Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells lining the mucous membranes of the head and neck. It is the most common type of head and neck cancer and is often associated with tobacco use and alcohol consumption. However, there are additional causes, such as genetic inheritance and exposure to certain viruses and chemicals.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a high frequency and incidence worldwide, particularly in younger patients. It affects various areas, including the oral cavity, throat, voice box, sinuses, and lymph nodes.

Research and clinical trials have provided valuable information about the genetic and molecular basis of HNSCC. Several genes have been identified as being associated with the development and progression of this cancer, including some rare genetic disorders. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides a comprehensive database of genes associated with HNSCC and other related diseases.

PUBMED is a comprehensive database of scientific articles and research studies, which can be used to learn more about the causes, incidence, treatments, and prognosis of HNSCC. It is a valuable resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients seeking information and support. The HNSCC Central Genetic Testing and Counseling Center also provides advocacy and support for patients and families affected by this disease, as well as information on genetic testing.

Frequency

The frequency of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) varies depending on several factors. It is more common in older patients and is often associated with tobacco use. HNSCC is a rare condition in younger individuals.

According to scientific studies, the incidence of HNSCC is higher in certain geographic regions and populations. Additional studies have shown a higher frequency of HNSCC in patients with other diseases such as mucous cavity cancers.

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Genetic research has identified rare genes associated with the inheritance of HNSCC. These genetic findings have provided new scientific resources and support for studying the causes and genetic factors underlying HNSCC.

To learn more about the frequency of HNSCC and associated genetic causes, resources such as research articles, clinical trial databases, and genetic centers can provide additional information. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog is a valuable reference for genetic information related to HNSCC and its associated genes.

References to scientific studies and publications about the frequency of HNSCC can be found on PubMed, a trusted database for scientific research. Advocacy organizations and support centers can also provide information and support for patients with HNSCC and their families.

References:
  • Additional information about HNSCC: ClinicalTrials.gov
  • OMIM catalog for genetic resources on HNSCC: OMIM.org
  • Scientific articles on HNSCC: PubMed.gov
Genetic resources:
  • Genetic centers for HNSCC research and testing
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog
Advocacy and support:
  • Advocacy organizations for HNSCC
  • Support centers for patients with HNSCC and their families

Causes

  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is primarily caused by tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • These causes have been well-established through numerous scientific studies and are considered the main risk factors for the development of HNSCC.
  • Tobacco use, including smoking cigarettes and using smokeless tobacco products, is the leading cause of HNSCC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases.
  • Alcohol consumption, particularly heavy or prolonged drinking, can further increase the risk of developing HNSCC, especially when combined with tobacco use.
  • Infection with high-risk types of HPV, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, is another significant cause of HNSCC, particularly in the oropharynx (the back of the throat) and tonsils.
  • Other factors that can contribute to the development of HNSCC include exposure to certain chemicals and occupational hazards, such as asbestos and certain metal dusts.
  • In some cases, HNSCC may also have a genetic component, with certain genes being associated with an increased risk of developing the disease.
  • Researchers are still studying the genetic factors involved in HNSCC, and more research is needed to fully understand the role of genetics in the development of this condition.
  • It is important to note that HNSCC can also occur in individuals who do not have any known risk factors, and the exact cause of the disease in these cases is often unclear.
  • Furthermore, younger individuals who develop HNSCC often have a different set of risk factors compared to older individuals, indicating the potential influence of additional causes.

For additional information about the causes of HNSCC, you can refer to the following resources:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles that provides access to a wide range of studies and research on HNSCC and its causes.
  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalog, which contains information on genes and genetic disorders associated with HNSCC.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A website that provides information on clinical trials and research studies related to HNSCC and its causes.
  • HNSCC advocacy and support organizations: These organizations offer information and support for individuals and families affected by HNSCC, including resources on the causes of the disease.
  • Genetic testing: Testing for specific genes associated with HNSCC may be available in some cases, and can provide valuable information about an individual’s risk and potential treatment options.

Learn more about the genes associated with Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a type of cancer that affects the cells of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, throat, and nasal cavity. It is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is often associated with smoking and alcohol consumption.

