Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid glands produce excessive thyroid hormones. It is an autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to overproduce hormones.

The exact cause of Graves’ disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is more common in women than in men and can occur at any age, although it is most often diagnosed in people between the ages of 30 and 50.

Patients with Graves’ disease often exhibit symptoms such as bulging eyes (exophthalmos), weight loss, rapid heartbeat, and fatigue. The disease can also cause a goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland. Diagnosis of Graves’ disease is usually based on clinical symptoms and confirmed through blood tests and imaging studies.

Treatment options for Graves’ disease include medication to reduce the production of thyroid hormones, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy the overactive thyroid cells, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. Regular monitoring and thyroid function testing are important for managing the condition.

For additional information about Graves’ disease, its causes, and treatment options, patients and their families can visit reliable resources such as clinicaltrials.gov, OMIM, and PubMed. These sites provide up-to-date scientific research, genetic studies, and clinical trials information. Patients can also find support and advocacy groups for Graves’ disease, as well as references for further reading and learning about the condition.

Frequency

Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in women. It affects about 0.5% to 2% of the population, with women being five to ten times more likely to develop the condition compared to men.

Even with health insurance, patients in the U. S. have a hard time affording their medical care. About one in five working-age Americans with health insurance, and more than half of those without health insurance, reported having trouble paying their medical bills in the last year, according to S. News & World Report.

Research has shown that the frequency of Graves’ disease varies among different ethnic populations. For example, it is more prevalent in Caucasians compared to individuals of African or Asian descent.

The condition is also known to have a genetic component, with studies showing that certain genes are associated with an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease. These genes are involved in the immune system’s function and its regulation, as well as the production of thyroid hormones.

It is important to note that Graves’ disease can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed during the reproductive years, between the ages of 20 and 40.

Graves’ disease is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and vitiligo. There is evidence to suggest that these conditions share some common genetic and environmental factors.

Graves’ disease can cause a variety of signs and symptoms, including goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), weight loss, increased appetite, trembling hands, heat intolerance, sweating, fatigue, muscle weakness, and menstrual irregularities in women.

If you suspect you have Graves’ disease or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Your healthcare provider may perform blood tests to measure levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies associated with Graves’ disease.

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Causes

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition that causes hyperthyroidism, which is the overactivity of the thyroid gland. While the exact cause of Graves’ disease is unknown, it is believed to be a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Genetic factors play a significant role in the development of Graves’ disease. Studies have shown that the disease can run in families, suggesting an inherited genetic predisposition. Several rare genes have been associated with Graves’ disease, including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. However, having these genetic markers does not guarantee that a person will develop the condition.

Autoimmunity is also believed to play a crucial role in the development of Graves’ disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks the cells and tissues of the thyroid gland, causing it to produce more thyroid hormones than the body needs. The exact triggers for this autoimmune response are not yet fully understood, but certain factors like stress, infections, and hormones may contribute to the development of the disease.

Studies have shown that women are more likely to develop Graves’ disease than men. The condition is most commonly diagnosed in people between the ages of 30 and 50, although it can occur at any age.

If you have a family history of Graves’ disease or thyroid problems, you may be at an increased risk of developing the condition. Additionally, certain diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, are associated with an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease.

Further scientific research, genetic testing, and ongoing studies are being conducted to learn more about the exact causes of Graves’ disease.

References
1. Bahn RS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(8):726–738.
2. Raychaudhuri N, Fernando R, Smith TJ, Thyroid Eye Disease: An Update. Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2015;1:189-218.
3. Smith TJ, Hegedus L, and Douglas RS. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves’ orbitopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(3):291–302.

Learn more about the genes associated with Graves’ disease

Graves’ disease is a rare condition characterized by the hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid. It is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which leads to the overproduction of thyroid hormones. The exact cause of Graves’ disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

See also  SCN1A gene

Research studies have identified several genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease. These genes play a role in the function of the immune system and the regulation of thyroid hormone production. Understanding these genes can provide important insights into the development and treatment of Graves’ disease.

One of the most well-known genes associated with Graves’ disease is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene. Variations in this gene have been found to be more common in individuals with Graves’ disease compared to the general population. The HLA gene is involved in the immune system’s response to foreign substances, and certain variations may increase the risk of developing autoimmune diseases, including Graves’ disease.

