Melanoma is a rare and potentially deadly skin condition that is often associated with genetic factors. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with over 100,000 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. The development of melanoma is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors, making it a complex disease to study and understand.
Research and advocacy organizations, such as the National Melanoma Foundation, play a crucial role in raising awareness about melanoma and supporting patients and their families. With their support, genetic research studies have identified several genes associated with an increased risk of melanoma. These genes, such as PALB2 and CDK4, are involved in regulating cell growth and division, and mutations in these genes can lead to the development of melanomas.
Genetic testing can provide valuable information to individuals and families who may be at risk for melanoma. By identifying specific genetic mutations, healthcare professionals can better assess an individual’s risk and develop appropriate screening and prevention strategies. Additionally, genetic testing can help determine if certain individuals may have hereditary forms of melanoma, such as familial melanoma or genetically related syndromes.
While exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds is a significant risk factor for melanoma, not all cases can be attributed to UV exposure. In fact, some individuals with a family history of melanoma may inherit genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing the disease, regardless of UV exposure. Understanding the genetic causes of melanoma is therefore essential in providing accurate information to those at risk and developing targeted prevention and treatment approaches.
In this article, we will explore the genetic basis of melanoma, the inheritance patterns associated with the condition, and the current research and resources available to support individuals and families affected by melanoma. References and citations to scientific articles, clinical trials, and other relevant resources will be provided to facilitate further learning.
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that is characterized by the development of abnormal melanocyte cells. It is the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. According to clinicaltrialsgov, the frequency of melanoma is increasing worldwide, making it a growing global health concern.
Preventable medical errors kill about 22,000 patients a year, according to research from the Yale School of Medicine. That’s much less than a previously reported number of 250,000 deaths a year where medical error is to blame.
It is important to note that melanoma can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, or race. However, certain factors can increase the risk of developing melanoma. These include exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds, a history of sunburns, a family history of melanoma, and having fair skin, light hair, and light eyes.
Studies have shown that about 10% of melanoma cases can be attributed to genetic factors. In some rare cases, melanoma can be caused by inherited genetic mutations, such as the CDKN2A gene or the CDK4 gene. These genetic mutations can be passed down through families and increase the risk of developing melanoma. In addition, other genetic syndromes, such as Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Lynch syndrome, have also been associated with an increased risk of melanoma.
According to research published in the Journal of Dermatol, about 2-8% of melanoma cases are caused by familial factors. This means that these cases have a family history of melanoma, but no specific genetic mutations have been identified. In these cases, it is believed that there may be multiple genes involved in the development of melanoma.
It is important for patients with melanoma or a family history of melanoma to seek genetic counseling and testing to identify any underlying genetic mutations. This information can help guide treatment decisions and provide important information for family members who may also be at risk.
For additional information about the genetics of melanoma, patients and their families can look to resources such as the American Melanoma Foundation, the Melanoma Research Foundation, and clinicaltrialsgov. These organizations provide valuable support, advocacy, and research information to help patients and their families learn more about melanoma genetics and available treatment options.
- Olsson H, Hayward N. Genome-wide association studies of melanoma prognosis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2016;29(4):442-6.
- Puig S, et al. Genetic predisposition to melanoma. Lancet Oncol. 2022;23(2):e82-e92.
- Palmer JM. Genetics in melanoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2021;30(2):349-64.
- “CDKN2A gene – Genetics Home Reference.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CDKN2A
- “CDK4 gene – Genetics Home Reference.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CDK4
- “OMIM Entry – # 155601 – MELANOMA-PRONE, CDKN2A-RELATED, INCLUDED; MCMPI.” John Hopkins University. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/155601
- “OMIM Entry – # 155755 – MELANOMA/SARCOMA, CARDIAC, INCLUDED; FMCS.” John Hopkins University. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/155755
- “OMIM Entry – # 278700 – BRENNER SYNDROME.” John Hopkins University. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/278700
- “OMIM Entry – # 276300 – XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM, COMPLEMENTATION GROUP C; XPC.” John Hopkins University. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/276300
- “OMIM Entry – # 120435 – LYNCH SYNDROME I; HNPCC1.” John Hopkins University. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/120435
- “Melanoma Genetic Testing.” Melanoma Research Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.melanoma.org/patients-caregivers/genetic-testing-options
Melanoma is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental exposures, and sun-related damage to the skin cells. Here are some key causes of melanoma:
- Genetics: Multiple genes have been associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. In some cases, melanoma can be caused by a mutation in certain genes, such as CDKN2A, CDK4, or BRAF.
