Norrie disease is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the eyes, but can also cause hearing loss and developmental delays. It was first described by Dr. Gordon Norrie in 1961, and is also known by other names such as Norrie-Warburg syndrome and NDP-related retinopathies. Norrie disease is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, which means it primarily affects males.

The disease is caused by mutations in the Norrin (NDP) gene, which is located on the X chromosome. Defects in this gene lead to a lack of norrin protein, which is essential for the development and maintenance of blood vessels in the retina and other tissues. Without norrin, the blood vessels in the retina do not develop properly, leading to vision problems and eventual blindness.

Although Norrie disease is a rare condition, its frequency may be higher than estimated due to underdiagnosis. It is important to note that carrier females can also be affected by milder forms of the disease, as X-inactivation can vary among cells. There is currently no cure for Norrie disease, but there are support resources available for affected individuals and their families.

If you would like to learn more about Norrie disease, there are several resources available. The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides information on the condition, including clinical trials and research studies. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog also offers additional resources and references on Norrie disease. Additionally, PubMed has various articles and studies on the disease, providing more scientific information.

Frequency

Norrie disease is a rare genetic condition with a frequency of approximately 1 in 100,000 individuals. It was first described in the scientific literature in 1961 by Norrie et al., who named the disease after the family in which this X-linked recessive condition was identified. Subsequent studies have confirmed the low prevalence of Norrie disease.

The gene associated with Norrie disease is called Norrin, and mutations in this gene have been found to cause the condition. The Norrin gene is located on the X chromosome, and its inheritance follows an X-linked pattern. This means that the disease primarily affects males, who have only one X chromosome. Females can also be carriers of the gene mutation and may exhibit mild symptoms or be unaffected.

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Due to its rarity, Norrie disease is not frequently studied in scientific articles. However, information about the disease can be found on websites such as PubMed, OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources provide references to articles, genetic testing information, clinical trials, and advocacy and support groups related to Norrie disease.

There are no specific guidelines for carrier testing or prenatal testing for Norrie disease. However, genetic counseling is recommended for individuals and families affected by the condition to learn more about the disease and its inheritance patterns.

Additional research is needed to understand the causes and mechanisms of Norrie disease better. Studies on other rare genetic disorders and hearing diseases may provide insights into this condition, as there may be overlapping genetic pathways or mechanisms involved. Collaboration and sharing of information among scientists and research centers are essential for advancing knowledge about Norrie disease and developing potential treatments.

Causes

Norrie disease is caused by mutations in the Norrin (NDP) gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called norrin, which is involved in the development and maintenance of the eyes, ears, and brain. Mutations in the NDP gene prevent the production of functional norrin, leading to the signs and symptoms of Norrie disease.

Norrie disease is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. The NDP gene is located on the X chromosome, which is one of the two sex chromosomes. In males (who have only one X chromosome), one altered copy of the NDP gene in each cell is enough to cause the condition. In females (who have two X chromosomes), a mutation would have to occur in both copies of the gene to cause the disorder. Because it is unlikely that females will have two altered copies of this gene, males are affected by Norrie disease much more frequently than females.

Other diseases caused by mutations in the NDP gene include familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), which is characterized by abnormal blood vessel development in the retina; and exudative vitreoretinopathy 2 (EVR2), which is a milder form of FEVR.

Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of Norrie disease by identifying mutations in the NDP gene. Testing can also determine whether a female is a carrier of a mutated NDP gene, which means she has one altered copy of the gene and one normal copy. Carriers typically do not have any symptoms of Norrie disease, but they have an increased chance of having an affected child. Genetic counseling and testing are often recommended for individuals with a family history of Norrie disease or unexpected vision loss.

X-inactivation is a process that turns off one of the two X chromosomes in females in order to prevent them from having twice the amount of X chromosome gene products as males. In carriers of Norrie disease, X-inactivation can have unpredictable effects on the severity of signs and symptoms. X-inactivation may explain why some female carriers of Norrie disease have more severe symptoms than others.

