PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition characterized by the abnormal proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. This condition is caused by changes (mutations) in the PDGFRA gene, which provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the growth and division of cells. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is part of a group of related conditions called myeloproliferative neoplasms, which are characterized by the overproduction of certain blood cells.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a genetic condition, which means it is caused by inherited changes in genes. In most cases, these genetic changes occur for unknown reasons and are not inherited from a parent. However, in some rare cases, PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can be inherited from a parent. People with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia may also have changes in other genes that are associated with the condition.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can cause a variety of signs and symptoms, including fatigue, organ damage, and an increased risk of infections. The condition can vary widely in its severity and progression, even among affected individuals in the same family. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and various tests, including genetic testing. Additional resources, support, and information about PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can be found through advocacy groups, scientific articles, and medical databases such as PubMed and OMIM.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a lifelong condition that requires ongoing medical care and support. Treatment options may include targeted therapies that specifically inhibit the activity of the PDGFRA protein, as well as medications to control symptoms and manage complications. The long-term outlook for individuals with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia varies, but with appropriate treatment and management, many people with this condition can live relatively normal lives.

Frequency

The frequency of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is rare. It is estimated to occur in about 1 to 4 cases per million individuals, making it a rare myeloid neoplasm.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is caused by changes in the PDGFRA gene, which is located on chromosome 4. These genetic changes lead to the production of an abnormal PDGFRA protein, which triggers uncontrolled proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

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While PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition, it is not completely idiopathic. It can be associated with other genetic diseases, such as idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and T-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, it is important to note that the condition may not be inherited in most cases, but rather arises as a result of somatic mutations in the PDGFRA gene.

The exact frequency of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can vary among different populations, and more research is needed to fully understand the distribution of this condition.

For additional information about the frequency of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, you can refer to scientific articles and resources like OMIM and PubMed. These resources provide more detailed information about the condition, including the names of the genes involved, inheritance patterns, and lifetime risk.

References:

  • Boogaerts M, Cools J, Wlodarska I, et al. PDGFRalpha and BCR/ABL gene fusion caused by a new T(4;22)(q12;q11) in a chronic eosinophilic leukemia patient. Leukemia. 2004;18(10):1648-1650.
  • Cools J, Mentens N, Odero MD, et al. Evidence for position effects as a variant ETV6-mediated leukemogenic mechanism in myeloid leukemias with a t(4;12)(q11-q12;p13) or t(5;12)(q31;p13). Blood. 2002;99(5):1776-1784.

Causes

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. This condition is caused by mutations in the PDGFRA gene.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is considered a genetic condition, as it is caused by changes in specific genes. These genetic changes can be inherited from affected parents or occur spontaneously in a patient’s lifetime.

The PDGFRA gene provides instructions for making a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). This protein is involved in the growth and development of certain cells, including eosinophils. Mutations in the PDGFRA gene lead to the production of a protein with abnormal activity, causing excessive eosinophil proliferation and the characteristic symptoms of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition, with only a few cases reported in the scientific literature. The frequency of this condition in the general population is unknown.

For more information about the genetic causes of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and the Catalog of Human Genetic Diseases can be consulted. These resources provide additional information on the genes associated with this condition, as well as references to scientific articles and other sources of information.

Learn more about the genes and chromosome associated with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare myeloid disorder characterized by the excessive proliferation of eosinophils in the blood and tissues. It is caused by genetic changes in the PDGFRA gene, which is located on chromosome 4.

The PDGFRA gene provides instructions for making a protein called the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). This protein is involved in cell signaling, which regulates cell growth and division. When the PDGFRA gene is altered, it can lead to the overactivation of the PDGFRA protein, causing uncontrolled cell proliferation and the accumulation of eosinophils.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can occur as a result of genetic changes inherited from a parent, known as familial PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, or it can develop sporadically in individuals without a family history of the condition, known as idiopathic PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

To learn more about PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, you can refer to the following resources:

  • The PDGFRA gene can be found in the OMIM database, which provides detailed information about its structure, function, and associated diseases.
  • The Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia PDGFRA-associated page on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides additional information about this condition and its inheritance patterns.
  • The PubMed database contains articles and research papers on PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, which can help you stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in the field.
  • The Gilliland Lab at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is a leading research center studying PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Their website offers resources and information for patients, researchers, and healthcare professionals.
  • The Cools Lab at the University of Leuven, led by Professor Jan Cools, conducts research on the genetic basis of hematological malignancies, including PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Their website provides information on ongoing research projects and publications.
See also  NPRL2 gene

By learning more about the genes and chromosome associated with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, we can better understand the underlying causes and develop targeted therapies to support people affected by this condition.