- Family History: Having a family member with melanoma increases the risk of developing the condition. This familial inheritance pattern suggests a genetic susceptibility to melanoma.
- Environmental Exposures: Excessive exposure to UV radiation, both from the sun and tanning beds, is a major risk factor for melanoma. Protecting the skin from sun exposure and avoiding tanning beds can help prevent melanoma.
- Personal History: Individuals who have previously had melanoma are at an increased risk of developing additional melanomas in the future.
- Compromised Immune System: People with weakened immune systems, such as those who have received an organ transplant or are undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, have a higher risk of developing melanoma.
While these factors increase the risk of developing melanoma, it is important to note that not all cases can be attributed to these causes. Melanoma can also occur in individuals without any known risk factors.
Research and scientific studies continue to investigate the causes of melanoma and explore new potential risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov provides additional information about ongoing research and clinical studies related to melanoma causes.
Learn more about the genes associated with Melanoma
Genes play a crucial role in the development of various diseases, including melanoma. Scientific studies have identified several genes that are associated with this condition. Understanding the genetic factors behind melanoma can help researchers and medical professionals gain more insights into the causes, development, and potential treatments of this deadly cancer.
Family studies have shown that melanoma can run in families, indicating a hereditary component. Several genes have been identified as potential contributors to familial melanoma. The most well-known gene associated with familial melanoma is CDKN2A. Mutations in this gene cause approximately 40 percent of familial melanoma cases.
Other genes that have been shown to be associated with familial melanoma include CDK4, MITF, and POT1. These genes are involved in the regulation of cell growth and division, DNA repair, and the immune response. Mutations in these genes can increase the risk of developing melanoma.
In addition to familial melanoma, genetic factors also play a role in the development of sporadic (non-familial) melanoma. Various studies have identified genes such as BRAF, NRAS, and PTEN that can be mutated in melanoma cells. Foundational knowledge of these genetic alterations allows for personalized treatment options targeting specific gene mutations.
The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database is a valuable resource for information on genetic disorders, including melanoma-associated genes. OMIM provides a comprehensive catalog of genes, genetic conditions, and associated references, making it an important tool for researchers and medical professionals.
Scientific articles and studies published in reputable journals such as PubMed can provide further insights into the genetic factors contributing to melanoma. They offer detailed information on specific genes, their functions, and their relevance to the development and progression of melanoma.
Genetic testing has become increasingly available to detect melanoma-associated gene mutations. This testing can identify individuals who are at a higher risk of developing melanoma and allows for early detection and intervention. Regular screenings and genetic counseling can help individuals and families take proactive steps to reduce their risk of melanoma.
It is important to note that while certain genes are associated with melanoma, the majority of melanomas occur sporadically without a clear genetic cause. Environmental factors, such as exposure to UV radiation, also play a significant role in the development of melanoma.
In summary, understanding the genetic factors associated with melanoma is crucial for further research, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Genes such as CDKN2A, CDK4, MITF, POT1, BRAF, NRAS, and PTEN have been identified as important contributors. Utilizing resources such as OMIM, PubMed, and genetic testing can provide valuable information for patients, relatives, and medical professionals seeking to learn more about the genes associated with melanoma.
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by a combination of genetic factors and environmental exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In some cases, melanoma can be inherited from family members who carry specific gene mutations.
There are several genes that have been identified to be associated with an increased risk of melanoma. These genes include CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MITF, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP, and TERT. Mutations in these genes can increase the likelihood of developing melanoma, and testing for these mutations can provide important information about a patient’s genetic risk.
The frequency of inherited melanoma is relatively low, accounting for about 5-10 percent of all melanoma cases. However, for individuals with a family history of melanoma, the risk may be higher.