Other genes that have been associated with Graves’ disease include the TSH receptor gene (TSHR) and the CTLA-4 gene. The TSHR gene plays a crucial role in the regulation of thyroid hormone production, and variations in this gene may contribute to the development of Graves’ disease. The CTLA-4 gene is involved in the immune response and helps regulate the activation of immune cells. Variations in this gene have been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases, including Graves’ disease.

If you have Graves’ disease or a family history of the condition, genetic testing may be recommended to determine if you carry any of the gene variations associated with the disease. Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the likelihood of developing Graves’ disease and help guide treatment decisions.

Additional resources for learning about the genes associated with Graves’ disease include scientific articles, research studies, and databases. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides information on genes, genetic disorders, and their associated symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding ongoing clinical trials related to Graves’ disease and genetic studies.

Support from advocacy and patient support centers can also be beneficial for individuals with Graves’ disease and their families. These centers can provide information, support, and resources for managing the condition and understanding the genetic factors involved.

In summary, understanding the genes associated with Graves’ disease is crucial for further research, clinical trials, and supporting patients with the condition. Genetic testing and research studies have identified several genes, including HLA, TSHR, and CTLA-4, that are linked to an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease. By learning more about these genes, we can gain a deeper understanding of the causes and mechanisms of the condition and develop more targeted and effective treatments.

Inheritance

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissues. In the case of Graves’ disease, the immune system targets the thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone. This condition is more common in women than men and is associated with a genetic predisposition.

Research has shown that there is a genetic component to Graves’ disease. Studies have identified certain genes that may be involved in the development of autoimmunity in general and Graves’ disease in particular. These genes are associated with the immune system and its function.

While the exact causes of Graves’ disease are still not fully understood, it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development. Having a family history of Graves’ disease or other autoimmune diseases can increase the risk of developing the condition.

Genetic testing is not typically used to diagnose Graves’ disease. However, testing for specific genes associated with Graves’ disease may be recommended in certain cases, such as when there is a strong family history of the condition. This testing can provide more information about a person’s genetic risk and help guide treatment decisions.

For more information about the genetic basis of Graves’ disease, resources such as PubMed, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog can be helpful. These sources provide access to scientific articles, studies, and other resources that support genetic research on Graves’ disease.

In rare cases, Graves’ disease can be associated with other conditions, such as a goiter or hyperthyroidism. Additional testing may be necessary to evaluate these conditions and determine their inheritance patterns.

Other Names for This Condition

Graves’ disease is also known by other names. Some of these names include:

  • Hyperthyroidism – This is a general term used to describe an overactive thyroid gland.
  • Autoimmune hyperthyroidism – This term emphasizes the role of autoimmunity in the development of the disease.
  • Diffuse toxic goiter – This name refers to the enlargement of the thyroid gland and the excessive production of hormones.
  • Basedow’s disease – This name is used in some countries to honor the German physician Karl Adolph von Basedow, who first described the disease.
  • Flajani-Basedow-Graves syndrome – This name is a combination of the names of three physicians who made significant contributions to the understanding of the disease.
  • Parry’s disease – This name is used to recognize the Welsh physician Caleb Hillier Parry, who independently discovered the disease.

These additional names for Graves’ disease reflect its clinical features, genetic inheritance patterns, and historical significance. While the most common name for this condition is Graves’ disease, it is important to be aware of these other names when conducting research or seeking information.

Additional Information Resources

For additional scientific information on Graves’ disease, you can refer to the following resources:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles on various diseases, including Graves’ disease. You can search for specific topics and access abstracts or full-text articles.
  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information about the genetic basis of Graves’ disease and its associated conditions.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This resource provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to Graves’ disease. You can learn more about research studies, patient recruitment, and the latest advancements in treatment options.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can help determine the genetic causes of Graves’ disease and its inheritance patterns. It can provide valuable information about the condition’s underlying genes and the risk of developing associated conditions.
  • Immunol: Immunol is a center for information and advocacy for Graves’ disease and other autoimmune conditions. It offers support resources, articles, and educational materials for patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.

These resources can provide you with more information about the causes, symptoms, genetic factors, and treatment options for Graves’ disease.

