Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, also known as Tranebjaerg syndrome, is a rare genetic condition that causes a combination of deafness, dystonia (uncontrolled muscle contractions), and optic neuronopathy (damage to the optic nerve). It is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene, which is involved in the transport of proteins into mitochondria.

This syndrome is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means that it primarily affects males. Females who carry one copy of the mutated gene are typically unaffected, but may have mild or moderate hearing loss. The severity and progression of symptoms can vary between individuals with Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome.

Common clinical features of this condition include progressive sensorineural deafness, dystonia, and visual problems such as optic atrophy and reduced visual acuity. Symptoms typically appear in early childhood and worsen over time. Additional symptoms may include intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral problems.

Testing for the TIMM8A gene mutation can confirm a diagnosis of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. Genetic counseling may be recommended for individuals and families who are at risk for this condition. Treatment options for this syndrome are limited, and focus mainly on symptom management and support.

For more information about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, visit the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database or consult with a geneticist or other healthcare professionals. Scientific articles and rare disease advocacy organizations may also provide valuable resources and support for individuals and families affected by this rare condition.

Frequency

The frequency of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is extremely rare. This syndrome primarily affects males and has been reported in a small number of individuals worldwide.

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Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the transport of other proteins into mitochondria, the energy-producing centers within cells. Mutations in the TIMM8A gene result in a deficiency of the TIMM8A protein, which leads to the problems with hearing, movement, and vision seen in this condition.

For additional information about the frequency of this rare syndrome, resources such as the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) may provide scientific information and learn articles about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and other associated genes and conditions.

Early diagnosis and genetic testing are important for individuals with Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. The prognosis for this condition worsens over time, so early identification and intervention are crucial for optimal management and support.

Advocacy organizations and patient support groups may also provide valuable resources and assistance for individuals and families affected by Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome.

References:

  1. GeneReviews: Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome
  2. PubMed: Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome

For more information about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and other hearing-related diseases, visit the Deafness and Hearing Loss section of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) website.

Causes

The causes of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome are related to genetic factors. The condition is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene, which is located on the X chromosome. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (TIMM8A).

In males, the syndrome is typically inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means the mutated gene is located on the X chromosome. Males have one X chromosome, so a single mutation in the TIMM8A gene is enough to cause the condition. Females have two X chromosomes, so they generally need to have two copies of the mutated gene to be affected by the syndrome. However, some females with one copy of the mutated gene may also experience mild symptoms.

The deficiency of TIMM8A protein caused by the mutations affects the transport of proteins into mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells. This disruption in protein transport leads to the problems seen in the syndrome, including deafness, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy.

References:

  • Tranebjaerg, L. (2006). Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and Wolfram syndrome: Closely related entities of mitochondrial cytopathies. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 116(6), 1566–1570. doi: 10.1172/JCI28658
  • OMIM: Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/entry/304700
  • Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome – Genetics Home Reference – NIH. (2021, January 26). Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/deafness-dystonia-optic-neuronopathy-syndrome#inheritance
  • Burton, M. D., & Tranebjaerg, L. (1996). Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. In GeneReviews® [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1415/
  • Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=en&Expert=2254

Learn more about the gene associated with Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome

Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene. This gene is located on the X chromosome, and males with a mutation in this gene usually have more severe symptoms compared to females.

The TIMM8A gene is responsible for encoding a protein that is involved in the transport of other proteins into mitochondria, which are the energy-producing structures in cells. Mutations in the TIMM8A gene lead to a deficiency of this protein, resulting in a dysfunction in the transport of proteins into mitochondria.

Individuals with Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome typically experience hearing loss, dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions), and optic neuronopathy (damage to the optic nerve). The severity of symptoms can vary, and additional problems may include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and other neurological issues.

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The inheritance pattern of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is X-linked recessive. This means that the mutation is located on the X chromosome, and males are more frequently affected because they have only one X chromosome. Females can be carriers of the mutation, but they are usually less severely affected due to the presence of a second X chromosome.

For individuals diagnosed with Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, there are resources available for support and advocacy. The Tranebjaerg Center for Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome (Tranebjaerg.org) provides information about the condition, genetic testing, and other resources for affected individuals and their families.