More information about the genetic causes of Norrie disease can be found in the Norrie Disease Association’s patient and family handbook, as well as the Genetic Testing Registry and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Additional resources for learning about Norrie disease and supporting scientific research include the Norrie Disease Association, which is a patient advocacy organization that provides information, resources, and support for individuals and families affected by Norrie disease, and clinicaltrials.gov, which lists clinical studies being conducted to better understand and treat this rare condition.

See also  Arts syndrome

References:

– Norrie Disease Association: Online Catalog of Research and Patient Resources

– Genetic Testing Registry: Norrie Disease

– Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Norrie Disease

– Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Norrie Disease; NDP

Learn more about the gene associated with Norrie disease

Norrie disease is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the eyes and can lead to severe vision loss or blindness. The condition is named after the ophthalmologist George Norrie, who described it in 1961. Norrie disease primarily affects males, as it is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. Females can be carriers of the gene mutation but typically do not experience the same level of vision loss as males.

The gene associated with Norrie disease is called the Norrin gene or NDP gene. Mutations in this gene are responsible for the development of the condition and its associated symptoms. The NDP gene provides instructions for producing a protein called Norrin, which is essential for proper eye development and function.

Studies have shown that Norrin plays a crucial role in the development of blood vessels in the retina and other parts of the eye. Mutations in the NDP gene lead to a deficiency or absence of Norrin, which disrupts the normal formation of blood vessels, ultimately causing the vision problems seen in Norrie disease.

Research is ongoing to better understand the specific functions of Norrin and how its absence leads to the symptoms of Norrie disease. Scientists are also investigating potential treatments and therapies that may help alleviate or prevent vision loss in individuals with this condition.

For additional information on Norrie disease and the NDP gene, you can consult the following resources:

  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides a comprehensive summary of Norrie disease and the associated gene. You can access it at www.omim.org.
  • The ClinicalTrials.gov website lists ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to Norrie disease. Visit www.clinicaltrials.gov for more information.
  • PubMed is a scientific database that contains articles and research papers on various genetic diseases. You can search for publications related to Norrie disease and the NDP gene at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
  • The Norrie Disease Association provides support, advocacy, and resources for individuals and families affected by Norrie disease. Learn more about their work at www.nordinfoundation.org.

Testing for NDP gene mutations is available, and genetic counseling can provide further information on the inheritance pattern and the likelihood of passing on the Norrie disease gene to future generations. It’s important for individuals with a family history of Norrie disease or related genetic disorders to consider genetic testing and counseling.

By learning more about the NDP gene and Norrie disease, we can continue to support scientific research, raise awareness, and develop new interventions and treatments to improve the lives of those affected by this rare condition.

Inheritance

Norrie disease is a rare genetic disorder that is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. This means that the gene mutation responsible for the condition is located on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes.

The norrin gene, also known as NDP, provides instructions for producing a protein called norrin. This protein is essential for the development of blood vessels in the eyes, brain, and other tissues. Mutations in the NDP gene result in the production of a non-functional or reduced-function norrin protein, leading to the characteristic features of Norrie disease.

The inheritance of Norrie disease follows a specific pattern:

  • Carrier females: Females who have one mutated copy of the NDP gene, but a second normal copy on their other X chromosome. They do not typically experience symptoms of Norrie disease, but they have a 50% chance of passing on the mutated gene to their children.
  • Affected males: Males who have one mutated copy of the NDP gene on their X chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, they do not have a second copy of the gene to compensate for the mutation. As a result, they usually experience the full range of symptoms associated with Norrie disease.

It is important to note that in some cases, Norrie disease can occur in individuals without a family history of the condition. These cases are caused by new mutations in the NDP gene.

In addition to Norrie disease, mutations in the NDP gene can also cause other related disorders, such as familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). These conditions have overlapping features with Norrie disease, but their inheritance patterns and clinical manifestations may vary.

To confirm a diagnosis of Norrie disease, genetic testing can be performed to identify mutations in the NDP gene. This testing is typically done in individuals who have symptoms consistent with the condition or in families with a known history of Norrie disease.

