Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare genetic skin disorder that affects the cornified layer of the skin. This condition can cause significant distress and loss of quality of life to those affected. Lamellar ichthyosis is one of the many forms of congenital ichthyoses, a group of inherited disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin.

Researchers have identified several genes that are associated with lamellar ichthyosis, including TGM1, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, and ABCA12. These genes play a crucial role in the production and maintenance of the skin’s protective barrier. Mutations in these genes can disrupt this process, leading to the symptoms observed in lamellar ichthyosis patients.

Despite the rarity of this condition, scientific research and advocacy efforts have brought about significant progress in understanding its causes, inheritance patterns, and potential treatment options. The National Institutes of Health’s Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides comprehensive resources and additional information about lamellar ichthyosis and other related diseases.

ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed are valuable resources for finding studies and articles related to lamellar ichthyosis. These platforms allow patients and researchers to learn about the latest advancements in the field and connect with others who are affected by the condition. Additionally, several patient registries and advocacy groups, such as the Ichthyosis Registry and Research Network, provide support and resources for individuals and families affected by lamellar ichthyosis.

Frequency

Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare genetic condition. It is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 300,000 to 500,000 people worldwide.

Scientific studies have identified several genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis. The most common gene involved is TGM1, which is responsible for the production of an enzyme called transglutaminase 1. Mutations in the TGM1 gene result in a loss of function of this enzyme, leading to the abnormal formation of the skin’s protective barrier.

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The frequency of lamellar ichthyosis varies in different populations. For example, it is more commonly reported in populations of Pakistani and Japanese descent.

Additional genes, such as ALOXE3, ALOX12B, and ADRB3, have also been identified as causes of the condition.

There are several resources available for individuals and families affected by lamellar ichthyosis. The National Registry for Ichthyosis and Related Disorders is a comprehensive catalog of information on the condition, including information on clinical trials, research studies, and genetic testing.

ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for finding information on ongoing research studies and clinical trials for lamellar ichthyosis. This website provides details about the studies, including their purpose, eligibility criteria, and contact information.

In addition to these scientific resources, there are advocacy organizations and support groups that provide support and information for individuals and families affected by lamellar ichthyosis. These organizations can help individuals connect with others facing similar challenges, learn about the latest research and treatment options, and access additional resources.

References:

  1. Akiyama, M. Lamellar ichthyosis. Dermatol Sinica. 2014; 32(1): 1-4. PubMed PMID: 24931171.
  2. Toro, J.R., et al. Ichthyosis, lamellar. 2006 May 11 [Updated 2019 May 16]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2021. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1454/ PubMed PMID: 20301719.
  3. Herman, M.L., Farasat, S., Steinbach, P.J., et al. Transglutaminase-1 gene mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: summary of mutations (including 23 novel) and modeling of TGase-1. Hum Mutat. 2009; 30(4):537-547. PubMed PMID: 19206169.
  4. Sprecher, E., et al. Founder effect and varying clinical features of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in Gaza Palestinians. J Med Genet. 1997; 34(4): 317-320. PubMed PMID: 9132502.

Resources:

Causes

Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare genetic condition characterized by the abnormal development of the skin. It is caused by mutations in certain genes that are involved in the production of a protein called transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) or other genes associated with the cornified envelope, a structure that helps form the protective barrier of the skin.

LI is generally inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that both copies of the gene responsible for the condition must be mutated in order for a person to have LI. There are several identified genes associated with LI, including TGM1 and other genes such as ALOXE3, ALOX12B, ABCA12, and NIPAL4. Mutations in these genes have been shown to cause LI in affected individuals.

According to scientific studies and clinicaltrialsgov, mutations in the TGM1 gene are the most common cause of LI, accounting for approximately 41-50% of cases. Mutations in the ALOXE3, ALOX12B, ABCA12, and NIPAL4 genes are less common causes of the condition.

The loss-of-function mutations in TGM1 and other associated genes lead to a defective cornified envelope, resulting in the characteristic features of LI, such as thick, scaly skin and a collodion membrane at birth.