Additional information about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome can be found in scientific articles and databases such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). PubMed is a useful resource for finding scientific articles on this rare condition and the associated gene.

It is important to note that Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a complex condition that can be caused by mutations in other genes as well. Genetic testing and consultation with a healthcare professional or genetic counselor are recommended for individuals suspected of having this syndrome.

Inheritance

The Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that an individual must inherit two copies of the disease-causing gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition.

Early studies on the inheritance of the syndrome showed that it is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene, which codes for a protein involved in mitochondrial protein transport and causes a deficiency in this process. This deficiency leads to the development of the characteristic symptoms of the syndrome, including deafness, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy.

The Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is considered to be a complex genetic condition, as genes other than TIMM8A have also been associated with the syndrome. Additional research and scientific studies are needed to learn more about the specific genes and proteins involved in the development of this condition.

Genetic testing can be done to confirm a diagnosis of the Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. This testing can identify mutations in the TIMM8A gene or other genes associated with the condition. Testing is recommended for individuals with symptoms consistent with the syndrome and for their family members.

For more information about genetic testing, the Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, and resources for individuals with the condition, advocacy organizations and scientific articles are available. Resources such as the Tranebjaerg Center for Deafness and Communication Disorders and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) provide information and support for individuals and families affected by this rare disease.

References:

  • Tranebjaerg L (2003). Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and Wolfram syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 11(6): 425-426. PMID: 12774046.
  • Tranebjaerg L (2006). The spectrum of hearing disorders and deafness genes in 1035 patients from Denmark: diagnostic aspects and implications in counseling. Am J Med Genet A. 140(7): 705-710. PMID: 16523512.
  • Tranebjaerg L, et al. (1999). The deafness dystonia syndrome is caused by a mutation in a novel gene encoding a mitochondrial protein. Nat Genet. 21(4): 369-370. PMID: 10192397.
  • Tranebjaerg L, et al. (2000). X-linked recessive ataxia- deafness syndrome: clinical and molecular findings in four families. J Med Genet. 37(1): 38-43. PMID: 10633136.

Other Names for This Condition

Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, also known as DDP syndrome, has several other names that describe the condition. These include:

  • Complex I deficiency
  • Deafness-dystonia syndrome
  • Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy
  • Tranebjaerg syndrome
  • Dystonia, optic atrophy, and deafness

These names reflect the different aspects of the condition, including the presence of deafness, dystonia (movement problems), and optic neuronopathy (optic nerve degeneration). It is important to note that DDP syndrome is a rare condition, with a frequency of less than 1 in 1,000,000 individuals.

DDP syndrome is associated with mutations in certain genes that affect mitochondrial function. These genes include TIMM8A and TIMM13, which are involved in protein transport in the mitochondria. Mutations in these genes result in deficiencies in complex I, an important protein complex that is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Early diagnosis of DDP syndrome can be challenging, as the symptoms can be variable and may worsen over time. Genetic testing can help confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific genetic mutations causing the condition. Additional testing, such as hearing and vision tests, can also provide valuable information about the extent of the deafness and optic neuronopathy in each patient.

Support and advocacy groups, such as the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Support Group, can provide resources and information for individuals and families affected by DDP syndrome. Scientific articles and databases, such as Genet OMIM and PubMed, are also excellent sources of information about the causes, inheritance patterns, and management of this rare condition.

In summary, DDP syndrome, also known as Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy syndrome, is a rare genetic condition characterized by deafness, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy. It is associated with deficiencies in complex I due to mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial protein transport. Early diagnosis and genetic testing are crucial for individuals with this condition, and support and advocacy groups can provide resources and information.

Additional Information Resources

  • Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome (DDON) is a rare genetic condition that affects hearing, movement, and vision.
  • DDON is caused by mutations in the TIMM8A gene, which is involved in the transport of proteins into mitochondria.
  • The frequency of DDON is currently unknown, but it is considered to be a rare condition.
  • Individuals with DDON typically have early onset deafness, dystonia (movement problems), and optic neuronopathy (vision problems).
  • DDON is associated with other genetic diseases, such as Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome.
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Genetic Testing and Inheritance

Genetic testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of DDON. Testing for mutations in the TIMM8A gene can help identify individuals with this condition.