Research has shown that certain genetic syndromes, such as familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum, are associated with an increased risk of melanoma. These conditions are caused by mutations in specific genes that are involved in the development and regulation of cells.
Additional resources for learning about the genetic factors involved in melanoma include the Melanoma Research Foundation, the American Cancer Society, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Genetic Testing Registry.
- Olsson H, Palmer JM. Melanoma and genetic factors. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1102:125-39. PubMed.
- Puig S, Hayward NK. Inherited susceptibility to melanoma. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1999;18(3):277-87. PubMed.
- Hayward NK, et al. Melanoma genetics: recent findings take us beyond well-traveled pathways. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Apr;124(4):x-xii. PubMed.
Other Names for This Condition
There are several other names for the condition known as melanoma. Some of the alternative names include:
- Malignant Melanoma
- Hayward Melanoma
- Central Melanoma
- Familial Melanoma
- Hereditary Melanoma
- Melanoma, Hereditary, Dysplastic Nevi, and RCC Syndrome
These names reflect different aspects of the condition, such as its genetic inheritance, association with dysplastic nevi, or familial patterns. They are used by healthcare professionals, advocacy groups, and scientific researchers to describe the various forms and characteristics of melanoma.
While many melanomas are sporadic cases not linked to specific genetic factors, some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to develop melanoma. This can be caused by mutations in specific genes, such as CDKN2A or CDK4, which are commonly associated with familial melanoma. Other genes, such as MC1R or TERT, have also been found to be associated with an increased risk of melanoma.
Melanoma can be caused by a combination of genetic factors and environmental exposures, such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. Women with a family history of melanoma, especially close relatives like parents or siblings, may have a higher risk of developing the condition. The risk increases if multiple family members are affected or if the melanoma is diagnosed at a young age.
For more information on the genetics of melanoma, including specific genes and inheritance patterns, you can visit the following resources:
- The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database
- The American Cancer Society’s information on familial melanoma
These resources provide in-depth information on the genetic causes and development of melanoma, as well as additional references and research articles for further reading.
In some cases, genetic testing may be recommended to assess an individual’s risk of developing melanoma. This can help identify specific gene mutations associated with the condition and inform personalized screening and prevention strategies. If you’re interested in genetic testing for melanoma, speak with your healthcare provider for more information.
Most cases of melanoma are sporadic and not caused by inherited genetic factors. However, understanding the genetics of melanoma can help researchers and healthcare professionals better understand the condition and develop targeted therapies and preventive strategies.
- Olsson H, Ingvar C, Brandt A, et al. CDKN2A germ-line mutations in individuals with multiplecutaneous melanomas. Cancer Res. 1998;58: 2723-2726. PMID: 9661887
- Puig S, Malvehy J. Genetic causes of familial melanoma and their clinical implications. Current Opinion in Oncology. 2013; 25:144-149. PMID: 23207505
- Puig-Butille JA, Escámez MJ, García-García F et al. Melanoma Genetics. J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136: e109-e114. PMID: 27015454
- Palmer JS, Duffy DL, Box NF et al. Melanocortin-1 receptor polymorphisms and risk of melanoma: is the association explained solely by pigmentation phenotype? Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:176-186. PMID: 10631159
- American Cancer Society. (2021). Melanoma Skin Cancer – Risk Factors and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/melanoma-skin-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d). Genetic Testing Registry. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/
Additional Information Resources
For additional information about melanoma and its genetic causes, patients and their families can find support and resources from various organizations, articles, and studies. Some of these resources include:
- National Cancer Institute (NCI) – The NCI provides information and resources on melanoma and other cancers. Their website offers articles, clinical trials, and research studies on the topic.
- Genetics Home Reference – This online resource provides information about genes, genetic conditions, and the inheritance patterns of various diseases, including melanoma.
- OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It contains information on genes associated with melanoma and other related conditions.
- The American Melanoma Foundation – This organization aims to raise awareness about melanoma and support research on the disease. Their website offers information on prevention, early detection, and treatment options.
- The International Melanoma Genetics Consortium – This consortium conducts research on the genetics of melanoma and shares their findings with the scientific community. Their website provides access to studies and publications on the topic.
- MULTIPLE Resource – This online resource provides information and support for individuals and families affected by multiple birth defects, including the genetic conditions associated with melanoma.
- PubMed – PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research studies. It contains a wealth of information on melanoma genetics, risk factors, and treatment options.
These resources can be valuable for individuals seeking additional scientific information, resources, and support related to melanoma and its genetic causes. It is important for patients and their families to stay informed and educated about the condition in order to make informed decisions about testing, treatment, and prevention.
Genetic Testing Information
Genetic testing is a crucial tool in understanding the causes, development, and inheritance of melanoma. By analyzing an individual’s genes and family history, researchers can identify specific gene mutations that may increase the risk of developing melanoma. This information can be used to provide targeted treatment options, genetic counseling, and preventive measures.
There are several resources available to learn more about genetic testing for melanoma:
- ClinicalTrials.gov: This website provides information on ongoing clinical trials related to melanoma genetic testing.
- OMIM: OMIM is a catalog of human genes and genetic conditions. It provides detailed information on genes associated with melanoma and other diseases.
- PubMed Central: PubMed Central is a database of scientific articles. It contains research papers on genetic testing and its implications in melanoma.
- Melanoma Research Foundation: The Melanoma Research Foundation is an advocacy and support organization that provides information on genetic testing and resources for melanoma patients and their families.
Genetic testing can reveal important information about the inheritance and frequency of melanoma-causing gene mutations. While most cases of melanoma are not caused by inherited gene mutations, certain genes such as CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1 have been associated with familial melanoma.
It is important to note that genetic testing for melanoma is a complex process. The interpretation of test results requires expertise in genetics, and the results may not always be straightforward. Genetic counseling is often recommended to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the test results and their implications.
Additionally, genetic testing may identify mutations in genes that are associated with other conditions, such as the PTEN gene in Cowden syndrome or the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. These findings may have additional implications for the patient and their family members.
Overall, genetic testing provides valuable insights into the genetic factors that contribute to the development of melanoma. It can help identify individuals who may be at an increased risk of developing the disease and guide personalized prevention and treatment strategies.
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a national resource that provides information about genetic and rare diseases. GARD offers a wide array of genetic resources and information to help patients and their families learn more about these conditions.
Many genetic diseases, including melanoma, are caused by mutations in specific genes. Some melanomas are associated with familial inheritance, meaning the condition can be passed down from generation to generation. In some cases, multiple genes may be involved in the development of melanoma.
GARD provides information on the scientific names of genes associated with melanoma, as well as on their inheritance patterns and how they are associated with the condition. Additional information on genetic testing and other resources can be found through the GARD website.
GARD also offers information on rare genetic diseases that may be associated with melanoma. These diseases include Familial Melanoma Syndrome, Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome, and Xeroderma Pigmentosum. GARD provides information on the symptoms, causes, and inheritance patterns of these rare genetic diseases.
For more information on melanoma, GARD provides references to scientific articles and studies that have been published on the topic. These references include articles from PubMed, OMIM, and other scientific databases.
In addition to providing information, GARD also offers support and advocacy for individuals and families affected by genetic diseases. They can connect patients with support groups and organizations that specialize in melanoma and other genetic diseases.
For information on clinical trials and research studies related to melanoma, GARD provides links to resources such as ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources can help individuals find opportunities to participate in clinical trials and contribute to the development of new treatments and therapies for melanoma.
Overall, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a central resource for individuals seeking information on genetic diseases, including melanoma. Through their comprehensive database and resources, GARD provides support, education, and resources for patients, families, and healthcare professionals.
Patient Support and Advocacy Resources
Patients with melanoma can benefit from various support and advocacy resources that provide information and guidance on managing the condition and advocating for their rights. These resources offer a wealth of knowledge about melanoma, its causes, treatment options, and the latest research developments.
One such resource is the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF), which provides support to patients and their families through educational materials, events, and online communities. The MRF website offers a comprehensive collection of articles, fact sheets, and videos on melanoma.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) also offers resources for melanoma patients, including information on clinical trials, treatment options, and supportive care. NCI’s website provides access to various publications and research studies related to melanoma.