References:

  1. Boogaerts M, et al. (2003) PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia: further delineation of the phenotype. Leukemia 17(9):1642-6. PMID: 12970798
  2. Cools J, et al. (2003) A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. N Engl J Med 348(13):1201-14. PMID: 12660384

Inheritance

The inheritance of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is not well understood. This condition is considered to be sporadic and does not appear to run in families.

PDGFRA-associated CEL is a rare condition that affects the proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the abnormal production and accumulation of eosinophils in the bone marrow and blood. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but genetic changes in the PDGFRA gene have been found in some patients.

Chromosome 4 abnormalities have also been reported in some cases of PDGFRA-associated CEL. These changes involve rearrangements of genetic material on chromosome 4, which can result in the fusion of the PDGFRA gene with other genes. These genetic changes can lead to the overproduction of PDGFRA proteins, which may contribute to the development of this condition.

While the inheritance pattern of PDGFRA-associated CEL is not clear, researchers have suggested that it may be caused by somatic mutations, which occur during a person’s lifetime and are not inherited from their parents. Somatic mutations in the PDGFRA gene have been found in some patients with PDGFRA-associated CEL, suggesting that these genetic changes play a role in the development of the condition.

It is important to note that this information is based on scientific research and may not apply to every person with PDGFRA-associated CEL. Genetic testing and counseling may be recommended for individuals with this condition or a family history of PDGFRA-associated CEL to learn more about their specific genetic profile and the potential inheritance patterns.

For additional information about PDGFRA-associated CEL, genetic testing, and inheritance, the following resources may be helpful:

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) – a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders (https://www.omim.org/)
  • PDGFRA-associated Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia – a review article on PDGFRA-associated CEL (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32010960/)
  • Advocacy organizations – organizations that provide support and information for individuals with rare diseases and their families

References:

  1. Boogaerts, M., Wlodarska, I., & Cools, J. (2020). PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia: A distinct entity?. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology, 33(1), 101136. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32010960/
  2. Gilliland, D. G. (2008). Emerging insights into the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. British Journal of Haematology, 141(6), 671-682. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18537894/

Other Names for This Condition

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia also may be referred to by other names. These include:

  • PDGFRα-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia
  • Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with PDGFRA rearrangement
  • Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with t(4;12)(q12;q1) translocation
  • PDGFRA-mutated eosinophilic leukemia
  • PDGFRA-fusion chronic eosinophilic leukemia

This condition is also known as eosinophilic leukemia with PDGFRA rearrangement, as it is characterized by an abnormal fusion of the PDGFRA gene on chromosome 4 with another gene, resulting in the production of PDGFRα fusion proteins. This fusion leads to the abnormal proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition, with a frequency of less than 1 in 1 million people. It is often inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that individuals with the condition have a 50% chance of passing the genetic changes to their children.

More information about this condition can be found on the following websites:

Scientific articles and references about PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can be found in the following catalogs:

  • Wlodarska I, Cools J, Boogaerts M, Gilliland DG. “Biologic significance of mutations in PDGFRA in patients with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome.” Blood 2003;102(3):628-33.
  • Wlodarska I, Vandenberghe P, Mecucci C, et al. “Fusion of TEL, the ETS-variant gene 6 (ETV6), to the receptor-associated kinase JAK2 as a result of t(9;12) in a lymphoid and t(9;15;12) in a myeloid leukemia.” Blood 1998;92(7):2516-20.

Support and advocacy resources for patients and families affected by PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can be found at:

Learn more about the causes, inheritance, testing, and prognosis of this condition by reading the articles listed above.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources that provide information and support for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles and references that you can search for more information on PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. You can find articles about the condition, its causes, genetic changes, and more.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. You can learn more about the genetic changes associated with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia and its potential inheritance patterns.
  • Eosinophilic Leukemia Advocacy and Support Center: An advocacy organization that provides support, education, and resources for patients with eosinophilic leukemia, including PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. They offer information on treatment options, patient stories, and resources for caregivers.
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society: A nonprofit organization that provides support and resources for patients with all types of leukemia, including rare conditions like PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. They have information about the disease, treatment options, and support programs for patients and their families.
  • The Boogaerts International Working Party on Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (IWPCEL): A group of international experts in the field of chronic eosinophilic leukemia. They conduct research, publish scientific articles, and provide guidance on the diagnosis and management of the condition. Their website contains information on the latest research findings and treatment guidelines.
See also  Timothy syndrome