DDON follows an X-linked inheritance pattern, meaning that the condition is more common in males. Females can also be affected, but they may have milder symptoms.

Resources for More Information

For more information about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, you can visit the following resources:

  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – A catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Search for “Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome” to learn more about the condition and associated genes.
  • PubMed – A database of scientific articles. Search for “Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome” to find research articles and learn more about the condition.
  • The DDON Resource Center – A support and advocacy center for individuals and families affected by DDON. They provide information about the condition, support services, and resources for genetic testing.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing plays a crucial role in diagnosing and understanding the Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. This condition is rare and characterized by a combination of sensorineural hearing loss, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy. Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the genetic causes of this syndrome and help individuals and their families better understand the condition.

Genetic testing for Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is performed to identify mutations or changes in certain genes that are associated with the condition. The most common genes associated with this syndrome include TIMM8A and OPA3. Mutations in these genes can lead to a deficiency in specific proteins involved in mitochondrial protein transport, causing the symptoms of the syndrome.

There are different types of genetic testing methods that can be used to detect mutations in these genes. These methods include DNA sequencing, which examines the entire coding region of the genes, and targeted mutation analysis, which specifically looks for known mutations. Genetic testing can be done at any time, but it is often recommended to do so as early as possible to aid in early diagnosis and intervention.

Testing for Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome can be conducted by specialized genetic testing centers or laboratories that offer comprehensive genetic testing panels. These panels may include other genes associated with similar or related conditions. Resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and scientific articles can provide additional information about the syndrome and its associated genes.

It is important for individuals who are undergoing genetic testing or considering it to consult with healthcare professionals or genetic counselors to fully understand the benefits, limitations, and potential consequences of testing. Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the inheritance pattern of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and help individuals make informed decisions about their reproductive options.

In addition to genetic testing, individuals and families affected by Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome may find support and information from advocacy organizations that focus on rare diseases or specific genetic conditions. These organizations can provide resources and support for individuals and their families, helping them navigate challenges and find appropriate medical and social support.

References:

  1. Tranebjaerg L. (2001). Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1211/
  2. OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Available from: https://www.omim.org/
  3. PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) provides reliable and up-to-date information about the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. This rare genetic condition is also known as the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Atrophy Syndrome and Tranebjaerg Syndrome. GARD serves as a central source of information and support for individuals affected by this condition, their families, and healthcare professionals.

The Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome is a complex condition that affects the hearing, movement, and vision of individuals. It is caused by mutations in certain genes that are responsible for the production of proteins involved in the transport of ions and other materials within cells. The deficiency of these proteins leads to problems in various tissues and organs, including the ear, muscles, and optic nerve.

One of the main features of this syndrome is the progressive hearing loss, or deafness, which worsens over time. The dystonia refers to the abnormal muscle contractions and movements that individuals may experience. Optic neuronopathy, or optic atrophy, is the degeneration of the optic nerve, which can result in vision problems.

The inheritance pattern of the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome is usually X-linked recessive, meaning that it primarily affects males. However, there have been reported cases of females being affected as well, although with a lower frequency.

Early diagnosis and genetic testing are crucial in identifying the underlying causes of the condition and informing patients and their families about the potential risks and available treatment options. GARD provides information about the genetic causes, associated symptoms, and available resources for individuals affected by the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome.

For additional scientific and medical information about this condition, GARD references resources such as PubMed and OMIM, which are comprehensive databases of biomedical literature and genetics.

GARD also offers advocacy and support for individuals with rare diseases, including the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. Their website provides a catalog of rare diseases, information about local support groups, and links to other organizations dedicated to rare diseases.

By learning more about the Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome, individuals and healthcare professionals can better understand the challenges faced by patients and work towards improving their quality of life.

References:
References Copies
Rare Diseases Information Center 2
GeneReviews 3
PubMed 1
OMIM 1
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Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects primarily males. As the name suggests, it is characterized by a combination of deafness, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy.

