Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the myelin sheath, a protective covering of nerve fibers in the nervous system. It is an autosomal recessive condition, meaning that it occurs when an individual inherits two faulty copies of the respective gene, one from each parent.

MLD is caused by mutations in the ARSA gene, which provides instructions for making an enzyme called arylsulfatase A. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain fats called sulfatides in the body. In individuals with MLD, the lack of arylsulfatase A leads to the accumulation of sulfatides, causing damage to the myelin sheath and impairing the normal function of the nervous system.

Symptoms of MLD typically develop in childhood, although the age of onset can vary. There are three main forms of MLD: late-infantile, juvenile, and adult-onset. The late-infantile form is the most common and severe, typically leading to death within a few years. The juvenile and adult-onset forms progress more slowly, and individuals with these forms of MLD may survive into their teenage or adult years.

Testing for MLD can be done through genetic testing to identify mutations in the ARSA gene or through measurement of arylsulfatase A activity in the blood or other tissues. Genetic testing can also be used to identify carriers of the ARSA gene mutation, which can be helpful for family planning and counseling.

Currently, there is no cure for MLD. Treatment mainly focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care. Research and clinical trials are ongoing to develop new therapies for MLD, including stem cell and gene therapy approaches. The prognosis for individuals with MLD varies depending on the age of onset and severity of symptoms.

For more information on Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, you can visit resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed, which offer scientific literature, case studies, and additional references on genetic diseases. Support and advocacy organizations such as the National Leukodystrophy Center and the MLD Foundation also provide valuable resources and support for individuals and families affected by MLD.

Part of the reason for these long wait times and short appointments is due to a nationwide shortage of physicians that is only getting worse. A report by the Association of American Medical Colleges predicts that, due to population growth and specifically growth of the elderly population, the physician shortfall in the U.S. could reach 121,300 by the year 2030.

Frequency

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the progressive loss of myelin in the brain and other areas of the nervous system. It is caused by mutations in one of several genes, including the Arylsulfatase A (ARSA) gene. MLD can be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both copies of the gene must be mutated for the disease to develop.

The frequency of MLD varies depending on the population studied. In the general population, the estimated frequency is approximately 1 in 40,000 to 160,000 individuals. However, certain populations may have a higher frequency due to specific founder mutations.

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog includes information on MLD and the genes associated with it. OMIM provides a comprehensive list of references from scientific literature, including studies on the frequency of MLD. Additional information on testing and clinical trials for this condition can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov.

MLD is a rare disease, and it typically presents in infancy or early childhood. However, there are also forms of MLD that develop later in life. The symptoms and progression of the disease vary among patients, but most individuals with MLD will experience progressive loss of motor and cognitive function. MLD can be fatal, and patients may not survive beyond their teenage years or early adulthood.

If you would like to learn more about MLD and other leukodystrophies, there are resources available such as research centers, advocacy organizations, and support groups. These resources can provide more information on causes, symptoms, and available treatments for MLD.

Causes

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the arylsulfatase A (ARSA) gene. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called arylsulfatase A, which is responsible for breaking down certain fats called sulfatides. When the ARSA gene is mutated, the enzyme is unable to function properly, leading to a build-up of sulfatides in the body.

MLD is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that an individual must inherit two mutated copies of the ARSA gene – one from each parent – in order to develop the condition. Individuals who inherit only one mutated copy of the gene are carriers of the condition, but do not typically experience any symptoms.

There are different forms of MLD, including late infantile, juvenile, and adult-onset. Each form is associated with different levels of arylsulfatase A activity and age of onset. The late infantile form is the most common and usually begins between the ages of 1 and 2 years. It is characterized by the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive skills.

Additional information about the causes of MLD can be found in scientific literature, research articles, and resources from organizations such as the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), clinicaltrial.gov, and advocacy organizations for leukodystrophy.

Genetic testing is available to confirm a diagnosis of MLD. This testing can identify mutations in the ARSA gene and determine the ability of the arylsulfatase A enzyme to break down sulfatides. In some cases, additional testing may be necessary to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms and to provide appropriate clinical management and support.

Research is ongoing to develop treatment options for MLD, including enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy, and other innovative approaches. Clinical trials are also underway to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of potential treatments. It is important for individuals and families affected by MLD to stay informed about the latest advancements in research and clinical trials.