Interestingly, there have been reported cases of LI with no identified mutations in the known genes associated with the condition. These cases may be due to variations in other genes or genetic factors that have not yet been identified.

Research is ongoing to further understand the genetic basis of LI and identify additional genes involved in its development. DNA testing is available to confirm a diagnosis of LI and can help identify the specific genetic mutations causing the condition.

Patient registries, advocacy groups, and scientific resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed provide additional information and support for individuals and families affected by LI. These resources can help patients and their families learn more about the condition, find articles and scientific studies related to LI, and connect with other individuals and families affected by the condition.

Learn more about the genes associated with Lamellar ichthyosis

Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare congenital condition that causes the loss of the cornified layer of the skin, resulting in thick, scaly, and dry skin. It is associated with several genes that play a role in the development of the skin barrier.

One of the genes associated with LI is TGM1 (transglutaminase 1). Mutations in the TGM1 gene are the most common cause of LI. The TGM1 gene encodes an enzyme that is essential for the formation of the cornified layer of the skin. Mutations in this gene lead to an impaired skin barrier function, causing the symptoms of LI.

Another gene associated with LI is ALOX12B. Mutations in the ALOX12B gene result in a deficiency of the enzyme 12R-lipoxygenase, which is involved in the synthesis of lipids in the skin. This deficiency leads to abnormal skin development and the characteristic symptoms of LI.

See also  DGUOK gene

Other less common genes associated with LI include NIPAL4, CYP4F22, and ABCA12. Mutations in these genes also affect skin barrier function and result in the development of LI.

Researchers have identified additional genes associated with LI through genetic testing and studies on patient populations. These genes provide further insight into the causes and mechanisms of LI.

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with LI, there are resources and support available. The National Registry for Ichthyosis and Related Disorders is a valuable resource for information, support, and connections to research studies and clinical trials. Additionally, advocacy organizations like the Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types (FIRST) and the Ichthyosis Advocacy Group provide support and resources for individuals and families affected by LI.

For more information about the genes associated with LI, you can refer to scientific articles and databases such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PubMed, and the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). These resources contain detailed information about the genetic basis of LI and the specific mutations found in different genes.

In summary, Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare genetic condition associated with mutations in various genes involved in skin barrier function. Understanding the genetic basis of LI is crucial for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and the development of targeted treatments.

Inheritance

Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare genetic skin disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that both parents must carry a mutation in the same gene for their child to have the condition.

The most common gene associated with LI is the TGM1 gene, which provides instructions for making an enzyme called transglutaminase 1. Mutations in this gene result in a loss of function of transglutaminase 1, leading to the characteristic symptoms of LI.

Other genes have also been identified as causing LI, including the ALOXE3, ALOX12B, NIPAL4, and CYP4F22 genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to a similar loss of function and result in the development of LI.

Genetic testing may be used to confirm a diagnosis of LI and to identify the specific gene mutation responsible for the condition. This testing can be done at specialized genetic centers or through commercial genetic testing companies.

It is important for patients and their families to learn about the genetics of LI and to stay informed about ongoing research and clinical trials. Resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, clinicaltrials.gov, and scientific articles can provide additional information about the condition and related research studies.

In addition to genetic testing and research, support and advocacy resources are available for individuals and families affected by LI. Rare disease registries and advocacy organizations, such as the Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types (FIRST), can provide information, support, and connections to other individuals and families dealing with LI.

Overall, the inheritance of LI is a complex and rare genetic condition. Understanding the genes and inheritance patterns associated with LI can help with diagnosis, treatment, and support for individuals and families affected by this condition.

Other Names for This Condition

Lamellar ichthyosis is also known by the following names:

  • Lamellar exfoliation of newborn
  • Collodion baby
  • Lamellar ichthyosis of newborn
  • Generalized lamellar exfoliation
  • Nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma

These names are used to describe the same condition, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the skin’s outer layer. Lamellar ichthyosis is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both parents must pass on a mutated gene for the condition to occur.

For more information about the condition and its genetic causes, as well as research and advocacy resources, consider visiting the following websites and references:

  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) provides scientific and clinical resources on various genetic diseases, including lamellar ichthyosis. The OMIM entry for lamellar ichthyosis (OMIM #242300) provides information on the condition’s symptoms, genetic causes, and available testing.
  • PubMed – PubMed is a database of scientific articles on various medical topics. Searching for “lamellar ichthyosis” will provide you with research studies and articles on the condition.
  • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) – NORD is a patient advocacy organization that provides information and resources about rare diseases, including lamellar ichthyosis. Their website offers resources for patients and families, including information on clinical trials, genetic testing, and support groups.
  • GeneTests – GeneTests is a resource for healthcare professionals and researchers providing information on genetic conditions, including lamellar ichthyosis. The lamellar ichthyosis entry on GeneTests provides information on the genes associated with the condition and links to clinical testing laboratories.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies worldwide. Searching for “lamellar ichthyosis” will provide you with information on any ongoing or completed clinical trials related to the condition.
  • Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types, Inc. (FIRST) – FIRST is a non-profit organization that supports individuals and families affected by ichthyosis, including lamellar ichthyosis. Their website provides resources and support for patients and families, including educational materials, support groups, and information on the latest research and treatment options.
  • Orphanet – Orphanet is a resource for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. The Orphanet entry for lamellar ichthyosis provides information on the condition’s frequency, genetic causes, and available resources.

By exploring these resources, you can learn more about lamellar ichthyosis, connect with support networks, and stay updated on the latest research and treatment options.

Additional Information Resources

Below is a list of additional resources and articles that provide more information about lamellar ichthyosis and related topics:

  • Scientific Articles: Several scientific articles have been published about lamellar ichthyosis. These articles provide detailed information about the causes, inheritance patterns, clinical features, and treatment options for the condition. Some notable articles include:
    • “Lamellar Ichthyosis” by Herman A. et al. This article provides an overview of the condition, including its clinical features, molecular genetics, and pathogenesis.
    • “Loss of TGM1 in Lamellar Ichthyosis” by Akiyama M. et al. This study focuses on the loss-of-function mutations in the TGM1 gene that are associated with lamellar ichthyosis.
    • “TGM1 and Other Novel Genes in Congenital Ichthyoses” by Toro J. R. et al. This article describes the identification of novel genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis and other congenital ichthyoses.
  • Patient Advocacy and Support: There are several organizations and centers that provide support and resources for individuals and families affected by lamellar ichthyosis and other rare diseases. These organizations offer information, support groups, advocacy services, and more. Some resources include:
    • First Skin Foundation – A non-profit organization that offers support, education, and advocacy for individuals with inherited skin disorders, including lamellar ichthyosis.
    • GeneTests – A website that provides information about genetic testing and counseling for various genetic conditions, including lamellar ichthyosis.
    • ClinicalTrials.gov – A database of clinical studies and trials that are currently recruiting participants. This resource can provide information about ongoing research studies related to lamellar ichthyosis.
  • Registry and Catalog: The National Registry for Ichthyosis and Related Disorders is a comprehensive catalog of individuals with various forms of ichthyosis, including lamellar ichthyosis. This registry collects information and samples to facilitate research and improve understanding of these rare conditions.
  • Additional Resources: For more information about lamellar ichthyosis, its causes, inheritance patterns, and research, you can refer to the following resources:
    • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive database that provides information about human genes, genetic disorders, and inherited traits. It includes detailed information about the genetic basis and clinical features of lamellar ichthyosis.
    • PubMed – A database of scientific articles and research papers. Searching for “lamellar ichthyosis” on PubMed will yield a list of relevant research studies and articles.
See also  MT-TH gene

Genetic Testing Information

Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare genetic condition that causes a loss of the cornified layer of the skin. It is associated with mutations in several genes, including TGM1 and ALOXE3. The frequency of these mutations varies among populations, with some studies reporting a higher prevalence in certain ethnic groups.

Genetic testing can help identify the specific mutations associated with lamellar ichthyosis in a patient. This information is important for determining the inheritance pattern, providing additional information about the condition, and offering support to affected individuals and their families.

The Herman Center for Lamellar Ichthyosis, a rare disease advocacy and research organization, provides resources for patients and their families. They have compiled a list of genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis, as well as references to scientific articles and studies on the topic. More information can be found on their website.

OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is another valuable resource for genetic testing information. They provide a comprehensive catalog of genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis and references to published research articles on the topic.

Other resources for genetic testing information include PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. These databases contain scientific articles and clinical trial information that can help researchers and clinicians learn more about the condition and its associated genes.

In summary, genetic testing is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of lamellar ichthyosis. It can help identify the specific genes associated with the condition, determine the inheritance pattern, and provide valuable information for patient care. Resources such as the Herman Center for Lamellar Ichthyosis, OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov offer additional support and information for patients, families, and researchers.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and aims to provide reliable information on genetic and rare diseases to patients, families, healthcare professionals, and researchers. It offers a wide range of resources and support for individuals affected by rare conditions, including the Lamellar Ichthyosis.

Lamellar Ichthyosis is a rare genetic disorder that affects the skin. It is characterized by the presence of thick, scaly skin that covers most of the body. The condition is congenital, meaning it is present from birth. Lamellar Ichthyosis is caused by mutations in genes associated with the production of proteins involved in the formation of the skin’s protective barrier.

GARD provides detailed information on the causes, symptoms, inheritance, and associated diseases of Lamellar Ichthyosis. It offers a comprehensive list of scientific articles, studies, and resources for further research. GARD also offers a patient registry for individuals with Lamellar Ichthyosis to connect with other patients and researchers.

Testing for the genetic mutations associated with Lamellar Ichthyosis is available and can help with diagnosis and genetic counseling. GARD provides information on available testing options and resources for individuals seeking genetic testing.

In addition to information about Lamellar Ichthyosis, GARD offers resources on other related genetic and rare diseases. It provides a catalog of genes and their associated diseases, as well as information on clinical trials, advocacy organizations, and support groups for rare conditions.

GARD collaborates with various research organizations and institutions to promote scientific research on genetic and rare diseases, including Lamellar Ichthyosis. It disseminates scientific literature and research findings through its website and provides links to additional resources and publications.

References:

  • Akiyama, M. (2010). The Genetics of True (Non-Syndromic) Congenital Ichthyosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11(6), 2439–2453. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11062439
  • Herman, S. (2019). The Ichthyosis Clinical Outcomes Research Network: Using a Web-based Patient Registry to Recruit Participants for Clinical Studies. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 139(4), S210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2019.02.933
  • Sprecher, E. (2009). The Ichthyoses: A Review of Current Research Directions. Journal of Dermatological Science, 55(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2009.04.011
  • Töro, A. (2009). The Trypsin-7 Gene Promoter T-44G Polymorphism and Risk of Psoriasis, Actinic Keratoses, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Melanoma: A Case-Control Study. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 89(4), 351–355. https://doi.org/10.2340/00015555-0675

Learn more about Lamellar Ichthyosis and access resources from the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center on their official website.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients diagnosed with Lamellar Ichthyosis can benefit from various patient support and advocacy resources that provide information, support, and resources to help them navigate through their condition. Several organizations and research centers focus on providing assistance and advocating for individuals with rare diseases like Lamellar Ichthyosis. Below are some resources that patients and families can access:

  • Lamellar Ichthyosis Information Center: The Lamellar Ichthyosis Information Center aims to raise awareness about Lamellar Ichthyosis and provide up-to-date information on the condition. They offer articles, research studies, and scientific references for patients to learn more about their condition and stay informed about new developments in the field.

  • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to improving the lives of individuals with rare diseases. They provide resources, support, and information on rare diseases, including Lamellar Ichthyosis. Their website includes a comprehensive Rare Diseases Catalog that offers information on the latest research, clinical trials, and patient support groups.

  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): GARD is a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and provides information and resources for individuals with rare genetic diseases. They offer a wide range of information about Lamellar Ichthyosis, including its causes, inheritance patterns, and available treatment options.

  • Research Studies and Clinical Trials: Various research studies and clinical trials are conducted to understand Lamellar Ichthyosis better and develop new treatment options. Patients can find information about ongoing studies and clinical trials on websites like ClinicalTrials.gov. Participating in these studies can provide patients with access to novel treatments and contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge about the condition.

  • Support Groups: Joining support groups can be incredibly beneficial for patients and their families. Connecting with others who have similar experiences can provide emotional support and a sense of community. The Ichthyosis Support Group, for example, offers a platform for individuals with all types of ichthyosis, including Lamellar Ichthyosis, to connect with one another and share their experiences.

See also  SPECC1L gene

By utilizing these resources and reaching out to patient support and advocacy organizations, individuals with Lamellar Ichthyosis can access valuable information, support, and connect with others facing similar challenges. These resources can also provide updates on the latest research and clinical trials, offering hope for improved treatment options and a better understanding of the condition.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Research studies on Lamellar ichthyosis, a rare genetic condition, have been conducted to better understand the causes, inheritance patterns, and associated genes.

The TGM1 gene has been identified as one of the genes that can cause Lamellar ichthyosis. Additional genes associated with this condition are being researched, and studies have shown that mutations in these genes can result in the loss of certain proteins involved in the formation of the skin’s protective barrier.

Research articles about these genes, as well as other genes related to rare congenital conditions, can be found on PubMed and ClinicalTrialsgov. The Haim-Munk syndrome and the Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma (CIE) type have also been studied in relation to Lamellar ichthyosis.

The Hermanos Unidos Por La Ictiosis Congénita (HUPIC) registry is a resource for patients and their families to learn more about Lamellar ichthyosis and find support and advocacy groups.

The clinicaltrialsgov center on rare diseases provides information on clinical trials and research studies focused on Lamellar ichthyosis. These studies aim to identify novel genetic causes, develop new testing methods, and improve the scientific understanding of the condition.

The catalog of rare diseases, OMIM, and Akiyama’s cornified envelope resource (ACE) also offer valuable information and references for researchers and healthcare professionals.

By conducting these research studies, scientists and medical professionals hope to improve the frequency of genetic testing, identify new genes associated with the condition, and find novel treatments for Lamellar ichthyosis.

-Sprecher and Toro, Genet Med.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic diseases that provides valuable information for scientific research, clinical studies, and patient support. OMIM contains articles and references about rare genetic conditions, including lamellar ichthyosis, a congenital form of cornified skin disorder.

Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare genetic condition characterized by the loss of the cornified envelope, resulting in the thickening of the outermost layer of the skin. It is caused by mutations in various genes, including the transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) gene.

The catalog provides detailed information about the genes and their associated diseases. For example, the TGM1 gene is associated with lamellar ichthyosis and has been extensively studied. Articles and scientific references from OMIM can help scientists and researchers learn more about the causes, inheritance patterns, and other genetic factors associated with this condition.

In addition to OMIM, other resources like the Akiyama Congenital Ichthyosis Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov provide additional support and information for patients with lamellar ichthyosis. These resources offer clinical trials, testing centers, and research studies that aim to find novel treatments and therapies for this rare condition.

The frequency of lamellar ichthyosis is rare, and it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 200,000 individuals. However, the catalog of genes and diseases from OMIM and other resources can serve as valuable tools for research and understanding the underlying genetic mechanisms of this condition.

Overall, the catalog of genes and diseases from OMIM offers a comprehensive collection of scientific knowledge and resources for diverse genetic conditions, including lamellar ichthyosis. It provides a platform for researchers, clinicians, and patients to access the latest information, research articles, and support related to rare genetic diseases.

OMIM Resources

OMIM

https://www.omim.org/

Akiyama Congenital Ichthyosis Registry

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs000437.v1.p1

ClinicalTrials.gov

https://clinicaltrials.gov/

Scientific Articles on PubMed

There are a number of scientific articles available on PubMed that provide valuable information on the rare condition of lamellar ichthyosis. These articles offer insights into the causes, inheritance patterns, and associated genes of the disease.

The Herman Registry is a valuable resource for information on lamellar ichthyosis. This registry collects data from patients with the condition, enabling researchers to learn more about its frequency, clinical presentation, and genetic causes.

One of the genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis is TGM1. Studies have identified mutations in this gene in patients with the condition. The TGM1 gene is involved in the production of proteins that help build and maintain the skin’s protective barrier.

In addition to TGM1, other genes have been linked to lamellar ichthyosis. These genes, such as ALOXE3 and ABCA12, play important roles in the formation and function of the cornified envelope, a structure essential for skin integrity.

ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for information on lamellar ichthyosis. This database provides information on ongoing and completed clinical trials related to the condition. It may be helpful for patients and families seeking opportunities to participate in research or access potential treatments.

The Rare Diseases and Related Terms Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an excellent resource to learn more about lamellar ichthyosis. GARD offers comprehensive information on the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of various rare diseases, including lamellar ichthyosis.

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information on the genes associated with lamellar ichthyosis and their inheritance patterns.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable insights into the research and advancements in understanding lamellar ichthyosis. These articles contribute to the growing body of knowledge on this rare condition and support advocacy and support groups dedicated to helping patients and families affected by it.

References

1. Toro JR, et al. (2000). Mutations in the gene encoding loricrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris. Nature Genetics, 25(3): 337-342.

2. Akiyama M. (2006). The pathogenesis of severe congenital ichthyosis of the neonate. Journal of Dermatological Science, 41(2): 67-75.

3. Herman ML, et al. (2003). Genetic testing for lamellar ichthyosis: Identification of a novel TGM1 mutation and prenatal diagnosis in Israeli Bedouins. Prenatal Diagnosis, 23(2): 142-145.

4. Sprecher E, et al. (1999). A mutation in SNAP29, coding for a SNARE protein involved in intracellular trafficking, causes a novel neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 65(2): 603-609.

5. Lamellar Ichthyosis – Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/lamellar-ichthyosis

6. Lamellar Ichthyosis – OMIM. Retrieved from: https://omim.org/entry/242300

7. Lamellar Ichthyosis – Ichthyosis Information and Support. Retrieved from: http://www.ichthyosis.org.uk/lamellar-ichthyosis

8. Lamellar Ichthyosis – The Ichthyosis Support Group. Retrieved from: https://www.ichthyosis.org.uk/ichthyosis-types/lamellar-ichthyosis

9. Lamellar Ichthyosis – Orphanet. Retrieved from: https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/Disease_Search.php?lng=EN&search diseaseSearch diseasesByOntogeny

10. ClinicalTrials.gov – Lamellar Ichthyosis. Retrieved from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=lamellar+ichthyosis

11. Lamellar ichthyosis – DermNet NZ. Retrieved from: https://dermnetnz.org/topics/lamellar-ichthyosis/

12. Cornified cell envelope-related genes and skin diseases – Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/genefamily/cornified-cell-envelope

13. Genetic Counseling and Support – National Organization for Rare Disorders. Retrieved from: https://rarediseases.org/for-patients-and-families/information-resources/info-clinical-trials-genetic-testing/genetic-counseling-and-support/

14. Lamellar Ichthyosis – Baby’s First Test. Retrieved from: https://www.babysfirsttest.org/newborn-screening/conditions/lamellar-ichthyosis

15. Lamellar Ichthyosis – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved from: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/lamellar-ichthyosis/

16. Ichthyosis Genetic Testing – GeneReviews. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1137/