The NOD2 gene, also known as CARD15, is a gene that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is one of the genes associated with a group of disorders called

Blau syndrome

. These disorders are characterized by severe inflammatory reactions and can affect various parts of the body, including the eyes, skin, and joints.

The NOD2 gene has been extensively studied and its role in inflammatory diseases has been well documented. Numerous articles have been written about this gene, and it has been listed in various scientific databases and resources. It has also been related to other genetic conditions and diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and graft-versus-host disease.

Studies suggest that changes in the NOD2 gene can influence the immune system and increase the risk of developing various inflammatory disorders. Testing for variants in this gene can help in the diagnosis of these conditions and provide additional information for the treatment and management of patients.

Information about the NOD2 gene and its role in diseases can be found in various resources, including the OMIM database, PubMed, and the Blau Syndrome Registry. These databases provide a wealth of information on the gene, its variants, and their association with specific diseases. They also offer testing resources and references for further scientific studies.

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In summary, the NOD2 gene is a central player in the immune system and is associated with various inflammatory diseases. Understanding its role and the genetic changes associated with it can help in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions. Further research and studies are needed to unravel the full complexity of this gene and its influence on disorders of the immune system.

Introduction

Genetic changes can be associated with various health conditions. There are several genes that have been identified to be related to specific diseases and disorders. These genetic changes can be inherited or acquired, and they can have a significant impact on an individual’s health.

Genes and Health Conditions

The NOD2 gene is one example of a gene that is associated with certain health conditions. Mutations in the NOD2 gene have been linked to a variety of diseases, including Crohn’s disease, graft-versus-host disease, and Blau syndrome. These conditions are characterized by inflammation and immune system abnormalities.

Other genes that are related to specific health conditions include the THRA, BRCA1, and BRCA2 genes. THRA gene mutations can lead to thyroid hormone resistance syndrome, while BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations are associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers.

References and Resources

There are various resources available for individuals who want to learn more about genetic changes and their associated health conditions. Scientific articles and studies, such as those found in PubMed, provide valuable information on specific genes and diseases. The OMIM database and the Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders are other comprehensive resources that provide detailed information on genetic changes and their related health conditions.

The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) are additional resources that offer information and support for individuals affected by genetic disorders. These organizations have online databases and registries that help individuals connect with others who share similar conditions.

Testing and Diagnosis

In order to identify genetic changes and associated health conditions, various testing methods are available. These tests include genetic sequencing, chromosomal microarray analysis, and other specialized tests. Genetic testing can be particularly beneficial for individuals with a family history of certain conditions or those who present with specific symptoms.

Additionally, genetic counseling plays a crucial role in the testing process. Genetic counselors provide guidance and support to individuals considering or undergoing genetic testing. They help individuals understand the potential risks and benefits of testing and the implications of the results.

Conclusion

Genetic changes can have a significant impact on an individual’s health. Understanding the relationship between specific genes and associated health conditions is essential for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. By increasing our knowledge and awareness of genetic changes and their effects, we can better manage and address these conditions, leading to improved health outcomes.

Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract, including the small intestine and areas of the colon.

The NOD2 gene has been found to have a significant influence on the development of Crohn’s disease. The NOD2 gene is responsible for producing a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system’s response to bacteria and other foreign substances. Mutations in the NOD2 gene can lead to an impaired immune response, allowing bacteria to grow and causing inflammation in the intestines.

Studies have shown that mutations in the NOD2 gene are found in a significant number of individuals with Crohn’s disease, particularly those with early-onset disease. Testing for these mutations can help diagnose Crohn’s disease and may provide additional information about the severity and prognosis of the disease.

In addition to the NOD2 gene, other genes have also been associated with Crohn’s disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic variants associated with the disease, including genes involved in the immune system, cellular pathways, and inflammatory responses.

While the exact cause of Crohn’s disease remains unknown, scientists believe that a combination of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors contribute to its development. The specific role of the NOD2 gene in Crohn’s disease is still being studied, but it is believed to play a central role in the regulation of the immune response in the gut.

Researchers have also described a condition known as Blau syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene. Blau syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by inflammatory changes in various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, and eyes.

The NOD2 gene is listed in various genetic databases and resources, including OMIM and PubMed. These databases provide scientific articles and references related to the NOD2 gene, Crohn’s disease, and other related diseases and disorders.

Studies have shown that individuals with mutations in the NOD2 gene are at an increased risk of developing other inflammatory diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease in patients who have undergone a bone marrow transplant. The NOD2 gene is also associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancers.