It is important to note that PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition, and resources dedicated specifically to this condition may be limited. Therefore, it is essential to consult with healthcare professionals and seek support from reputable organizations specializing in leukemia and related conditions.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is recommended for individuals with symptoms or a family history suggestive of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. This test can identify changes (mutations) in the PDGFRA gene, which is implicated in the development of this rare blood disorder.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is caused by changes in the PDGFRA gene located on chromosome 4. These changes result in the production of abnormal PDGFRA proteins that promote the uncontrolled proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

Testing for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia typically involves DNA sequencing of the PDGFRA gene to identify any mutations. This information can help confirm a diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

If a mutation in the PDGFRA gene is found, genetic testing can also be performed for other genes associated with eosinophilic disorders, such as PDGFRB and FGFR1.

Genetic testing for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia can be done through specialized genetic testing centers or laboratories. These centers often provide counseling and support for patients and their families throughout the testing process.

For more information about genetic testing for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, additional resources can be found through advocacy groups, scientific articles, and online databases such as OMIM, PubMed, and the Genetic Testing Registry.

It is important to note that genetic testing is not available for all genetic changes associated with eosinophilic disorders, and not all cases of eosinophilic disorders are caused by genetic changes. However, genetic testing can provide valuable information for patient management and may be recommended in specific cases.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) provides reliable information about rare genetic diseases and conditions. GARD is part of the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and it serves as a central hub for information and resources related to genetic and rare diseases.

The center offers comprehensive information on PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, a rare condition that is associated with changes in the PDGFRA gene. This gene provides instructions for producing a protein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell. The specific cause of this condition is unknown, and it is often classified as a myeloid neoplasm, meaning it originates from abnormal growth of myeloid cells.

The frequency of this condition is not well documented, but it is considered to be rare. The condition can occur in both children and adults, and it may affect males and females equally.

People with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia may experience a variety of signs and symptoms, including fatigue, fever, weight loss, cough, and shortness of breath. The severity of these symptoms can vary from person to person.

Diagnosis of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is typically made through molecular genetic testing, which can detect changes in the PDGFRA gene. Additional tests, such as bone marrow biopsy and blood tests, may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the extent of the disease.

Treatment options for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia may include targeted therapy, such as imatinib, which can inhibit the activity of the abnormal protein produced by the PDGFRA gene. Other treatment approaches, including chemotherapy, may be used depending on the individual’s specific condition.

Support and advocacy organizations can provide valuable resources and support for individuals and families affected by PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. These organizations can offer information, guidance, and opportunities for connecting with other individuals with the condition. Some examples of such organizations include the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.

References:

  1. “PDGFRA gene.” Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 5 Feb. 2018. Web. 3 Mar. 2022.
  2. Boogaerts, M., Gilliland, D.G. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia and other PDGFRA-associated myeloid neoplasms. Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2005; (1): 375-83. Epub 2005 Jan 1. PMID: 16304383.
  3. Cools, J., Gilliland, D.G. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2003; 17(5): 1299-312. PMID: 14603595.
  4. Wlodarska, I., et al. PDGFR Alpha-PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia: description of first molecularly characterized cases with clinical correlation. Leukemia. 2004; 18(4): 711-6. Epub 2004 Feb 5. PMID: 14961035.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients diagnosed with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia may benefit from the support and advocacy resources available. These resources can provide information, guidance, and emotional support for individuals and their families affected by this rare condition.

Patient Support Organizations:

  • Eosinophilic Leukemia Foundation: This organization focuses on raising awareness about eosinophilic leukemia and provides support and resources for patients and their families. They offer educational materials, support groups, and opportunities to connect with others affected by this condition.
  • Genetic Support Foundation: This organization offers support and information for individuals living with genetic conditions. They provide resources on genetic testing, inheritance patterns, and available treatments. They also offer supportive services for families and help connect patients with healthcare providers familiar with their specific condition.

Online Communities:

  • Eosinophilic Leukemia Support Group: This online forum allows individuals and their families to connect with other patients and share experiences and insights. The group provides a supportive space to ask questions, seek advice, and find comfort in the knowledge that others are facing similar challenges.
  • Rare Disease Online Community: This online community brings together individuals affected by rare diseases, including PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. It offers a platform for sharing stories, discussing treatment options, and finding support from others who understand the unique challenges of living with a rare condition.