See also  PROS1 gene

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the inheritance and causes of Graves’ disease. By analyzing a person’s DNA from blood or other tissues, genetic testing can help identify specific genes that are associated with the disease. This information can be important for a number of reasons.

  • Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis of Graves’ disease and rule out other conditions that may have similar signs and symptoms.
  • It can provide information about the frequency of certain genetic mutations in the population, helping to determine the likelihood of developing the disease.
  • Genetic testing can also be beneficial for family planning purposes. If a person has a known genetic mutation associated with Graves’ disease, they can learn about the chances of passing it on to their children.
  • Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals who are at a higher risk of developing Graves’ disease or related autoimmune conditions.

It’s important to note that genetic testing is not usually offered as a routine diagnostic tool for Graves’ disease. However, it can be considered for individuals who have a family history of the condition or who have unusual clinical features.

There are several resources available for individuals interested in genetic testing for Graves’ disease:

  • National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: This website provides information about genetic testing, rare diseases, and resources for support and advocacy.
  • OMIM: This online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders provides information about the genes associated with Graves’ disease and other related conditions.
  • PubMed: This database of scientific articles contains research studies and references about genetic testing and Graves’ disease.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to Graves’ disease and genetic testing.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a free online resource that provides comprehensive information about genetic and rare diseases to patients, their families, and healthcare professionals. GARD is a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and is funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in women, although men can also be affected. The disease is named after Robert Graves, an Irish physician who first described the condition in the early 19th century.

In Graves’ disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone. This leads to symptoms such as weight loss, irritability, heat intolerance, goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland), and bulging eyes (known as Graves’ ophthalmopathy).

Genetic studies have shown that there is a genetic component to Graves’ disease. Certain genes, such as the HLA-DR3 and HLA-B8 genes, are associated with an increased risk of developing the condition. However, the exact inheritance pattern of Graves’ disease is complex and not fully understood.

In addition to Graves’ disease, GARD provides information on other genetic and rare diseases that may cause hyperthyroidism or have similar symptoms. These include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, and thyroid cancer.

GARD provides resources to help patients and their families learn more about Graves’ disease. These resources include articles on the signs and symptoms of the disease, information about genetic testing and inheritance, and links to clinical trials and research studies on Graves’ disease. GARD also provides links to other websites and organizations that offer support and advocacy for persons with Graves’ disease and other rare conditions.

For additional information on Graves’ disease, you can visit the GARD website or contact the GARD Information Center directly. References to scientific articles and studies on Graves’ disease can be found on websites such as PubMed and OMIM.

GARD is dedicated to supporting patients and their families affected by rare diseases like Graves’ disease. By providing reliable and up-to-date information, GARD aims to empower individuals to make informed decisions about their health and to advocate for better care and support.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

There are several resources available to provide support and advocacy for patients with Graves’ disease. These resources aim to help patients understand the condition, manage their symptoms, and connect with others who are going through a similar experience. Some of these resources include:

  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): This resource provides information about genes, inheritance, signs, and symptoms of Graves’ disease. It is a comprehensive database that offers valuable resources for patients and their families.
  • Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR): This resource provides scientific articles, genetic studies, and clinical trial information about Graves’ disease. It helps patients and healthcare providers stay informed about the latest research findings and treatment options.
  • American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA): This organization focuses on autoimmune diseases, including Graves’ disease. They provide educational materials, advocacy support, and fund research to find better treatments for autoimmune conditions.
  • Graves’ Disease & Thyroid Foundation: This foundation offers a variety of resources for patients, including information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. They also provide support groups and educational materials for individuals with Graves’ disease.
  • PubMed: This online database provides access to scientific research articles on Graves’ disease. It helps patients and healthcare professionals stay updated on the latest research and treatment advancements.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): This catalog of human genes and genetic disorders includes information about the genetic causes and inheritance patterns of Graves’ disease. It can be a useful resource for individuals interested in learning about the genetic factors associated with the condition.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This resource lists ongoing clinical trials related to Graves’ disease. Patients can find information about trials that are currently recruiting participants and learn about potential new treatments or interventions being studied.

These resources provide valuable information, support, and advocacy for individuals living with Graves’ disease. They can help patients connect with others facing similar challenges, gain knowledge about the condition, and learn about the latest research and treatment options available.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

The following is a list of research studies related to Graves’ disease that are available on ClinicalTrialsgov. These studies aim to provide more information about the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development and progression of this condition.