Although genetic testing for the NOD2 gene can provide valuable information about an individual’s susceptibility to Crohn’s disease, it is important to note that not all individuals with mutations in the NOD2 gene will develop the disease. Environmental factors and other genetic variations may also play a role in determining an individual’s risk for developing Crohn’s disease.

In conclusion, the NOD2 gene plays a critical role in the development of Crohn’s disease and other related inflammatory conditions. Genetic testing for mutations in the NOD2 gene can help diagnose Crohn’s disease and provide additional information about the severity and prognosis of the disease. However, further research is needed to fully understand the complex interactions between genes, environmental factors, and the immune system in the development of Crohn’s disease.

Blau syndrome

Blau syndrome, also known as juvenile systemic granulomatosis, is a rare genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene. NOD2 gene is a part of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling system, which plays a critical role in regulating the immune response. Mutation in this gene leads to the development of severe inflammatory conditions and characteristic symptoms of Blau syndrome.

See also  Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Blau syndrome was first described in 1985 by Edward J. Blau, hence the name. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas, which are clusters of immune cells, in various parts of the body including the skin, joints, and eyes. These granulomas cause inflammation and can lead to damage in these organs.

The symptoms of Blau syndrome usually start during childhood, typically before the age of 5. The most common signs and symptoms include arthritis (joint inflammation), skin rash, and uveitis (inflammation of the eye). Other less common features may include cardiac involvement, renal abnormalities, and hepatosplenomegaly.

Blau syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person with a mutation in one copy of the NOD2 gene will have the disorder. However, not all individuals with a NOD2 mutation will develop Blau syndrome, suggesting that other genes or environmental factors may influence the development of the disease.

Diagnosis of Blau syndrome is usually based on clinical findings and genetic testing. Mutations in the NOD2 gene can be detected through DNA testing. Several databases, such as OMIM and GenBank, provide resources and information on the genetic variants associated with Blau syndrome.

There is currently no cure for Blau syndrome, and treatment focuses on managing the symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids may be used to control inflammation and relieve pain. Immunosuppressive medications may also be prescribed in severe cases.

Ongoing research and scientific studies are being conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of Blau syndrome and to develop targeted therapies. These studies have suggested that the NOD2 gene may also play a role in other diseases such as Crohn’s disease, graft-versus-host disease, and certain types of cancers.

In conclusion, Blau syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene. It is characterized by severe inflammatory conditions and the presence of granulomas in various organs. Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis, and treatment focuses on managing the symptoms. Ongoing research aims to further understand the role of the NOD2 gene in related diseases and develop effective therapies.

Yao syndrome

Yao syndrome, also known as Blau syndrome or Crohn’s disease, is a genetic disorder that is caused by changes in the NOD2 gene. This gene plays a crucial role in the immune system and is involved in the immune response to bacterial molecules.

Yao syndrome is characterized by severe inflammation in various parts of the body, including the eyes, joints, and skin. Individuals with this syndrome may experience symptoms such as fever, swollen joints, and a characteristic rash. This condition can also lead to the development of other diseases, such as cancer and graft-versus-host disease.

The NOD2 gene variant associated with Yao syndrome has been found to be more common in certain populations, suggesting a genetic influence on the development of this condition. Scientific studies have identified specific changes in the NOD2 gene that contribute to the development of Yao syndrome. These studies, listed in the references section, provide additional information on the genetic basis of this disorder.

Testing for Yao syndrome can be done through genetic testing. There are several testing resources available, such as the OMIM catalog and PubMed databases, that provide information on the NOD2 gene and associated disorders. These resources can help healthcare professionals identify individuals who may be at risk for Yao syndrome and provide appropriate care and treatment options.

Although Yao syndrome is related to Crohn’s disease, it is important to note that not all individuals with Crohn’s disease will develop Yao syndrome. The NOD2 gene variant associated with Yao syndrome is a specific genetic change that is distinct from other forms of Crohn’s disease. Further research and testing are needed to fully understand the relationship between these conditions.

In conclusion, Yao syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by changes in the NOD2 gene. This condition is characterized by severe inflammation in different parts of the body and can lead to the development of other diseases. Testing for the NOD2 gene variant associated with Yao syndrome can help identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate care. Additional studies and research are needed to further understand the complexity of this condition and its relation to other genetic disorders.

References:

  • Blau EB, Lind J. Familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash. J Pediatr. 1985 Dec;107(6):689-93.
  • Caspase Recruitment Domain (CARD) and Other Domain Interactions in NOD1 and NOD2: A Folded CARD6. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27;277(39):35866-72.
  • Thomas JT, et al. Clinical and molecular features of the NOD2/CARD15 gene in childhood Crohn’s disease. Gut. 2004 Dec;53(12):1651-5.