In addition to these central resources, there are numerous patient support groups and advocacy organizations that provide specific information and assistance to individuals affected by melanoma. These organizations often have local chapters or online communities where patients can connect with others and share their experiences.
Genetic testing is an important aspect of melanoma management, especially for individuals with a family history of the disease. Testing for certain genetic mutations, such as the CDKN2A and the CDK4 genes, can help identify individuals who have an increased risk of melanoma. The National Institutes of Health’s Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) is a valuable resource for finding laboratories that offer genetic testing for melanoma.
In some cases, melanoma may be caused by inherited gene mutations. Individuals with a family history of melanoma may be referred to a genetic counselor or a medical geneticist who can provide information on testing options, inheritance patterns, and preventive measures.
It is essential for melanoma patients to stay informed about the latest research and treatment advancements. The scientific literature offers a wealth of information, and PubMed is a commonly used database for accessing research articles related to melanoma. Patients can also find clinical trial information on websites like ClinicalTrials.gov, which lists ongoing studies investigating new therapies and treatment approaches.
By accessing these resources, patients and their families can learn more about melanoma, connect with other individuals facing the same challenges, and advocate for improved care and support.
Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov
On ClinicalTrialsgov, you can find a wealth of research studies on the development and treatment of melanoma, the most common form of skin cancer. These studies provide valuable information about the condition and offer potential treatment options for patients.
One study listed on ClinicalTrialsgov, conducted by Olsson et al., explores the genetic factors associated with familial melanoma. The researchers aim to identify specific genes that may increase the risk of developing melanoma within families. By understanding these genetic links, they hope to develop better prevention and treatment strategies.
Another study, led by Puig et al., investigates the role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in triggering melanoma development. They explore the genes involved in the response to UV radiation and how they may contribute to the formation of melanomas. This research provides additional insight into the causes and progression of the disease.
A study conducted by Hayward et al. at the National Center for Melanoma in the United States focuses on the genetic inheritance patterns of melanoma. By studying multiple generations of families affected by melanoma, researchers aim to identify the specific genes responsible for the condition. This research can help patients with a family history of melanoma understand their risk and make informed decisions about their healthcare.
In addition to these clinical trials, ClinicalTrialsgov offers a wealth of scientific articles and resources about melanoma genetics. The website provides information about rare genetic conditions associated with an increased risk of melanoma, such as multiple genodermatoses. It also references the most recent articles published in PubMed about genes and genetic factors related to melanoma.
Patient advocacy groups and organizations focusing on melanoma often rely on the information provided by ClinicalTrialsgov to learn more about the latest research and treatment options. The website offers a central hub for information on clinical trials, genetics, and other resources related to melanoma.
It is important to note that while genetics play a significant role in melanoma, other factors such as exposure to UV radiation and lifestyle choices also contribute to its development. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to prevention and treatment is necessary.
In conclusion, ClinicalTrialsgov provides a valuable resource for learning about ongoing research studies on melanoma. These studies help to shed light on the genetic factors, inheritance patterns, and treatment options for this condition. By staying informed about the latest research, patients and healthcare professionals can work together to improve outcomes for individuals with melanoma.
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive resource that provides information about various genetic diseases, including melanoma. Melanoma is a rare type of cancer that originates from melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin. It is important to understand the genetic causes and associated genes for a better understanding and management of this condition.
Genetic Causes and Associated Genes
Genetic studies have identified several genes that are associated with the development of melanoma. Mutations in these genes can increase the risk of developing this condition. Some of the most commonly associated genes include:
These genes play a critical role in regulating cell growth and division, and mutations in them can lead to the uncontrolled growth of melanocytes, resulting in the development of melanoma.
Melanoma can be both sporadic and inherited. In sporadic cases, the disease occurs in individuals with no family history of melanoma. Inherited melanoma, on the other hand, is passed down from one generation to another through genetic mutations in specific genes. Some cases of familial melanoma are associated with CDKN2A mutations, while others are linked to CDK4 or BAP1 mutations.