  • Genetic Studies: These studies aim to identify the genetic variations that may increase the risk of developing Graves’ disease. By studying the names and frequency of certain genes, researchers hope to gain a better understanding of the inheritance pattern and genetic factors involved in this condition.

  • Testing and Diagnostic Studies: These studies focus on developing new and improved diagnostic tests for Graves’ disease. By identifying specific signs and symptoms, researchers aim to improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosing this condition. Additionally, these studies may investigate the role of certain biomarkers in diagnosing Graves’ disease.

  • Treatment Studies: These studies aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatment options for Graves’ disease. This may include testing new medications, surgical techniques, or radioiodine therapy. The goal is to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for individuals with this condition.

  • Environmental Factors: These studies investigate the impact of environmental factors on the development and progression of Graves’ disease. Researchers may examine lifestyle factors, exposure to certain substances, or other external influences that may contribute to the development or exacerbation of this condition.

  • Support and Advocacy: In addition to scientific studies, ClinicalTrialsgov provides resources for individuals with Graves’ disease and their families. This includes information on support groups, patient advocacy organizations, and educational materials about the disease.

See also  MYOC gene

For additional information and references about Graves’ disease, you can visit reputable resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed. These databases provide access to scientific articles and research studies on a wide range of diseases and conditions, including Graves’ disease.

Having a better understanding of the causes and genetic factors associated with Graves’ disease can help researchers develop more effective treatments and improve patient care. By participating in research studies, individuals with Graves’ disease can contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge and potentially benefit from new discoveries in the field of immunology.

It is important to note that while Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in women, there are other rare diseases and conditions that can cause hyperthyroidism. Genetic testing and research studies can help uncover these rare causes and provide more targeted treatment options.

For more information about ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to Graves’ disease, please visit ClinicalTrialsgov.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases. It is a free resource that offers valuable information about various genetic conditions, including Graves’ disease.

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the thyroid gland, leading to hyperthyroidism. It is more common in women and is associated with genetic factors. Some of the most common signs and symptoms of Graves’ disease include goiter, weight loss, rapid heartbeat, tremors, and fatigue.

OMIM provides a wealth of information about Graves’ disease and other genetic conditions. It offers detailed descriptions of the genetic basis of these diseases and provides references to scientific articles, studies, and clinical trials related to these conditions.

OMIM also provides information about the inheritance patterns of these diseases, which can be useful for genetic testing and counseling. Genetic testing can help identify the specific genetic mutations associated with Graves’ disease and provide valuable information about disease risk and management options.

In addition to genetic information, OMIM also provides resources for patient support, advocacy, and further research. It offers links to advocacy organizations, support groups, and additional information about these conditions.

OMIM’s catalog of genes and diseases is a valuable resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals who are interested in learning more about genetic conditions like Graves’ disease. It offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the scientific and clinical information available on these conditions.

For more information about Graves’ disease and other genetic conditions, you can visit the OMIM website at https://www.omim.org/.

References

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Graves’ disease, also known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism. Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information on the causes, symptoms, and treatment of this condition.

Research studies have identified genetic factors associated with Graves’ disease. These studies have revealed additional information about the genes and their function in the development of the disease. Some of the genes identified in these studies are also associated with other autoimmune diseases.

The frequency and inheritance pattern of Graves’ disease suggest that it is a complex genetic condition with multiple genes involved. Support and advocacy groups for individuals with this condition provide resources for genetic testing and information on the latest research articles.

Many scientific articles on PubMed focus on the clinical presentation of Graves’ disease, including the signs and symptoms experienced by affected individuals. These articles also explore the association between Graves’ disease and goiter, a swelling of the thyroid gland.

In addition to scientific articles, PubMed provides resources for patient education and support. These resources include information on clinical trials, genetic testing, and available treatments for Graves’ disease.

Women are more likely to develop Graves’ disease than men, and this gender difference is also a topic of research and discussion in scientific articles. The impact of hormonal factors and pregnancy on the development and progression of Graves’ disease is an area of ongoing investigation.

Scientific articles on PubMed serve as a valuable source of information for healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals affected by Graves’ disease. They provide insights into the causes, symptoms, and management of this rare autoimmune condition.

References