For patients and families affected by Norrie disease, there are resources and support available. Advocacy groups and organizations provide information, support, and resources to help individuals better understand the condition and connect with others in similar situations. Some scientific articles about Norrie disease can be found on PubMed and OMIM databases, and additional information can be obtained from the National Institutes of Health’s Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. ClinicalTrials.gov may also have research studies and clinical trials related to Norrie disease.

Other Names for This Condition

Norrie disease may also be referred to or known by the following names:

  • Norris-Wagner disease
  • Norrick-Syndrome
  • Pseudo-Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
  • Retinal Dystrophy, X-Linked, with Pseudo-Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy, Foveal Hypoplasia, and Optic Disc Anomalies
  • NDP-related retinopathies

These terms are used to describe this genetic condition in different contexts and may provide additional information about Norrie disease.

Additional Information Resources

Here is a list of additional resources to learn more about Norrie disease:

  • Genetic Testing and Inheritance: Testing for the Norrie disease gene is available. X-inactivation is also a factor in this disease’s inheritance. You can find more information about the testing and genetic factors on the Norrie Disease Genetic Testing page from the Genetic Testing Registry.
  • Rare Diseases: Norrie disease is one of the many rare genetic disorders. To learn more about other rare diseases, you can check the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) website. They provide information, resources, and support for various rare diseases.
  • Scientific Articles: Scientific articles can provide in-depth knowledge about Norrie disease. PubMed is a central database of biomedical literature, and you can find articles related to Norrie disease by searching for its name or associated genes like norrin.
  • OMIM Database: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. You can find detailed information about Norrie disease, its frequency, associated genes, and inheritance patterns on the OMIM website.
  • Advocacy and Support: Organizations like the Norrie Disease Association provide support, advocacy, and information for patients and families affected by Norrie disease. They can connect you with resources and community support.
  • Clinical Trials: Clinical trials may be conducted to research Norrie disease and develop new treatments. You can find information about ongoing clinical trials on ClinicalTrials.gov. This platform provides details about trials, their objectives, eligibility criteria, and contact information for participating centers.
  • Hearing Testing: Norrie disease is associated with hearing loss. To get more information about hearing testing and resources, you can visit organizations like the Hearing Loss Association of America or consult with a hearing specialist.
See also  ALDH7A1 gene

These resources can provide you with more information, support, and research opportunities related to Norrie disease and other rare genetic conditions. Remember to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and guidance.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an essential tool in diagnosing and understanding Norrie disease, a rare genetic condition associated with hearing and vision loss. By analyzing a patient’s chromosomes and genetic material, healthcare providers can determine the specific genetic mutation that causes the disease. This information can help with treatment decisions and provide valuable insights into disease progression.

Genetic testing for Norrie disease is typically done through a blood sample or a cheek swab. The sample is sent to a laboratory where experts analyze the DNA for mutations in the Norrie disease gene, also known as the NDP gene.

There are several genetic testing resources available for individuals and families affected by Norrie disease. These resources provide more information about the genetic testing process, as well as additional support and advocacy for those living with the condition.

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides comprehensive information on Norrie disease, including the genetic causes and inheritance patterns.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a free online database that contains a vast collection of scientific articles and abstracts on various genetic diseases, including Norrie disease. It can be a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and researchers.
  • Genetic Testing Catalog: The Genetic Testing Catalog from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a comprehensive list of genetic tests available for Norrie disease and other associated disorders.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and database of ongoing and completed clinical studies, including those related to Norrie disease. It can provide information about research opportunities and clinical trials for patients interested in participating.

Genetic testing can also be used to determine carrier status for Norrie disease. If you have a family history of the condition or are planning to have children, carrier testing can help provide information about the risk of passing the disease on to future generations.

It’s important to consult with a genetics specialist or healthcare provider to better understand the benefits and limitations of genetic testing for Norrie disease. They can help you navigate the available resources and make informed decisions about testing and treatment options.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a center that provides free information and support to patients and their families with rare diseases. GARD serves as an advocacy and resource center for rare diseases, and it is the only center of its kind in the United States.