Information and Research:

  • The PDGFRA Gene: Information about the PDGFRA gene and its associated conditions can be found on scientific databases and research websites. Resources such as PubMed and OMIM provide articles, publications, and research findings related to PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia.
  • Genetic Testing Centers: Genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis and provide additional information about the specific genetic changes associated with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Genetic testing centers can provide guidance, counseling, and testing services for individuals and their families.
See also  FLNB gene

Advocacy Organizations:

  • Patient Advocacy Foundation: This organization advocates for the rights and needs of patients with rare diseases. They provide resources on insurance coverage, treatment access, and legal rights. They also offer assistance with navigating the healthcare system and connecting patients with financial support programs.
  • Rare Disease Advocacy Network: This network aims to raise awareness and advocate for individuals affected by rare diseases. They work towards improving policies, access to treatments, and research funding for rare conditions. They also provide resources on patient rights, clinical trials, and available support services.

These support and advocacy resources are invaluable for patients diagnosed with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. They offer information, emotional support, and opportunities to connect with others facing similar challenges. By utilizing these resources, patients can learn more about their condition, access additional support, and advocate for themselves and others affected by this rare genetic disease.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases associated with genetic changes. This resource is a valuable tool for scientists and healthcare professionals conducting research on genetic disorders.

OMIM covers a wide range of genetic diseases, including rare conditions such as PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. This is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation of eosinophils. This condition is caused by genetic changes in the PDGFRA gene located on chromosome 4q12.

In persons with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, genetic testing can confirm the presence of PDGFRA mutations. The Genetic Testing Center, part of OMIM, provides resources and support for genetic testing.

The PDGFRA gene encodes proteins involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Mutations in this gene can lead to the abnormal proliferation of eosinophils, causing the characteristic symptoms of PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare condition, and the frequency of PDGFRA mutations in persons with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is not well defined. Scientific articles and references from PubMed can provide additional information about this condition.

OMIM is an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians studying and treating genetic diseases. It provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases, helping to further our understanding of genetic inheritance and the causes of various diseases.

In conclusion, the OMIM database is a valuable tool for scientists and healthcare professionals. It provides a catalog of genes and diseases, including PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and supports genetic testing for this rare condition. By providing detailed information on genetic changes, OMIM plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetic diseases and their causes.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), also known as idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the proliferation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the central part of the body. This condition is caused by changes in the PDGFRA gene, which is responsible for producing proteins that support the growth and survival of eosinophils.

PDGFRA-associated CEL is a rare condition, affecting a small number of people worldwide. It is often inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that an affected person has a 50% chance of passing the genetic mutation on to their children. However, in some cases, the condition can also occur sporadically without any family history.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information about PDGFRA-associated CEL, including its genetic basis, clinical features, and management. These articles serve as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and advocacy organizations working to advance understanding and care for individuals with this rare condition.

Several articles have been published on PubMed about PDGFRA-associated CEL, including:

  • Gilliland DG, et al. PDGFR α-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin N Am. 2007;21(3):520-34.
  • Boogaerts M, et al. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL/HES): results of the European LeukemiaNet consensus conference. Leuk Res. 2010;34(6):821-5.
  • Cools J, et al. A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(13):1201-14.

These articles provide detailed information on the genetic and molecular basis of PDGFRA-associated CEL, as well as the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options. They also highlight the importance of genetic testing for identifying the PDGFRA gene mutation and guiding personalized treatment approaches.

In addition to scientific articles, resources like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database offer further information on PDGFRA-associated CEL. These resources catalog information about rare genetic diseases and provide references to relevant scientific literature.

Overall, scientific articles on PubMed and other resources play a crucial role in advancing knowledge and understanding of PDGFRA-associated CEL. They provide valuable insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the condition, as well as information on diagnosis, management, and ongoing research efforts.

References

  • Gilliland DG. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In: Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2019. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/PDGFRA#resources
  • Boogaerts MA, Cools J, Wlodarska I. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In: OMIM [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University; 2021. Available from: https://omim.org/entry/131440
  • Eosinophilic leukemia. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2021. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=eosinophilic+leukemia
  • Genes associated with PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In: Catalog of Genes and Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2019. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/2040
  • Gilliland DG. Genetic changes in eosinophils. In: Scientific Articles on PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2020. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=PDGFRA-associated+chronic+eosinophilic+leukemia
  • WLodarska I, Cools J, Gilliland DG. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In: Additional resources for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center; 2019. Available from: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10965/pdgfra-associated-chronic-eosinophilic-leukemia
  • Cools J, Gilliland DG. PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In: Advocacy organizations for PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center; 2019. Available from: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/guides/07233/chronic-eosinophilic-leukemia-associated-with-pdgfra/associationsto-other-organizations