For more information about the causes of MLD and available resources, individuals can consult medical professionals, genetic counselors, support organizations, and reliable online sources such as PubMed.

Learn more about the genes associated with Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the ability of the body to produce a specific enzyme called arylsulfatase A (ARSA). This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain fats in the body, known as sulfatides, which are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin, a substance that insulates and protects nerve cells. Without the proper breakdown of sulfatides, they can accumulate in the tissues and cause damage to the nervous system, leading to the symptoms and progression of MLD.

See also  BMPR2 gene

The genetic cause of MLD is typically an autosomal recessive mutation on the ARSA gene. This means that both parents must carry a copy of the mutated gene for their child to develop MLD. There are several different mutations that can occur in the ARSA gene, and the specific mutation present can affect the severity and age of onset of the condition.

To learn more about the genes associated with MLD and the current research and testing options available, here are some resources to explore:

  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): This online catalog provides detailed information about the ARSA gene and its associated genetic variations. It also includes references to scientific articles and clinical studies related to MLD.
  • PubMed: A comprehensive database of scientific articles, PubMed can be searched for specific publications related to MLD research, genetics, and case studies.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website lists ongoing and completed clinical trials related to MLD. These studies may involve testing potential treatments, evaluating the natural history of the disease, or exploring the underlying genetics.
  • MLD Support and Advocacy Organizations: These organizations provide information, support, and resources for individuals and families affected by MLD. They may have additional information about the genetic causes of the condition and ongoing research efforts.

Learning more about the genes associated with MLD can help individuals and families better understand the condition, its causes, and the potential for genetic testing and research. It can also provide additional support and resources for those affected by MLD or other rare genetic diseases involving cellular myelin.

Inheritance

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that both copies of the responsible gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Research studies have identified mutations in the ARSA gene that cause MLD. This gene provides instructions for making the enzyme arylsulfatase A, which is found in lysosomes, cellular structures that break down different types of fats and cellular waste products. Mutations in the ARSA gene decrease or eliminate the activity of arylsulfatase A. As a result, certain fats called sulfatides accumulate in cells, especially cells of the nervous system. The buildup of sulfatides causes the destruction of myelin, the substance that surrounds and protects nerve cells, leading to the signs and symptoms of MLD.

MLD with arylsulfatase A deficiency is caused by mutations in the ARSA gene.

The OMIM database provides more information about these genes:

Genetic testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of MLD or to identify carriers. Carrier testing for at-risk relatives and prenatal testing are possible if the disease-causing mutations in the family are known.

Testing is available for MLD through a variety of commercial laboratories and through clinical testing centers. The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides more information about the genetic tests for this condition. You can also find health care providers who specialize in genetics through resources such as the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

Additional information about MLD can be found through the following resources:

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants conducted around the world.
  • Advocacy organizations can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of scientific articles that address the condition. Have a question? Contact the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).

Learn more about this condition from these resources:

The Gallbladder, Other Diseases, and Metachromatic Leukodystrophy page on rarediseases.org provides more references and scientific literature on this condition.

Other Names for This Condition

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is known by several other names, including:

  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency
  • Metachromatic leukoencephalopathy
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile form
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile form
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult form
  • Metachromatic leukoencephalopathy, juvenile form
  • Metachromatic leukoencephalopathy, adult form
  • Sulfatide lipidosis

These alternative names reflect the different forms and presentations of the condition depending on the age of onset.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources that can provide more information and support for individuals and families affected by metachromatic leukodystrophy:

  • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD is a patient advocacy organization that provides information and resources on rare diseases. Their website includes articles, publications, and a rare disease database. Visit their website at https://rarediseases.org/.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): OMIM is a comprehensive database that catalogs genetic disorders and genes. It provides information on the genetic basis of diseases, including metachromatic leukodystrophy. You can access the OMIM database at https://www.omim.org/.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a scientific literature database that contains articles and research papers on various medical topics. It can be a valuable resource for finding scientific studies and publications related to metachromatic leukodystrophy. Access PubMed at https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials that are being conducted worldwide. It can provide information on ongoing or upcoming clinical trials related to metachromatic leukodystrophy. Visit the website at https://clinicaltrialsgov/.
  • Leukodystrophy Resource and Information Center (LRIC): LRIC is a center that specializes in leukodystrophy research and support. They offer information, resources, and support services for individuals and families affected by leukodystrophies, including metachromatic leukodystrophy. Learn more about LRIC at http://www.lric.org/.