Clinical Trials and Studies
Several clinical trials and studies have been conducted to explore the genetic basis of melanoma and identify potential treatment options. These studies aim to improve the understanding of the disease and develop targeted therapies for individuals with specific genetic mutations. Resources like PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable information about ongoing research and clinical trials in this field.
Support and Advocacy
Various organizations, such as the American Melanoma Foundation and the Melanoma Research Foundation, provide support and advocacy for individuals and families affected by melanoma. These organizations offer resources, educational materials, and community support for patients and their families.
The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is an important resource for understanding the genetic basis of melanoma and other diseases. It provides valuable information about associated genes, inheritance patterns, and ongoing research studies. By learning more about the genetic factors contributing to melanoma, scientists and healthcare professionals can develop more effective prevention strategies and targeted therapies for patients.
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that is known for its aggressive nature and high mortality rate. It is important to stay informed about the latest research and scientific articles on melanoma to support prevention, early detection, and treatment efforts.
PubMed is a popular online database that provides access to a wide range of scientific articles related to melanoma. It includes studies on the frequency of melanoma in different populations, the role of genetics in its development, and clinical trials investigating new treatment options.
One study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology found that familial melanoma, which is melanoma that runs in families, accounts for approximately 5-10 percent of all melanoma cases. The study identified several genes associated with familial melanoma, providing valuable information for genetic testing and counseling.
Another study published in ClinicalTrials.gov examined the effectiveness of a specific treatment approach for melanoma. ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive catalog of ongoing clinical trials, allowing researchers and patients to access information about new and promising treatment options.
Research has also focused on the genetic causes of melanoma. Studies have found that mutations in certain genes, such as CDKN2A and MC1R, can increase the risk of developing melanoma. Additionally, some rare genetic conditions, like familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, are strongly associated with an increased risk of melanoma.
For women with a family history of melanoma, it is important to learn about their genetic risk factors. Genetic testing can provide valuable information about their individual risk and help guide prevention and screening efforts.
The American Melanoma Foundation and other advocacy and research organizations provide additional resources for learning about melanoma genetics. These resources include scientific articles, genetic testing information, and support for individuals and families affected by the condition.
In conclusion, scientific articles on PubMed provide a wealth of information about melanoma, including its causes, genetic factors, and treatment options. Staying informed about the latest research can support efforts in prevention, early detection, and treatment of this potentially deadly disease.
- Hayward NK. Genetics of melanoma predisposition. Oncogene. 2003 Jan 27;22(20):3053-62. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1206460. PMID: 12789280.
- Olsson H, Ingvar C, Borg A. Hereditary cutaneous melanoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 1999 Dec;9(6):405-12. doi: 10.1006/scbi.1999.0140. PMID: 10632771.
- Palmer JS, Duffy DL, Box NF, Aitken JF, O’Gorman LE, Green AC, Hayward NK, Martin NG, Sturm RA. Melanocortin-1 receptor polymorphisms and risk of melanoma: is the association explained solely by pigmentation phenotype? Am J Hum Genet. 2000 May;66(5):176-86. doi: 10.1086/302763. PMID: 10762550; PMCID: PMC1288161.
- Puig S, Malvehy J, Badenas C, Ruiz A, Jimenez D, Cuellar F, Azon A, González U, Campoy A, Herrero J, Martínez-Fernández A, Traves V, Guilabert A, Puig-Butille JA, Nagore E, Carapeto FJ, González-Sarmiento R, Castel T, Benitez J. Role of the CDKN2A locus in patients with multiple primary melanomas. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7143-51. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.09.062. PMID: 16234525.
- Catalog of Genes and Diseases. OMIM. Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/.
- Center for Information about Melanoma. American Academy of Dermatology. Retrieved from https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/skin-cancer/melanoma.
- Melanoma Genetics. Melanoma Research Foundation. Retrieved from https://melanoma.org/understand-melanoma/what-is-melanoma/genetics/.
- Genetics of Skin Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/skin/hp/skin-genetics-pdq.
- Genetics and Melanoma. Melanoma Research Foundation. Retrieved from https://melanoma.org/understand-melanoma/what-is-melanoma/genetics/.
- Melanoma Genetics. Skin Cancer Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/melanoma/melanoma-genetics/.
- ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
- PubMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.