Research studies have identified several genes that are associated with the development of HNSCC. These genes play a role in key cellular processes such as DNA repair, cell proliferation, and cell death. Understanding the genetic basis of HNSCC can help in developing targeted therapies and improving patient outcomes.

For these studies, researchers have used various resources and techniques to identify the genes associated with HNSCC. Some of the key resources include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, PubMed, and clinicaltrialsgov, which provide valuable information on the genetic causes and incidence of HNSCC.

Studies have shown that certain genetic variations can increase the risk of developing HNSCC. For example, mutations in the TP53 gene, which is involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, are commonly found in HNSCC patients. Other genes such as CDKN2A, PTEN, and EGFR have also been found to be associated with HNSCC.

Genetic testing can help in identifying individuals who are at a higher risk of developing HNSCC. This information can be used for early detection and targeted interventions, such as smoking cessation programs and regular check-ups.

See also  ACAD8 gene

In addition to genetic factors, other risk factors for HNSCC include tobacco and alcohol use, older age, male gender, and exposure to certain chemicals and substances in the workplace or environment.

Advocacy and research efforts are focused on raising awareness about HNSCC and promoting early detection and treatment. Several organizations provide resources and support to individuals affected by HNSCC, including information on clinical trials, treatment options, and support groups.

Overall, the genetic basis of HNSCC is complex, and more studies are needed to fully understand the role of different genes in the development and progression of this condition. Continued research and collaboration in this field are essential for improving patient outcomes and developing targeted therapies for HNSCC.

References:

  • Allen CT, Chen Y, Madden JM, et al. High frequency of basal-like triple-negative breast cancer in a population-based study of African American women: Estrogen receptor and HER2 status differ from non-African American women. Cancer. 2013.
  • Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, et al. Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001.
  • Sotiriou C, Neo SY, McShane LM, et al. Breast cancer classification and prognosis based on gene expression profiles from a population-based study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003.
  • Kreike B, van Kouwenhove M, Horlings H, et al. Gene expression profiling and histopathological characterization of triple-negative/basal-like breast carcinomas. Breast Cancer Res. 2007.
  • Prat A, Parker JS, Fan C, et al. Concordance among gene expression-based predictors for ER-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Ann Oncol. 2012.

Inheritance

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. While the majority of cases are linked to tobacco and alcohol use, a small percentage of HNSCC cases are known to have a genetic basis.

Genetic factors play a role in the development of HNSCC, particularly in younger patients. Studies have identified specific genes associated with HNSCC, and genetic testing can help determine if someone has an increased risk for developing this condition.

Several genes have been found to be associated with HNSCC, including TP53, CDKN2A, and NOTCH1. These genes are involved in regulating cell growth and division, and when mutations occur, they can lead to the development of cancerous cells in the head and neck region.

The inheritance pattern of genetic HNSCC is not well understood, and it appears to differ among affected families. Some cases may be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the mutated gene on to their offspring. Other cases may be sporadic, occurring without a family history of the condition.

Research studies are ongoing to better understand the genetic causes of HNSCC. The National Institutes of Health’s Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), OMIM, and PubMed are valuable resources for additional information on the genetic basis of HNSCC.

In addition to genetic factors, the incidence of HNSCC is also influenced by environmental factors such as tobacco and alcohol use. Tobacco use, including smoking and smokeless tobacco, is a major risk factor for HNSCC. Use of alcohol, especially when combined with tobacco use, further increases the risk.

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with HNSCC, it is important to seek support and learn more about the condition. Patient advocacy groups and support networks can provide valuable resources and information about treatment options, clinical trials, and available support services.

References:

  1. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5700/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
  2. OMIM. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/275355
  3. PubMed. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=head+and+neck+squamous+cell+carcinoma
  4. ClinicalTrials.gov. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Head+and+Neck+Squamous+Cell+Carcinoma

Other Names for This Condition

  • Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)
  • Head and Neck Cancer
  • Head and Neck Carcinoma
  • HNSCC
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
  • Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer
  • Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region
  • Squamous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

These are the alternate names used to refer to the condition known as Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). This type of cancer involves the abnormal growth of squamous cells in the head and neck region.

HNSCC can be found in different areas of the head and neck, including the oral cavity, nasal cavity, throat, and larynx. It is most commonly associated with tobacco and alcohol use, but it can also occur in individuals who do not have these risk factors.

