plays a crucial role in the metabolism of clopidogrel, and individuals with certain genetic variants may have reduced drug response. These resources can help clinicians and researchers understand the frequency and function of these variants in different populations.
  • Advocacy and Scientific Support: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center – The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) offers advocacy and scientific support for rare diseases, including clopidogrel resistance. GARD provides resources for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers to better understand this condition and its impact on patients’ health. They also offer information about ongoing studies and clinical trials.
  • Clopidogrel Resistance Formation: Genes and More – Genes and More is an informative website that covers various topics related to genetics and inherited conditions. This platform provides in-depth information about the genes involved in clopidogrel resistance and their impact on platelet function. It also offers additional references and links to further research articles for those seeking more detailed information.
See also  SLC19A2 gene

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) provides valuable information on a wide range of rare genetic diseases. OMIM is a database that contains curated scientific articles and clinical information about genetic disorders. It is a comprehensive resource that supports research, advocacy, and clinical care for individuals with rare diseases.

OMIM offers a collection of information about genes and diseases, helping researchers and healthcare professionals better understand the causes, inheritance patterns, and clinical manifestations of these conditions. The database classifies genes and diseases based on their associated clinical features, mode of inheritance, and gene activity.

One example of a condition covered by OMIM is clopidogrel resistance. Clopidogrel is a drug used to prevent blood clots in patients with heart disease. However, some individuals may experience poor response to clopidogrel, leading to ineffective blood clot prevention. The OMIM database provides information on genetic variants, such as those in the gene CYP2C19, which are associated with reduced clopidogrel effectiveness.

The OMIM catalog also includes additional resources to support genetic testing, patient advocacy, and clinical research. Genetic testing helps identify specific gene variants that may be associated with certain diseases or drug resistance. Patient advocacy organizations, such as those listed in the OMIM catalog, offer support and information for individuals and families affected by rare genetic conditions. Clinicaltrials.gov is another resource included in the OMIM catalog, providing information on ongoing clinical trials for various rare diseases and conditions.

Overall, the OMIM database serves as a valuable tool for researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals seeking information on rare genetic diseases. It provides an extensive collection of scientific references, clinical information, and resources to support the understanding and management of these conditions.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

There are numerous scientific articles available on PubMed related to clopidogrel resistance. These articles provide valuable information about the causes, genetic factors, and clinical implications of this condition. They also offer insights into the role of clopidogrel in preventing clot formation and its effectiveness in different patient populations.

Research studies have classified clopidogrel resistance as a genetic and rare condition. It has been associated with the CYP2C19 gene, which helps metabolize the drug in the body. Genetic variations in this gene can lead to poor drug metabolism, resulting in reduced effectiveness and increased risk of clots.

Several articles on PubMed discuss the frequency of CYP2C19-related clopidogrel resistance in different populations. These studies support the use of genetic testing to identify individuals who may require alternative antiplatelet drugs or different clopidogrel doses to prevent harmful clot formation.

Furthermore, these articles provide additional information on other genes, such as P2RY12, that may play a role in clopidogrel resistance. They highlight the importance of comprehensive genetic testing to identify all relevant genetic factors that contribute to this condition.

The articles on PubMed also provide resources for clinicians and researchers, such as clinicaltrialsgov and OMIM, for further information on clinical trials, genetic variants, and associated diseases. These resources support the advancement of research in understanding clopidogrel resistance and developing targeted treatment approaches.

In summary, the scientific articles available on PubMed offer a wealth of information about clopidogrel resistance. They highlight the genetic factors, clinical implications, and treatment options associated with this condition. These resources are essential for clinicians, researchers, and advocacy groups working towards better understanding and management of clopidogrel resistance.

References

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  • Cattaneo M. Aspirin and clopidogrel: efficacy, safety, and the issue of drug resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24(11):1980-1987.
  • Cattaneo M. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs: molecular mechanisms and laboratory detection. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5 Suppl 1:230-237.
  • Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Hiatt BL, O’Connor CM. Clopidogrel for coronary stenting: response variability, drug resistance, and the effect of pretreatment platelet reactivity. Circulation. 2003;107(23):2908-2913.
  • Kim IS, Jeong YH, Kim SJ, et al. Genetic and clinical predictors for therapeutic drug monitoring of clopidogrel. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14(6):687-696.
  • Mega JL, Close SL, Wiviott SD, et al. Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(4):354-362.
  • Mega JL, Simon T, Collet JP, et al. Reduced function alleles of CYP2C19 and outcome of potent P2Y12 receptor inhibitor treatment: a meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121(6):791-798.
  • Neubauer H, Kaiser AF, Endres HG, et al. Tailored antiplatelet therapy can overcome clopidogrel and aspirin resistance–the BOchum CLopidogrel and Aspirin Plan (BOCLA-Plan) to improve antiplatelet therapy. BMC Med. 2011;9:3.
  • Shuldiner AR, O’Connell JR, Bliden KP, et al. Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA. 2009;302(8):849-857.
  • Tantry US, Bonello L, Aradi D, et al. Consensus and update on the definition of on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate associated with ischemia and bleeding. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(24):2261-2273.