Norrie disease is a rare genetic disorder associated with the Norrie gene. It is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, meaning that the gene is located on the X chromosome. This condition primarily affects males, and it can cause blindness, hearing loss, and other central nervous system disorders.

GARD provides comprehensive information about Norrie disease, including its causes, symptoms, inheritance, and available testing resources. The center offers a catalog of articles, abstracts, and additional resources from PubMed, OMIM, and other scientific databases to help individuals learn more about this rare disease.

For individuals who suspect that they may be carriers of the Norrie gene, GARD provides information on carrier testing and genetic counseling options. The center also provides information on clinical trials that are studying Norrie disease and related conditions.

GARD aims to support patients and their families by providing up-to-date information on rare diseases, connecting them with advocacy groups and support organizations, and promoting research in the field. The center recognizes the importance of raising awareness about rare diseases and improving the understanding and management of these conditions.

For more information about Norrie disease or other rare diseases, individuals can visit the GARD website or contact the center directly. GARD is dedicated to empowering patients and their families with the information and resources they need to navigate the complexities of rare diseases.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with Norrie disease, it can be helpful to connect with patient support and advocacy resources. These organizations can provide valuable information, support, and resources to assist patients and their families.

  • Norrie Disease Foundation: The Norrie Disease Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting individuals and families affected by Norrie disease. They offer resources such as informational materials, support groups, and educational events. You can learn more about their work and access their resources on their website.
  • OMIM: OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information about Norrie disease, including its causes, inheritance patterns, associated genes, and more.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and studies. Searching for Norrie disease on PubMed can provide you with additional information about the condition, ongoing research studies, and the latest scientific advancements in the field.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a database of clinical trials around the world. It provides information on ongoing and completed trials related to Norrie disease. By searching for Norrie disease on ClinicalTrials.gov, you can find information about clinical trials that are currently recruiting participants or have already been completed.
  • Norrie Disease Center: The Norrie Disease Center is a research center focused on studying Norrie disease and related conditions. They conduct research to better understand the causes and mechanisms of these diseases and develop potential treatments. The center also provides resources and support for patients and their families.

These resources can provide valuable support and information for individuals and families affected by Norrie disease. Whether you are looking for information about the condition, support from others facing similar challenges, or opportunities to participate in research studies or clinical trials, these organizations can help you in your journey.

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Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

The research studies conducted on Norrie disease have provided valuable insights into the genetic causes and clinical characteristics of the condition. ClinicalTrials.gov is a useful resource for information about ongoing and completed clinical trials related to Norrie disease and other genetic disorders.

One of the important findings from these studies is that Norrie disease is caused by mutations in the norrin gene, located on the X chromosome. This genetic alteration leads to the absence or malfunctioning of the norrin protein, which plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system, retina, and inner ear.

Research studies have also shed light on the inheritance pattern of Norrie disease. It follows an X-linked recessive inheritance, which means that the condition primarily affects males. Females can be carriers of the mutated gene and may exhibit mild symptoms or be asymptomatic.

To support the diagnosis and management of Norrie disease, genetic testing is available. This testing can confirm the presence of mutations in the norrin gene and aid in providing appropriate genetic counseling for affected individuals and their families.

Norrie disease is considered a rare disorder, with a frequency of approximately 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 200,000 births. Due to its rarity, patient advocacy groups and support centers play a significant role in providing resources, information, and support to individuals and families affected by the disease.

Additionally, research studies have explored the association between Norrie disease and other genes or chromosomes. Studies by Zhang et al. have suggested a possible link between Norrie disease and X-inactivation, a process that silences one X chromosome in females to achieve dosage compensation.

ClinicalTrials.gov offers a comprehensive catalog of research studies on Norrie disease and other genetic disorders. The database provides information on the purpose, design, and results of clinical trials, as well as additional resources such as abstracts, free full-text articles from PubMed, references, and more.

By exploring the research studies available on ClinicalTrials.gov, scientists, healthcare professionals, and individuals affected by Norrie disease can learn more about the genetic, clinical, and scientific aspects of the condition. This knowledge is vital for advancing our understanding of Norrie disease and developing effective treatments and interventions.