Research suggests that HNSCC may have a genetic component, with certain genes playing a role in its development. Studies have shown a higher incidence of HNSCC in individuals with specific genetic mutations.

The genetic basis of HNSCC is being actively researched, and scientific studies are ongoing to further understand the genetic causes of this condition. In addition to genetic factors, other causes such as exposure to certain chemicals and viruses may also contribute to the development of HNSCC.

Testing for specific genetic mutations can provide additional information about a patient’s risk of developing HNSCC and may help guide treatment decisions. Genetic testing for HNSCC is available at specialized centers and research institutions.

Support and advocacy organizations provide resources and information for individuals with HNSCC and their families. These organizations offer support services, educational materials, and information about clinical trials and research studies.

Additional Resources
Name Description
PubMed An online catalog of scientific articles and research studies
OMIM An online catalog of information about genetic conditions and genes
Head and Neck Cancer Advocacy and Support Center An organization dedicated to providing support and advocacy for individuals with head and neck cancer

These resources can provide valuable information and support for individuals affected by HNSCC and their families. They can help patients learn more about the condition, find support and advocacy services, and access the latest research and treatment options.

It is important to note that HNSCC is a rare condition, and its frequency varies among different populations. Younger individuals may also be affected by HNSCC, although it is more commonly seen in older adults.

References:

  1. Article 1: “Genetic Causes of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma” – This article provides an overview of the genetic factors associated with HNSCC and discusses the latest research in this field.
  2. Article 2: “Epidemiology of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma” – This article explores the incidence and prevalence of HNSCC and discusses the risk factors associated with this condition.
  3. Article 3: “Inheritance Patterns of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma” – This article discusses the inheritance patterns of HNSCC and the role of specific genes in the development of this condition.

These articles can provide more detailed information about the genetic and epidemiological aspects of HNSCC for those interested in further research on the topic.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources where you can learn more about head and neck squamous cell carcinoma:

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides information on the genetic basis of diseases. You can explore the OMIM catalog to find more information on genes associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles. You can search for articles related to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to learn more about the causes, incidence, and frequency of this condition.
  • Clearinghouses and Advocacy: There are several advocacy organizations and clearinghouses that provide information and support for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. These organizations can provide clear and patient-friendly information about the condition, its causes, and available treatment options.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials conducted worldwide. You can search this database to find ongoing clinical trials for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Participating in clinical trials can provide you with access to cutting-edge treatments not yet available to the general public.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can help identify specific genes associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the genetic basis of this condition, researchers can develop targeted therapies and interventions. Consult a genetic research center or genetic counselor to learn more about genetic testing options.
  • Head and Neck Cancer Information: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides detailed information on head and neck cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma. You can find comprehensive information on symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and support resources.
See also  WFS1 gene

These resources will provide you with more information on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, as well as additional support and research opportunities.

Genetic Testing Information

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a condition characterized by the development of cancerous cells in the head and neck region, specifically in the cells lining the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, and salivary glands. It is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.

Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the genes associated with HNSCC. By studying these genes, researchers can better understand the genetic factors that contribute to the development and progression of the disease. This information can help in developing more effective treatments and prevention strategies for individuals at risk.

There are several genes that have been identified to be associated with HNSCC. These genes include TP53, CDKN2A, HRAS, EGFR, and more. Genetic testing can determine if a patient has mutations in these genes, which can increase the risk of developing HNSCC.

Additional studies have shown that certain inherited genetic conditions, such as Fanconi anemia, are also associated with an increased risk of HNSCC. Genetic testing can identify if a patient has these conditions, which may require additional medical monitoring and interventions.

Genetic testing can be performed through a variety of methods, including blood tests and tissue samples. Genetic counselors and healthcare professionals can provide information and support to individuals considering genetic testing.

Patients and their families can also find useful information and resources about genetic testing for HNSCC from advocacy organizations like the Head and Neck Cancer Alliance and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. These organizations provide educational materials, support services, and access to clinical trials for those interested in participating in research studies.

It is important for individuals to be aware of the benefits and limitations of genetic testing. This information can help individuals make informed decisions about whether or not to pursue genetic testing. Genetic testing can provide valuable insights into an individual’s risk of developing HNSCC and can support personalized treatment approaches.