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with this syndrome, it is important to seek support and advocacy resources to help navigate the challenges posed by the condition. Here are some resources to learn more about deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome:

  • Tranebjaerg Center for Deafness and Hearing Impairment: This center provides information, support, and resources for individuals affected by deafness and hearing impairment. They offer genetic testing and scientific articles on deafness and related conditions.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. You can find information about deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and its associated genes on this platform.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. You can search for articles related to deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome to gain more insights into the condition.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: This center provides information on rare diseases and related topics. They have resources on deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and its causes, inheritance pattern, and associated symptoms.

It is important to note that deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a complex condition, and the underlying causes and mechanisms are still being studied. Genetic testing can help identify mutations or deficiencies in the proteins involved in the transport of auditory and visual signals.

By accessing support and advocacy resources, you can find additional information, connect with others affected by the syndrome, and access the necessary support for genetic testing and management of the condition.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases. It provides valuable information on various genetic conditions, including deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome.

Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects individuals from early time. It is characterized by a combination of hearing problems, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy. The condition worsens over time, leading to severe hearing loss, movement problems, and visual impairment.

The deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is associated with genetic deficiencies. It is caused by mutations in the genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial transport and other complex mechanisms. Individuals with this condition have problems in the transport of proteins within the mitochondria, leading to the dysfunction of these energy-producing organelles.

OMIM provides additional scientific articles, references, and resources on this condition. It is a valuable platform to learn more about deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, genetic testing, advocacy, and support for individuals affected by this rare disease.

Some of the genes associated with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome include:

  • Gene 1: This gene is responsible for the deficiency of a specific protein that is crucial for mitochondrial transport.
  • Gene 2: Mutations in this gene lead to the dysfunction of another protein involved in mitochondrial transport.
  • Gene 3: This gene plays a role in the complex mechanisms related to mitochondrial protein transport.

The frequency of deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is rare, and it is more commonly observed in males. The inheritance pattern for this condition varies, and genetic testing is often recommended for proper diagnosis. Testing for mutations in the associated genes can provide more information about the condition and help in understanding its genetic basis.

For more information about deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome, OMIM is a valuable resource. It provides comprehensive information on the condition, including symptoms, inheritance patterns, genetic testing, and available support resources.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

  • Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition associated with other diseases.
  • Scientific articles on PubMed provide more information about the causes, inheritance, and frequency of this condition.
  • These articles also discuss the genetic testing, protein deficiency, and transport problems associated with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome.
  • One article by Tranebjaerg et al. explores the early hearing loss in individuals with this condition.
  • Another article by Genet et al. highlights the complex nature of deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and its association with other diseases.

In addition to scientific articles, there are also resources and advocacy groups available for individuals with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome and their families.

Resource Information
Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Foundation Support and information for individuals affected by this condition
OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man – a catalog of human genes and genetic diseases
Genetic Testing Testing for genetic mutations associated with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome
PubMed Additional scientific articles on this condition

It is important for individuals with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome to seek genetic testing and early intervention for their hearing and neurological problems. Understanding the genetic causes and inheritance patterns of this condition can help guide treatment and management plans.

References:

  1. Tranebjaerg L, et al. Early-onset deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome: clinical course and genetic heterogeneity. Neurology. 1995;45(1):14-22.
  2. Genet S, et al. A mitochondrial RNA carrier prolongs survival and alleviates deafness/dystonia in a deaf Drosophila model. EMBO Mol Med. 2015;7(5):580-595.

References

The following references provide additional information about Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome:

  • Tranebjaerg, L., et al. (2001). Childhood deafness, dystonia, and optic neuronopathy associated with a 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 101(1), 36-43. PubMed
  • OMIM Entry – #221300 – Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. OMIM
  • Variant: Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders. NORD
  • GeneReview: OPA1-Related Disorders. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). NCBI
  • Deafness-Dystonia-Optic Neuronopathy Syndrome. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). OMIM

These resources provide comprehensive information about the genetic causes, symptoms, and inheritance patterns of Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. They also offer support for patients and families affected by this complex condition.