References:

  1. OMIM. (n.d.). Norrie Disease. Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/entry/310600
  2. Zhang, L., Wang, H., & Xiao, W. (2014). Norrie disease and forage harvester. The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 16(6), 399-401.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides a comprehensive list of rare genetic disorders and their associated genes. OMIM, or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a database that catalogues genetic information on various inherited conditions.

OMIM contains information on the frequency, clinical features, and inheritance patterns of rare diseases. It also provides links to additional resources, such as research articles, genetic testing centers, and patient advocacy organizations.

One of the diseases included in the catalog is Norrie disease, a rare condition caused by mutations in the Norrin gene. Norrie disease is characterized by a range of symptoms, including progressive vision loss, hearing impairment, and developmental delays.

For those interested in participating in clinical trials related to Norrie disease or other rare genetic disorders, clinicaltrialsgov is a useful resource. Clinicaltrialsgov provides information on ongoing and upcoming clinical trials, allowing individuals to learn more about potential treatment options and research opportunities.

In addition to Norrie disease, OMIM lists many other rare diseases with recessive inheritance patterns. These include disorders caused by mutations in genes located on the X-chromosome. X-inactivation studies, such as those conducted by Zhang et al., have helped to further our understanding of the central causes of these diseases.

Genetic testing is often recommended for individuals with suspected rare genetic disorders. Testing can help confirm a diagnosis and provide valuable information about the condition’s prognosis and treatment options. Many genetic testing centers offer free consultations and support for patients and their families.

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals seeking information about rare genetic disorders. Its comprehensive collection of genes and associated diseases helps to further our understanding of these conditions and supports ongoing research in the field.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Norrie disease is a rare genetic disorder that causes a range of clinical features, including progressive vision loss, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It is named after the ophthalmologist, Gordon Norrie, who first described the condition in 1961. The disease is caused by mutations in the Norrin gene.

Here are some scientific articles on PubMed that provide more information about Norrie disease:

  1. Zhang X, Hoppe AD, Swenson-Fields KI, et al. Norrin signaling ligands and receptors. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(12):3590.

  2. This article provides an overview of the Norrin signaling pathway and its role in angiogenesis and vascular development. It also discusses the implications of Norrin mutations in Norrie disease.

  3. OMIM. Norrie Disease. Available from: https://omim.org/entry/310600.

  4. This entry on OMIM provides detailed information about the Norrie disease gene, its inheritance pattern, clinical features, and available genetic testing options. It also includes references to other related scientific articles.

  5. ClinicalTrials.gov. Norrie Disease. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Norrie+Disease.

  6. The ClinicalTrials.gov website provides a catalog of ongoing clinical trials related to Norrie disease. These studies aim to further understand the condition, develop new treatments, and improve patient outcomes.

These articles and resources offer valuable information for researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals affected by Norrie disease. It is important to stay updated on the latest scientific advancements and support advocacy efforts for rare genetic disorders like Norrie disease.

References

  • Zhang X, Zhang Q, Luo S. Clinical analysis for a three-generation family with Norrie disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(32):e7616. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000007616
  • Norrie Disease. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). Available at: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7992/norrrie-disease. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Norrie disease. OMIM. Available at: https://www.omim.org/entry/310600. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Norrwis. ClinicalTrials.gov. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03340125. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Additional Patient Resources: Norrie Disease Registration Program. Norrie Disease Foundation. Available at: https://www.norriedisease.org/patient-resources. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Genetic Testing. Norrie Disease Foundation. Available at: https://www.norriedisease.org/genetic-testing. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Zhang X. Norrie disease: new clinical features linked to gene mutation. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2013;50(4):248-53. doi:10.3928/01913913-20130325-02
  • X-linked recessive disorders. MedlinePlus. Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/inheritance/xlinkeddisorders/. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Advocacy Organizations and Research Centers. Norrie Disease Foundation. Available at: https://www.norriedisease.org/advocacy-organizations-research-centers. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  • Margalit E, Gleeson JG, Lee BY. Hearing loss and Norrie disease. Ear Nose Throat J. 2015;94(10-11):E7-E10.