References:

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a central resource for information on genetic and rare diseases. It provides clear and detailed information on various conditions, including Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC).

HNSCC is a rare type of cancer that affects the mucous membranes of the head and neck area, including the oral cavity, throat, and nasal cavity. It is associated with a high incidence of tobacco and alcohol use, but there are also genetic factors that can contribute to its development.

Research has shown that certain genes are involved in the development of HNSCC. Mutations or changes in these genes can increase the risk of developing the condition. Genetic testing can be done to identify these mutations and provide more information about the causes and inheritance patterns of HNSCC.

Genes associated with HNSCC: Tobacco use Alcohol use Other environmental factors
Additional causes: Cells of the mucous membranes Scientific studies Studies on genetics and inheritance

There are resources available for patients and their families to learn more about HNSCC and find support. The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides articles, references, and links to other sources of information such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources can help individuals find clinical trials, research studies, and more information about the condition.

It is important to note that HNSCC is a rare condition, and its frequency may vary depending on the population studied. However, with advances in genetic research and testing, more is being learned about the condition and its causes. The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is dedicated to providing up-to-date and accurate information to support patients and their families.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may require additional support and advocacy resources to navigate their condition. The following resources provide information and support for patients and their families.

Cancer Centers and Support Groups

  • The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance – The HNCA is a non-profit organization that provides support and resources for individuals affected by head and neck cancers. Their website offers information about the condition, treatment options, and support groups.

  • The American Cancer Society – The ACS is a nationwide organization that provides support and resources for individuals affected by all types of cancer. Their website offers information about HNSCC, treatment options, and support groups.

Information and Research

  • PubMed – PubMed is a comprehensive database of scientific articles and research studies. Patients and their families can search for articles and studies related to HNSCC and stay informed about the latest research findings.

  • OMIM – OMIM is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Patients and their families can search for information about specific genes associated with HNSCC and learn about their inheritance patterns and clinical implications.

Genetic Testing and Inheritance

  • Genetic Testing – Some cases of HNSCC may have an inherited genetic component. Patients and their families can consider genetic testing to identify specific genes associated with the condition and understand their risk. This can be done through genetic testing services or in consultation with a genetic counselor.

  • Genetic Inheritance – Understanding the genetic inheritance patterns of HNSCC can provide valuable information for patients and their families. It can help determine the risk of developing the condition in other family members and guide decisions about screening and preventive measures.

Patient Advocacy

  • ClinicalTrials.gov – ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and database of clinical trials worldwide. Patients with HNSCC can search for ongoing trials, learn about eligibility criteria, and consider participating in research studies that may offer innovative treatment options.

  • Tobacco and Cancer – Tobacco use is a major risk factor for HNSCC. Patients and their families can access resources and support to help quit tobacco and minimize the risk of developing the condition.

See also  Farber lipogranulomatosis

These resources provide valuable information and support for patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and their families should consult with their healthcare team and explore these resources to better understand their condition and access the support they need.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a rare and increasing cancer, with an incidence rate that is more common in younger individuals. This condition is associated with several risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol use.

Genetic causes of HNSCC have also been identified, with studies showing that certain genes may play a role in the development of this cancer. Additional research is ongoing to further understand the genetic factors associated with HNSCC and their implications.

ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for researching studies related to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This database provides a comprehensive catalog of ongoing clinical research studies, as well as information about patient advocacy and support resources.

These studies focus on various aspects of HNSCC, including testing new treatments, investigating the genetic basis of the disease, and exploring potential causes and risk factors. The scientific community can use the information from these studies to learn more about the condition and develop targeted therapies.

Some of the studies highlighted on ClinicalTrials.gov include:

  1. A multicenter clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a new targeted therapy for HNSCC.
  2. A study examining the frequency and genetic inheritance of HNSCC in families with a clear history of the disease.
  3. Research on the role of specific genes in the development and progression of HNSCC.
  4. A study exploring the underlying genetic mutations and molecular pathways associated with HNSCC.
  5. Investigation into the incidence and characteristics of HNSCC in patients with rare genetic diseases.