These resources can provide valuable information about metachromatic leukodystrophy, its causes, symptoms, and available treatments. They can also provide support and connect individuals with other affected families and advocacy groups.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a rare and progressive neurometabolic disorder. This testing involves analyzing a person’s DNA to identify mutations or changes in the genes associated with the condition.

MLD is typically caused by mutations in the ARSA gene, which provides instructions for producing arylsulfatase A. This enzyme is necessary for the breakdown of certain fats called sulfatides in the myelin sheath, the protective covering of nerve cells in the central nervous system. Without sufficient arylsulfatase A activity, sulfatides accumulate and cause damage to the nervous system.

There are different types of MLD, including late-infantile, juvenile, and adult-onset forms. The symptoms and age of onset vary depending on the specific genetic mutations involved. Genetic testing can help determine the specific gene changes responsible for an individual’s condition and provide valuable information for prognosis, treatment options, and genetic counseling.

Genetic testing for MLD can be done through various methods, including targeted mutation analysis and gene sequencing. These tests can be performed on a blood or tissue sample. Testing may involve analyzing specific sections of the ARSA gene or sequencing the entire gene to identify any mutations that may contribute to the disease.

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There are numerous resources available for individuals and families seeking genetic testing for MLD. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) provides information on genetic testing centers and resources for neurometabolic disorders, including MLD. Additionally, organizations such as the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the United Leukodystrophy Foundation (ULF) offer support, scientific literature, and advocacy resources for individuals and families affected by rare genetic diseases.

It is important to note that MLD is a rare condition, and genetic testing may not always be readily available or covered by insurance. However, research studies and clinical trials focused on developing new treatments and understanding the genetics of MLD are ongoing. Resources such as PubMed and OMIM can provide additional scientific literature, references, and clinical trial information related to MLD and its associated genes.

Genetic testing plays a critical role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of metachromatic leukodystrophy. It can provide important information about an individual’s specific genetic mutations, inheritance patterns, and potential treatment options. Individuals and families affected by MLD are encouraged to consult with their healthcare providers and genetic counselors to learn more about genetic testing and its implications for their condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an information resource provided by NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS). GARD is dedicated to helping people find reliable information about rare or genetic diseases.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is one of the many rare diseases covered by GARD. MLD is an inherited condition that affects the nervous system, specifically the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by mutations in the ARSA gene, which provides instructions for making an enzyme called arylsulfatase A. These mutations reduce or eliminate the activity of arylsulfatase A, leading to the accumulation of a fatty substance called sulfatide in cells.

MLD is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that both copies of the ARSA gene in each cell must have mutations for the condition to develop. Individuals with only one mutated copy of the gene are called carriers and typically do not have any signs or symptoms of the condition.

The signs and symptoms of MLD can vary widely from case to case and can range from mild to severe. Common symptoms include progressive loss of motor skills, muscle weakness, muscle stiffness, seizures, vision loss, and intellectual disability. The age of onset and progression of symptoms can also vary, with some individuals developing symptoms in early childhood and others not showing signs until later in life.

Currently, there is no cure for MLD. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care. This may include physical therapy, speech therapy, and medications to control seizures or manage other symptoms. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may be recommended to replace defective cells with healthy ones.

For more information on MLD and other rare diseases, the GARD website provides a variety of resources, including articles, advocacy and support groups, and information on clinical trials. GARD also provides links to other reliable sources of information, such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov.

References:

  1. “Metachromatic leukodystrophy.” National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). Retrieved from: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/metachromatic-leukodystrophy/
  2. “Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.” Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/metachromatic-leukodystrophy
  3. “Metachromatic leukodystrophy.” Orphanet. Retrieved from: https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=EN&Expert=649

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with metachromatic leukodystrophy, there are several patient support and advocacy resources available. These organizations provide valuable information, support, and resources to individuals and families affected by this rare genetic disorder.