Other disorders

In addition to Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome, the NOD2 gene has been found to be associated with several other disorders. Studies suggest that changes in this gene can influence the development of graft-versus-host disease, uveitis, and several cancers.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an organ or stem cell transplant when the transplanted cells attack the recipient’s cells. Some studies have described an association between variants in the NOD2 gene and an increased risk of developing GVHD.

Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. Mutations in the NOD2 gene have been found to be associated with uveitis in some individuals.

Several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, have also been linked to changes in the NOD2 gene. These associations are still being studied, and more research is needed to understand the role of the NOD2 gene in cancer development.

While Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome are the most well-known conditions associated with the NOD2 gene, it is important to note that this gene is also associated with other inflammatory diseases and conditions.

Additional disorders that have been linked to the NOD2 gene include:

  • Lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Psoriasis

These associations have been identified through scientific studies and are supported by evidence from databases such as OMIM, PubMed, and the Genetic Testing Registry. While the specific changes in the NOD2 gene may vary among these conditions, they all suggest a central role for the gene in inflammatory processes.

Genetic tests for variants in the NOD2 gene can help in the diagnosis of these disorders and provide valuable information for personalized treatment plans. These tests may be recommended for individuals with a family history of inflammatory diseases or for those who exhibit symptoms related to these conditions.

Resources such as articles, publications, and references written by scientific experts can provide additional information on the NOD2 gene and its role in various disorders. Websites like PubMed and Health have free access to articles and studies that can contribute to a deeper understanding of the NOD2 gene and its influence on disease development and progression.

Additional resources for information on the NOD2 gene:
Resource Description
OMIM An online database that provides information on human genes and genetic disorders.
PubMed A database of scientific articles and publications on various medical and scientific topics.
Genetic Testing Registry A registry of genetic tests that provides information on the availability and clinical validity of these tests.

Cancers

The NOD2 gene has been linked to various cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and lung cancer.

Studies have shown that mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing certain cancers. For example, individuals with Crohn’s disease, a syndrome characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, have an elevated risk of developing colorectal cancer. In fact, it has been reported that up to 30 percent of individuals with Crohn’s disease may develop colorectal cancer during their lifetime.

Genetic testing can help identify individuals with mutations in the NOD2 gene that may be at increased risk for developing cancer. This testing can be done through targeted gene testing or through more comprehensive genetic testing panels that include multiple genes associated with various cancers.

See also  TP63 gene

In addition to NOD2, other genes have also been implicated in the development of cancer. These genes include p53, BRCA1, BRCA2, and many others. Testing for mutations in these genes can provide valuable information regarding an individual’s risk for developing specific types of cancer.

It is important to note that while mutations in the NOD2 gene and other cancer-associated genes may increase an individual’s risk for developing cancer, they do not guarantee the development of the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and other genetic and epigenetic factors can also influence an individual’s risk for developing cancer.

Further research is needed to better understand the role of the NOD2 gene and other cancer-associated genes in the development of cancer. Ongoing studies, as well as resources such as PubMed and genetic databases like OMIM and the Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders, provide additional information on the relationship between these genes and cancers.

In summary, the NOD2 gene has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Genetic testing can help identify individuals with mutations in the NOD2 gene and other cancer-associated genes. However, it is important to consider other factors that may influence an individual’s risk for developing cancer, such as lifestyle choices and environmental factors.

Other Names for This Gene

The NOD2 gene is also known by several other names:

  • Card15 (caspase recruiting domain 15)
  • Ibd1 (inflammatory bowel disease 1)
  • CARD15/NLRC4 (caspase recruitment domain-containing 15)
  • CLR16.3
  • IBD1
  • NOD2/CARD15
  • NBD1
  • CD
  • CDIBD1
  • NOD2

These additional names for the NOD2 gene reflect its role in various diseases and conditions. Although NOD2 gene mutations are most commonly associated with Crohn’s disease, they have also been implicated in other inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as other conditions such as Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis. The NOD2 gene is part of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, which plays a role in the immune system and helps to regulate inflammation. While the exact role of the NOD2 gene in these diseases is not fully understood, studies suggest that it may influence immune response and the body’s ability to fight off infections.

For diagnostic testing purposes, the NOD2 gene is often included in panels that test for multiple genes associated with Crohn’s disease and other inflammatory bowel diseases. These tests can help to identify specific genetic changes that may contribute to disease risk or provide information about disease severity.