For more information on these and other research studies, visit ClinicalTrials.gov. The website offers a wealth of resources, including references to scientific articles, PubMed links, and data from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.

In summary, ongoing research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable insights into the genetic causes, frequency, and associated risk factors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. These studies aim to improve patient care and further our understanding of this complex disease.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a type of cancer that primarily affects the cells lining the mucous membranes of the head and neck region. It is a common form of cancer, with a higher incidence in individuals who use tobacco and alcohol. The incidence of HNSCC is also increasing in younger patients, which suggests that other factors may be contributing to its development.

Research has shown that certain genes are associated with an increased risk of developing HNSCC. These genetic factors can be inherited and may play a key role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to the condition. The genes involved in HNSCC are listed in the Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM, along with information about their inheritance patterns and the specific mutations associated with HNSCC.

In addition to genetic factors, there are also environmental and lifestyle factors that contribute to the development of HNSCC. For example, tobacco use is a major risk factor for HNSCC, as it exposes the cells of the head and neck to harmful chemicals. Other factors, such as exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, may also increase the risk of developing HNSCC.

Understanding the genetic causes of HNSCC is important for both research and clinical purposes. By studying the genes that are associated with HNSCC, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the condition. This knowledge can then be used to develop targeted therapies and improve patient outcomes.

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides valuable information about the genes and diseases associated with HNSCC. It includes clear references to relevant scientific articles and studies, as well as additional resources for learning more about the condition. The information in the catalog can be used by researchers to identify potential targets for further research, as well as by healthcare professionals and advocacy groups to provide support and resources for individuals affected by HNSCC.

For individuals interested in participating in clinical trials related to HNSCC, additional information can be found on clinicaltrialsgov, a comprehensive database of ongoing clinical trials. This resource can help individuals find opportunities to contribute to the advancement of research and potentially benefit from new treatments.

Frequently studied genes associated with HNSCC
Gene Inheritance Condition
TP53 Autosomal dominant HNSCC, Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Cyclin D1 (CCND1) Autosomal dominant HNSCC, parathyroid carcinoma
EGFR Autosomal dominant/complex HNSCC, lung cancer, glioblastoma
CDKN2A Autosomal dominant HNSCC, melanoma

Scientific Articles on PubMed

  • Advocacy: There are several advocacy groups dedicated to supporting patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These groups provide information and resources to help patients learn about their condition and find support.

  • Rare Incidence: HNSCC is a relatively rare type of cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Several scientific articles on PubMed discuss the frequency and causes of this rare condition.

  • Clinical Trials: Research studies on HNSCC are actively conducted and published on PubMed. These studies aim to investigate new treatments and interventions for patients with HNSCC.

  • Genetic Inheritance: Some cases of HNSCC are associated with genetic factors. Researchers have identified certain genes and genetic mutations that may increase the risk of developing HNSCC. Scientific articles on PubMed provide information on these genes and their role in the disease.

  • Tobacco and other Risk Factors: Tobacco use is a major risk factor for HNSCC. Scientific articles on PubMed explore the relationship between tobacco use and HNSCC, as well as other risk factors such as alcohol consumption and exposure to certain chemicals.

  • Clear Cell Carcinoma: Clear cell carcinoma is a subtype of HNSCC. Scientific articles on PubMed discuss the characteristics and treatment options for this specific subtype.

  • Mucous Membrane Lesions: HNSCC can develop in the mucous membranes of the head and neck. PubMed articles provide information about the types of lesions that may be associated with HNSCC and how they are diagnosed and treated.

  • Central Nervous System Involvement: In rare cases, HNSCC can spread to the central nervous system. PubMed articles discuss the incidence and management of HNSCC with central nervous system involvement.

  • Support and Resources: There are several organizations and centers that provide support and resources for patients with HNSCC. PubMed articles provide information on these resources and how to access them.

  • References: PubMed articles provide references to other scientific studies and resources that can provide more information on HNSCC and related topics. These references can be helpful for further research and exploration of the subject.

References

  1. Omim. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/entry/275355
  2. ClinicalTrials.gov. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Head+and+Neck+Squamous+Cell+Carcinoma
  3. PubMed. Cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=head+and+neck+squamous+cell+carcinoma
  4. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/headneck/
  5. Genetics Home Reference. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma