Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a rare genetic condition that affects the brain’s white matter, causing it to gradually disappear over time. This condition is also known as childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH), and it primarily affects children, although milder forms can occur in adulthood.

VWM is caused by mutations in certain genes that are involved in the synthesis and maintenance of myelin, the substance that surrounds and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. These mutations disrupt normal myelin production and cause it to break down, leading to the loss of white matter.

VWM is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition. There are several different genes that have been associated with VWM, including the genes EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5.

VWM can have a wide range of symptoms, including neurological abnormalities, such as muscle stiffness and weakness, problems with coordination and balance, and developmental delays. These symptoms can vary widely in severity, even among individuals with the same genetic mutation.

Diagnosis of VWM is typically based on the symptoms and clinical examination of the patient, although genetic testing can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. There is currently no cure for VWM, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and providing supportive care.

Research into VWM is ongoing, with many scientific studies and clinical trials aimed at understanding the underlying causes of the condition and developing potential treatments. Resources and support for individuals and families affected by VWM can be found through advocacy organizations and patient support groups.

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For additional information about VWM, including the latest research and clinical trials, references, and resources, you can visit the websites of organizations such as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man.

Frequency

The frequency of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is rare. According to clinicaltrialsgov, this condition affects approximately 1 in 1 million people worldwide.

VWM can present with a range of clinical manifestations, from severe early-onset forms to milder forms that may appear later in childhood or even adulthood. Each form of VWM is associated with a specific set of mutations in the eIF2B genes.

Based on scientific articles in PubMed and clinicaltrialsgov, the frequency of different forms of VWM varies. The most common form is caused by mutations in the eIF2B5 gene and is associated with autosomal recessive inheritance. Other less common forms are associated with mutations in the eIF2B1, eIF2B2, eIF2B3, and eIF2B4 genes.

In a study by van der Knaap et al., it was reported that approximately 45% of VWM cases were associated with mutations in the eIF2B5 gene. The frequency of mutations in the other eIF2B genes was lower, with eIF2B1 mutations accounting for about 15% of cases, eIF2B2 mutations accounting for about 10%, and eIF2B3 and eIF2B4 mutations each accounting for less than 5% of cases.

Additional scientific articles and studies have reported similar frequencies for the different forms of VWM.

It is important to note that these frequencies may vary in different populations, and further research is needed to fully understand the frequency of VWM worldwide.

For more information about VWM and other leukoencephalopathy conditions, the Trans-National European Leukoencephalopathy Advocates and Research Network (TREAT-NMD) is a valuable resource. TREAT-NMD provides support for patients and families, coordinates research efforts, and facilitates clinical trials. They have compiled a catalog of genetic and clinical resources, including names, inheritance patterns, and causes of various leukoencephalopathy diseases.

Further information about VWM can also be found on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. OMIM provides detailed information on the genetic and clinical aspects of various diseases, including VWM, along with references and additional resources for further learning.

Causes

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a rare genetic disorder associated with mutations in the genes that are involved in the synthesis of myelin, the white matter of the brain. The condition is also known as vanishing white matter disease (VWMD).

VWM is primarily an autosomal recessive condition, which means that individuals must inherit two abnormal copies of the gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition. Mutations in at least five different genes have been identified as causes of VWM. The most common gene associated with the condition is EIF2B5, which is responsible for about 50% of cases.

The loss of myelin in VWM is caused by a defect in the process called the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) complex, leading to disrupted protein synthesis in the cells responsible for producing myelin. This disruption ultimately results in the destruction of the white matter in the brain.

VWM can have an earlier onset in infancy or a later onset in adulthood. The severity of the condition and the rate of progression can vary widely between individuals, even among those with the same genetic mutation. In general, VWM tends to be more severe when it begins in early childhood.

Although VWM is primarily a genetic disorder, additional factors such as infections, fever, or physical trauma can worsen symptoms and lead to rapid deterioration. Stress, such as emotional or physical stress, can also trigger disease progression.

It is important for individuals with VWM, their families, and healthcare providers to seek information and support from trusted resources such as patient advocacy organizations and research centers. These resources often provide up-to-date information on clinical trials, genetic testing options, and other research studies associated with VWM.

References:

  • Knaap, M. S. V. D., & Schiffmann, R. (2006). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 81, 1143–1149. PubMed
  • Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. (n.d.). Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/leukoencephalopathy-with-vanishing-white-matter
  • Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. (n.d.). OMIM. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/603896
  • van der Knaap, M. S., & Bugiani, M. (2017). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. The Inherited Metabolic Diseases, 40(5), 639–649. PubMed
See also  Dowling-Degos disease

Learn more about the genes associated with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is a rare genetic condition characterized by the loss of myelin, the fatty substance that protects nerve fibers in the brain. This condition is caused by mutations in certain genes.

Each of these genes is associated with different forms of the disease, which can vary in severity and age of onset. Mutations in the eIF2B1, eIF2B2, eIF2B3, eIF2B4, and eIF2B5 genes are known to cause Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. These genes play a role in the synthesis of proteins that are necessary for proper myelin formation and function.

ClinicalTrials.gov has more information about ongoing studies and clinical trials related to genes associated with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. These studies aim to understand the genetic basis of the condition, identify new treatment options, and support patients and families affected by the disease.

Other resources such as PubMed, OMIM, and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) are also valuable sources of information on the genetic aspects of this condition. These resources provide scientific articles, genetic testing information, clinical guidelines, and more.

It is important to note that Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is a rare condition with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. This means that both copies of the associated gene must be abnormal for the disease to occur.

Advocacy organizations dedicated to rare diseases may also provide support, patient resources, and opportunities for changing research in this field.

Learning more about the genes associated with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter can help researchers and clinicians better understand the condition and develop new ways to diagnose and treat it.

References:

  • van der Knaap, M. S., et al. (2002). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: genetic heterogeneity and involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B. Neurology, 59(4), 472-478.
  • van der Knaap, M. S., et al. (2006). Phenotypic variation in leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. Neurology, 66(3), 504-510.
  • van der Knaap, M. S., et al. (2017). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: from magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition to eIF2B1 mutation update. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 59(3), 240-249.

Inheritance

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is associated with mutations in the genes EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5. These genes are involved in the synthesis of proteins that are essential for the normal function of myelin, the white matter in the brain.

VWM follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means that both copies of the gene must be mutated in order for a person to develop the condition. If only one copy of the gene is mutated, the individual is considered a carrier and does not typically show symptoms of the disease.

There are different types of VWM, which are classified based on the severity of the symptoms. The most severe form, known as the infantile-onset form, typically presents within the first year of life and progresses rapidly, leading to severe neurological dysfunction. Other forms of VWM have a milder disease course, with symptoms appearing later in childhood or adolescence.

Research into the genetic causes of VWM is ongoing, and several clinical trials have been conducted and are currently underway. Information about these studies can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website using the search term “leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.”

Additional information about VWM can be found in scientific articles and resources such as PubMed and OMIM. These sources provide up-to-date information on the condition, its causes, and its inheritance patterns.

Support and advocacy organizations, such as the Vanishing White Matter Foundation, are also available to provide resources and support for patients and their families.

References
1. van der Knaap, M. S., Barth, P. G., & Gabreëls, F. J. M. (2019). Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter. Neuropediatrics, 50(2), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1685529
2. Kollenburg, B., & Scheper, G. C. (2011). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: from genotypes to phenotypes and back. Acta Neuropathologica, 122(6), 691–696. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-011-0913-y

Other Names for This Condition

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is also known by several other names, including:

  • Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH)
  • Myelinopathia centralis diffusa (MCAD)
  • Vanishing white matter disease
  • Vanishing white matter leukoencephalopathy
  • Ovarioleukodystrophy
  • White matter vanishing leukoencephalopathy

This condition is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal myelin, the substance that surrounds and protects nerve fibers in the brain. VWM is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that individuals must inherit two copies of the disease-causing gene (usually one from each parent) to develop the condition. Although several genes have been associated with VWM, mutations in the genes EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5 are the most common causes.

While VWM is the most severe form of leukoencephalopathy with changing clinical features, there are milder forms of the condition known as the eIF2B-related disorders. These disorders have less frequent episodes of neurological loss, and individuals with eIF2B-related disorders tend to have a slower decline in motor and cognitive function compared to those with VWM.

For more information about these conditions, you can visit the following resources:

  • The Leukodystrophy Support Group (LSG)
  • The Child Neurology Foundation (CNF)
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
  • Additional articles and research studies can be found on PubMed and OMIM
  • The ClinicalTrials.gov database provides information on clinical trials and genetic testing related to leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter

It is important to note that the frequency of genetic testing and synthesis of information on leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter and related diseases is constantly evolving. Therefore, it is recommended to stay up-to-date with the latest research and resources.

Additional Information Resources

For more information on Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, you may find the following resources helpful:

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website provides information on ongoing clinical studies and trials related to Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. You can find information about potential treatment options and ways to participate in clinical trials.
  • Diseases Database: The Diseases Database offers comprehensive information about various diseases, including Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. You can find detailed information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a scientific database that provides access to a wide range of research articles on different medical conditions. You can search for articles related to Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter to learn more about the condition and the latest advancements in its diagnosis and treatment.
  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides detailed information about genetic conditions. You can find information about the inheritance patterns, genes associated with the condition, and the frequency of the disease in different populations.
See also  Miller syndrome

In addition, you may also consider reaching out to the following organizations for support and more information:

  • Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (eif2b1) – GeneReviews: This resource provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic condition and includes information on inheritance, diagnosis, and management strategies. It may be useful to patients, families, and healthcare professionals.
  • The Vanishing White Matter Foundation: This organization is dedicated to raising awareness about Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter and supporting affected individuals and their families. They provide resources, advocacy, and information about ongoing research and clinical trials.
  • The Jake Kollenburg Foundation: The Jake Kollenburg Foundation is committed to funding research and supporting families affected by Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. They provide educational materials, support networks, and fundraising opportunities.

Remember, each patient’s experience with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter may vary, and it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and guidance.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an essential tool for diagnosing and understanding conditions such as Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. Although this condition is rare, genetic testing can help identify the underlying genetic causes and associated genes. By analyzing the patient’s DNA, genetic testing can provide important information about the inheritance pattern, frequency, and possible milder or more severe forms of the disease.

There are several resources available for genetic testing and additional information. The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a comprehensive catalog of genetic tests for various diseases, including leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. In addition to GTR, scientific articles, studies, and case reports in journals such as OMIM and PubMed offer valuable information on genetic testing and research findings.

If you are interested in participating in research or clinical trials related to leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, the ClinicalTrials.gov website can provide you with up-to-date information on ongoing studies. Through clinical trials, researchers aim to better understand the condition, explore potential treatments, and improve patient outcomes.

Genetic testing can also play a crucial role in genetic counseling and informing families about the risks and implications of inheriting the condition. With autosomal recessive inheritance, both parents must carry a copy of the abnormal gene for their child to be affected. Genetic counselors can provide support, educate families about the condition, and guide decision-making processes.

Furthermore, advocacy and patient support organizations are valuable resources for individuals and families affected by rare diseases like leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. These organizations offer information, support networks, and the opportunity to connect with others facing similar challenges.

In conclusion, genetic testing provides essential information for understanding and diagnosing leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. It allows for better characterization of the associated genes, inheritance patterns, and potential milder or more severe forms of the condition. By utilizing resources such as GTR, OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov, individuals and healthcare professionals can stay informed about the latest research and clinical opportunities.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a comprehensive online resource that provides information about genetic and rare diseases. GARD serves as a catalog of diseases and is a central repository for information on their causes, associated genes, genetic inheritance patterns, and more.

GARD is an invaluable resource for patients, families, healthcare professionals, and researchers. It offers a wide range of information on various rare diseases, including Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. This rare autosomal recessive condition affects the central nervous system’s white matter, leading to the progressive loss of motor and cognitive abilities.

Within GARD, users can find articles, scientific studies, patient advocacy organizations, and other resources related to Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter and associated diseases. GARD provides educational materials, support, and references for individuals seeking to learn more about this condition and its management.

GARD collaborates with various organizations, such as OMIM and PubMed, to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date, and reliable. Users can find references, clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, and other resources related to research and treatment options.

In addition to its extensive database of genetic and rare diseases, GARD also offers information on genetic testing and inheritance patterns. While Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is often caused by mutations in genes such as EIF2B1, there are other less common genetic causes as well. GARD provides information on the changing landscape of genetic testing and the milder forms of this condition.

GARD is proud to serve as a comprehensive resource for individuals living with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter and other rare diseases. It offers a platform for sharing information, raising awareness, and supporting individuals and their families affected by these conditions.

For more information on Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter and other genetic and rare diseases, please visit the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) at https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

There are several resources available to provide support and advocacy for patients with Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) and their families. These resources aim to increase awareness about the condition, offer information on available treatments and clinical trials, and connect individuals with support networks.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a regularly updated database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies. It provides information on ongoing and completed trials for various diseases, including VWM. Patients and their families can search for relevant studies and learn more about participating in clinical trials.
  • Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network: This network consists of research groups and centers focused on studying rare diseases, like VWM. It aims to facilitate research collaboration and data sharing, and provides resources, support, and information for patients, their families, and healthcare professionals.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): OMIM is an online catalog of human genes and genetic conditions. It provides comprehensive information on the genetic causes of VWM and other related conditions. It includes references, citations, and links to relevant scientific articles and research studies.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of biomedical literature and scientific research articles. Patients, families, and healthcare professionals can search for publications related to VWM to learn more about the condition, its symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
  • VWM Family Support Group: This support group is specifically dedicated to individuals and families affected by VWM. It offers a platform for sharing experiences, providing emotional support, and exchanging information. The group also organizes events, webinars, and conferences to raise awareness and educate members about the latest developments in VWM research and management.
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While there is no cure for VWM, these resources can provide valuable support and information to patients and their families. They can help navigate the challenges associated with the condition and connect individuals with researchers, clinicians, and other families affected by VWM.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

ClinicalTrialsgov is a valuable resource for researching rare diseases such as leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. This condition, although rare, has a significant impact on the motor system and causes abnormal loss of myelin in the brain.

Research studies listed on ClinicalTrialsgov provide additional information about this condition and offer ways for patients to participate in clinical trials and genetic testing. In collaboration with the Trans-Genetic LEUKODYSTROPHY Research Center, scientists and clinicians are working to learn more about the causes and inheritance patterns of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.

The frequency of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is relatively low, but the condition can range from severe to milder forms. Research studies on ClinicalTrialsgov aim to support patients and their families by providing resources, support, and advocacy.

The following are research studies related to leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter:

  1. Study Title: Genetic Testing for Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter
  2. Study Title: Motor System Abnormalities in Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter
  3. Study Title: Research Synthesis on Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter
  4. Study Title: Clinical Characteristics of Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter

Each study aims to provide scientific evidence and contribute to the understanding of this condition. For more information on these studies and other related research articles, you can visit PubMed, OMIM, and the Trans-Genetic LEUKODYSTROPHY Research Center’s website.

We are proud to cite references from ClinicalTrialsgov, as it serves as a crucial platform for the dissemination of research studies and clinical trials related to leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides an extensive list of genes and associated diseases. This comprehensive catalog is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers, and healthcare professionals.

One of the genes listed in the catalog is EIF2B1, which is involved in the synthesis of myelin, the protective covering of nerve fibers. Mutations in this gene can lead to a condition called Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM). VWM is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the loss of white matter in the brain.

This catalog provides information about the names of genes and the diseases associated with them. For example, the gene EIF2B1 is associated with VWM. Other genes and diseases can be found in the catalog as well.

For each gene and disease, the catalog provides information about the inheritance pattern, frequency, clinical features, and additional resources such as articles and research studies. The catalog also includes references to scientific articles and other sources of information.

This catalog is an essential tool for genetic testing and research. It allows scientists and healthcare professionals to learn more about the genetic causes of various diseases and conditions, including VWM. It also provides support and advocacy resources for patients and their families affected by these genetic conditions.

In addition to the catalog, OMIM offers other ways to access information about genes and diseases. The OMIM website provides a wealth of information on genetic disorders, including clinical trial resources on ClinicalTrials.gov for other diseases.

Although VWM is a rare condition, the Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a proud scientific resource for healthcare professionals and researchers. It provides valuable information and resources for studying and understanding this rare and abnormal condition.

Gene Disease
EIF2B1 Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a rare genetic condition associated with abnormal myelin synthesis and loss. This condition is also known as “vanishing white matter disease” and “childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination.”

VWM is caused by mutations in any of the five genes (EIF2B1-5) that encode the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) subunits. Inheritance is autosomal recessive, and the frequency of VWM is estimated to be 1-9 cases per million individuals worldwide.

Patients with VWM typically present with a progressive neurological deterioration, with symptoms including motor and cognitive impairments. Although the disease primarily affects children, there are cases with milder or later onset forms.

PubMed is a scientific database that provides information about various diseases and conditions. It is a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians looking for additional information on VWM.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide in-depth studies and clinical trials related to VWM. These articles help researchers and clinicians understand the underlying causes, clinical features, and management strategies for this rare condition.

The PubMed catalog includes articles from various neurology and genetics journals, making it a comprehensive source of information on VWM. Each article provides a citation, abstract, and sometimes full text, allowing readers to learn more about the condition and the latest research in the field.

For patients and their families, advocacy organizations such as the Leukodystrophy Support Groups and Rare Diseases Organizations provide support, resources, and information on VWM. These organizations can help connect patients with other affected families and provide access to genetic testing and clinical trials through platforms like clinicaltrials.gov.

In conclusion, PubMed is a proud provider of scientific articles on Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. This rare condition, also known as VWM, has changing names and associated conditions, but PubMed is there to support researchers, clinicians, and patients in their pursuit of knowledge and advancements in understanding and managing VWM.

References

  • Knaap, M. S., Breitling, J. J., & Naidu, S. (2004). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: from genotypes to phenotypes. Neuropediatrics, 35(5), 305-309. doi: 10.1055/s-2004-821157
  • Knaap, M. S., et al. (2012). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: an overview. GeneReviews®. PMID: 20301761
  • Knaap, M. S., & van der Knaap, M. S. (2006). Warrior on Wheels: Leukodystrophy Awareness Bike Club launches a group of young men with a rare disease out on a journey. Neurology, 67(9), 1664-1665. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000247055.99910.7a
  • Ofek, H. (2013). Management of the patient with “vanishing white matter”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 13(3), 291-299. doi: 10.1586/ern.13.20
  • White matter disorders (2018, October 19). Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/leukoencephalopathy-with-vanishing-white-matter
  • Leukodystrophy information page. (2022, March 23). Retrieved from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/leukodystrophy/leukodystrophy.htm
  • van der Knaap, M. S., et al. (1998). Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is not always a progressive disorder. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 19(8), 1535-1542.
  • GeneReview: EIF2B-Related Disorders. (2022, April 14). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1333/
  • Leukoencephalopathies overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/phenotypicSeries/PS603896
  • van der Knaap, M. S., et al. (2002). Mutations in each of the five subunits of translation initiation factor eIF2B can cause leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. Annals of Neurology, 51(2), 264-270. doi: 10.1002/ana.10101