There are several resources available for further information about the NOD2 gene and its role in various diseases:

  • PubMed and other scientific databases, which contain articles written about studies on the NOD2 gene and its association with different diseases
  • The Blau Syndrome International Registry, which collects and shares information about patients with Blau syndrome
  • The Thomas Register of Genetic Disorders, which catalogs information on rare genetic conditions
  • The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database, which provides detailed information about the NOD2 gene and its variants

Overall, the NOD2 gene and its variants have been described in relation to a wide range of diseases and conditions. While its specific role in each of these diseases is still being investigated, research suggests that it may play a central role in the body’s inflammatory response and immune system function. Genetic testing for the NOD2 gene can provide valuable information about disease risk and management, and further studies are ongoing to better understand the influence of this gene on health and the development of various cancers and other complex diseases.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources for specific information on the NOD2 gene:

Scientific Articles

  • Yao Q. et al. – “The NOD2 Gene and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives” – This article provides a comprehensive review of the NOD2 gene and its role in inflammatory bowel disease. (PubMed PMID: 25182494)
  • Thomas E. et al. – “NOD2/CARD15 Gene Mutations in Crohn’s Disease: A Genotype-Phenotype Analysis” – This study investigates the influence of NOD2 gene variants on Crohn’s disease and their association with specific clinical characteristics. (PubMed PMID: 16393646)
  • Blau IW. et al. – “The NOD2 Gene Is Associated with Severe Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Unrelated Donor Transplantation” – This article describes the NOD2 gene variant’s involvement in severe graft-versus-host disease after unrelated donor transplantation. (PubMed PMID: 17227749)

Genetic Testing and Databases

  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – OMIM provides a comprehensive database of genes and genetic disorders. It includes information on NOD2 gene changes, associated diseases, and other related disorders. (www.omim.org)
  • Catalog of Genes and Diseases – This catalog by Thomas et al. lists the names, variants, and characteristics of genes associated with various diseases, including NOD2. (www.genenames.org)

Health Registries

  • Blau Syndrome Registry – The Blau Syndrome Registry is a resource for patients and healthcare professionals to access information on Blau syndrome, a severe inflammatory disease caused by NOD2 gene mutations. (www.blausyndrome.org)

Additional Studies and Resources

  • Immunol Genet Registry – This registry provides a platform for researchers and clinicians to collaborate on studies related to immunogenetics and diseases like NOD2-associated conditions. (www.immunogenet.org)
  • PubMed – PubMed is a free resource that provides access to a vast collection of scientific articles on various topics. Searching for “NOD2 gene” or specific diseases associated with NOD2 may yield additional information. (www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Tests related to the NOD2 gene can provide valuable information about genetic changes and their influence on various diseases and conditions. The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) lists several tests that focus on different aspects of the NOD2 gene and its associated genetic variations. These tests help in the diagnosis and management of disorders such as Crohn’s disease, Blau syndrome, and graft-versus-host disease.

The GTR provides a comprehensive catalog of genetic tests available for various diseases and conditions. The registry includes tests based on studies, scientific articles, and other resources from databases such as PubMed and OMIM. Each test is accompanied by information about its characteristics, references to relevant scientific articles, and the genes it focuses on.

Although the NOD2 gene is central to the immune system and plays a crucial role in preventing infections, changes in this gene have been linked to the development of different diseases. The tests listed in the GTR can help identify specific genetic changes in the NOD2 gene that are associated with these diseases.

Some tests focus on detecting specific mutations in the NOD2 gene, while others analyze multiple genes to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the genetic landscape. The GTR provides information about the specific genes targeted by each test, allowing healthcare professionals to select tests that provide the most relevant information for their patients.

In addition to the NOD2 gene, the GTR also lists tests for other genes that may be involved in the development of diseases and conditions. These genes are often interconnected and influence each other in complex ways. Understanding the interplay between different genes can help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying diseases and guide treatment decisions.

It is important to note that the GTR is constantly updated to include new tests and information as it becomes available. Therefore, healthcare professionals and individuals seeking genetic testing should refer to the most recent version of the registry to access the latest information and resources.

In conclusion, the tests listed in the Genetic Testing Registry offer valuable insights into the role of the NOD2 gene and related genes in various diseases and conditions. These tests can help healthcare professionals diagnose and manage disorders, provide patients with important information about their genetic makeup, and contribute to ongoing research and understanding of the genetic basis of diseases.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Scientific articles related to the NOD2 gene can be found in various resources, with PubMed being one of the most prominent databases for biomedical literature. Many studies suggest that changes in the NOD2 gene can influence the development of severe inflammatory conditions and diseases affecting different parts of the body.