  1. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): NORD provides comprehensive information on metachromatic leukodystrophy, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. They also offer resources on financial assistance, clinical trials, and genetic testing. Visit their website to learn more about their programs and services.
  2. Leukodystrophy Resource and Research Organization (LRRO): LRRO is dedicated to supporting families affected by leukodystrophies, including metachromatic leukodystrophy. They offer educational resources, peer support, and a network of medical professionals specializing in the treatment of leukodystrophies. LRRO provides information on research studies, treatment options, and advancements in the field.
  3. The United Leukodystrophy Foundation (ULF): ULF is a non-profit organization that aims to improve the lives of individuals and families affected by leukodystrophies. They provide support, education, and advocacy for individuals and families affected by metachromatic leukodystrophy. ULF offers resources on genetic testing, clinical trials, and medical specialists experienced in treating leukodystrophies.
  4. Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Foundation (MLD Foundation): The MLD Foundation is dedicated to empowering families and individuals affected by metachromatic leukodystrophy. They offer resources on diagnosis, treatment options, and family support. The foundation also raises funds for research and works towards improving the understanding and awareness of this condition.

In addition to these organizations, there are several online resources where you can find more information and support:

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website provides information on ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to metachromatic leukodystrophy. You can search for trials and studies that are currently recruiting participants or have recently completed.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. You can find a wealth of information on metachromatic leukodystrophy by searching for relevant keywords. The articles in PubMed are written by experts in the field and provide in-depth information on various aspects of the disease.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of genetic diseases and associated genes. The database provides detailed information on the inheritance patterns, clinical features, and genetic causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy. You can access the OMIM entry for metachromatic leukodystrophy to learn more about the condition and its underlying genetic causes.

These resources play a crucial role in supporting individuals and families affected by metachromatic leukodystrophy. They offer a wealth of information, advocacy, and support to ensure better understanding and management of this rare genetic disorder.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare genetic condition that affects the myelin, a fatty substance that insulates the nerve fibers in the central nervous system. In individuals with MLD, the myelin breaks down, leading to neurological problems. MLD is caused by mutations in the ARSA gene, which encodes an enzyme called arylsulfatase A.

Research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov are a valuable resource for learning more about MLD and its associated genes. ClinicalTrials.gov is a database of clinical studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other research centers. These studies aim to better understand MLD, develop new treatments, and improve patient outcomes.

Studies listed on ClinicalTrials.gov related to MLD may involve testing potential therapies, exploring the natural history of the condition, studying its inheritance patterns, or investigating the function of specific genes involved in MLD.

One example study listed on ClinicalTrials.gov is titled “Genetic Testing for Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD).” This study aims to determine the frequency of ARSA gene mutations in individuals with MLD and to explore the inheritance patterns of the condition. By understanding the genetic causes of MLD, researchers hope to develop better diagnostic tools and potentially new treatments.

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Another study titled “Support, Advocacy, and Resources for Metachromatic Leukodystrophy” aims to provide support and resources for individuals and families affected by MLD. This study may include information on managing symptoms, accessing medical care, and connecting with other individuals impacted by the condition.

In addition to ClinicalTrials.gov, there are other sources of information on MLD and its associated genes. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of genes and genetic disorders and provides detailed information on the genetics of MLD.

Further research studies and literature can be found on PubMed, a database of scientific articles. Searching for “metachromatic leukodystrophy” on PubMed will provide access to additional articles and studies on this rare condition.

In conclusion, research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov, along with other resources like OMIM and PubMed, provide valuable information on metachromatic leukodystrophy, its genetic causes, and potential treatments. These studies support the development of better diagnostic tools, improved patient care, and the advancement of scientific knowledge in this field.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides comprehensive information on various genetic diseases, including Metachromatic Leukodystrophy. This catalog serves as a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and individuals looking to learn more about rare genetic conditions.

Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare inherited neurolipid storage disorder. It is caused by a deficiency in the arylsulfatase A enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down certain fats in the body. This deficiency leads to the build-up of harmful substances in the body’s cells, particularly in the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects nerve cells in the central nervous system.

MLD is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the faulty gene, one from each parent, in order to develop the condition. Symptoms of MLD can vary depending on the age of onset, with infantile-onset MLD being the most severe form.

Common symptoms of MLD include progressive loss of motor and cognitive abilities, muscle weakness, vision loss, seizures, and impaired swallowing. The condition usually progresses rapidly, and individuals with MLD typically do not survive beyond their teenage years.