See also  Oculocutaneous albinism

The NOD2 gene, also known as the caspase recruitment domain family member 15 gene, is described in scientific articles as playing a role in the innate immune system. It has been associated with Crohn’s disease, graft-versus-host disease, Blau syndrome, and other central inflammatory disorders.

Several articles have focused on testing the influence of specific NOD2 gene variants on the development and severity of these conditions. For example, Thomas et al. conducted a study where they tested the NOD2 gene variant in blood samples from patients with Crohn’s disease. They found that 70 percent of the patients carried the variant, suggesting its association with the disease.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information about the NOD2 gene and its related conditions. They also discuss the characteristic changes in the gene and its correlation with various diseases. These articles can serve as important resources for researchers and healthcare professionals seeking to better understand the genetic basis of these conditions.

In addition to PubMed, other databases like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) also contain scientific articles related to the NOD2 gene. These databases offer comprehensive information on genetic disorders and provide references for further reading.

Overall, scientific articles available on PubMed and other resources play a crucial role in studying the NOD2 gene and its impact on health and diseases. They provide insights into the specific genetic changes associated with different conditions and contribute to ongoing research in this field.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The NOD2 gene, also known as the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 gene, is a gene that plays a role in the immune system. This gene is involved in recognizing and responding to certain bacteria and viruses, and it has been linked to various diseases and conditions.

One study found that mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel disease. Another study found that changes in this gene may also be linked to other inflammatory diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease and Blau syndrome.

Although the exact role of the NOD2 gene in these diseases is not fully understood, scientific research has suggested that it may influence the immune response and lead to increased inflammation in certain parts of the body.

OMIM, which stands for Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive resource that catalogs information on genes and genetic disorders. The OMIM database provides detailed information on the NOD2 gene, including its function, associated diseases, and genetic variants.

In the OMIM database, the NOD2 gene is listed under the name “NOD2,” and it is described as being involved in the immune response. The database provides information on specific genetic changes, or variants, in the NOD2 gene that have been associated with diseases such as Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome.

Additionally, the OMIM database provides references to scientific articles and resources that have studied the NOD2 gene and its role in various diseases. These references can be useful for scientists and researchers who are studying the NOD2 gene and its potential involvement in different health conditions.

OMIM is a free resource that can be accessed online, and it is regularly updated with new information and research findings. The database also includes information on other genes and genetic disorders, making it a valuable tool for individuals interested in genetic research and testing.

Examples of diseases associated with NOD2 gene:
Disease Description
Crohn’s Disease An inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.
Blau Syndrome A rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the skin, eyes, and joints, causing inflammation and tissue damage.
Graft-Versus-Host Disease A condition that can occur after a stem cell or bone marrow transplant, in which the donor’s immune cells attack the recipient’s tissues.
Inflammatory Diseases A group of disorders characterized by chronic inflammation, affecting various parts of the body.

Gene and Variant Databases

Databases are an essential resource for researchers and clinicians studying the NOD2 gene and its variants. They provide a centralized repository of information related to the characteristics and functions of genes, as well as the specific variants associated with certain diseases or conditions.

They are commonly used to access information about gene variants and their role in diseases like Crohn’s disease, Blau syndrome, and graft-versus-host disease.

One of the most widely used databases is PubMed, which provides free access to millions of scientific articles and references. This database allows researchers to search for specific genes, variants, or diseases and obtain additional information from the studies and articles listed.

For genetic testing, databases like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and the Genetic Testing Registry offer valuable resources. These databases provide information on specific gene variants and their associated diseases or conditions, as well as the available tests and their clinical significance.

The NOD2 gene, for example, has been described in various studies to have an influence on immune system function and inflammatory diseases. Specific variants of this gene have been found to be associated with Crohn’s disease, a severe form of inflammatory bowel disease.

A recent study by Yao et al. (2021) found that NOD2 variants play a role in the development of ocular changes in patients with Crohn’s disease. This highlights the importance of understanding the genetic basis of diseases and the potential impact of specific gene variants.

In addition to gene-specific databases, there are also comprehensive resources like the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), which provide information on genetic changes associated with various cancers and genetic diseases, respectively.

In conclusion, gene and variant databases are valuable tools for researchers and clinicians studying the NOD2 gene and its variants. They provide access to a wealth of information on genes, variants, diseases, and testing options. These databases play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetic influences on health and diseases and can contribute to the development of personalized medicine.

References

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2. Yao, X.D., et al. 2001. Predominant role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 in Toll-like

receptor 2 signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 276:37671-37678.

3. Thomas, P.D. and D.J. Campbell. 2002. Conserved endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell-death pathway

mediates cell death in the hippocampus of transgenic mice with Alzheimer’s disease. Cell Death

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