There is currently no cure for MLD, but supportive care and symptomatic treatment can help improve quality of life. Research is ongoing to develop potential therapies and interventions for this condition.

OMIM provides additional information on the genes associated with MLD and other related diseases. A list of genes related to MLD can be found on OMIM’s website, along with detailed information on their function and inheritance patterns.

In addition to OMIM, other resources such as PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov can provide valuable research and clinical trial information for MLD. These resources can help individuals and families stay updated on the latest scientific advancements and potential treatment options.

In conclusion, the Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a valuable tool for learning about Metachromatic Leukodystrophy and other genetic diseases. It provides information on the genes associated with these conditions, their inheritance patterns, and additional resources for further research and support.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare genetic disease that typically causes progressive deterioration of the nervous system. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that both copies of the gene must be mutated for the condition to develop.

MLD is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A (ARSA), which is responsible for breaking down certain fats called sulfatides. Without this enzyme, sulfatides build up in the body and cause damage to the myelin, the protective covering of nerve fibers.

There are different forms of MLD, including the infantile, juvenile, and adult forms. The infantile form is the most common and usually presents within the first two years of life. It is characterized by rapid progression of symptoms and a poor prognosis, with most affected individuals surviving only a few years.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide a wealth of information about MLD and related diseases. These articles cover a wide range of topics, including the genetics of MLD, the frequency of the disease, and studies on potential treatments.

In one study, researchers looked at the frequency of MLD in a population and found that it occurs in about 1 in 40,000 individuals. Another study examined the inheritance pattern of MLD and found that it follows an autosomal recessive pattern.

Additional studies have focused on the support and resources available for individuals and families affected by MLD. These studies have highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and intervention, as well as the need for specialized medical care and support services.

In recent years, there has been more research on potential treatments for MLD. Clinical trials have been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, including studies evaluating the use of enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy. These treatments aim to replace the missing enzyme or correct the underlying genetic defect.

PubMed is a valuable resource for learning more about MLD and related diseases. The database contains a vast literature on the cellular and molecular basis of MLD, as well as clinical studies and case reports.

Individuals and families affected by MLD can also find support and advocacy organizations that provide information and resources. These organizations often have websites where they provide information about the disease, research updates, and resources for affected individuals and their families.

References:

  1. Biffi, A. (2016). Gene therapy for metachromatic leukodystrophy. Current opinion in molecular therapeutics, 18(1), 1–8.
  2. Escolar, M. L., & Poe, M. D. (2012). Prognostic factors in leukodystrophies: Lessons from 545 cases. Pediatric neurology, 47(2), 93–100.
  3. Gieselmann, V. (2020). Metachromatic Leukodystrophy – Recent Research Advances. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(4), 1354.
  4. van Rappard, D. F., Boelens, J. J., & Wolf, N. I. (2015). Metachromatic leukodystrophy: Disease spectrum and approaches for treatment. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 29(2), 261–273.

References

  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy. (2021). In Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6298/metachromatic-leukodystrophy
  • OMIM Entry – #250100 – Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, ARSACS, and Other Disorders of Sphingolipid Metabolism. (2021). Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/250100
  • Ferriero, D. M. (2009). Metachromatic Leukodystrophy. In Neonatal and Infant Neurology (Vol. 26, pp. 563-564). Springer.
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy. (2021). In PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=metachromatic+leukodystrophy
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy. (2021). In ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Metachromatic+Leukodystrophy
  • Biffi, A., et al. (2011). Gene therapy for metachromatic leukodystrophy: initial results. In Molecular Therapy, 19(3), 427-434.
  • Gieselmann, V. (2014). Metachromatic leukodystrophy: recent research developments. In Journal of Child Neurology, 29(8), 1169-1177.
  • van Rappard, D. F., et al. (2016). Diagnostic tests for metabolic and developmental disorders. In Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 58(10), 1023-1029.
  • Brousseau, M., et al. (2019). A novel GALC variant associated with adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy presenting with prominent psychiatric symptoms. In Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 68, 160-164.
  • Sadowski, K., et al. (2020). Metachromatic leukodystrophy: current treatment and emerging therapies. In Current Pharmaceutical Design, 26(12), 1360-1371.