Preeclampsia is a condition that affects pregnant women, causing high blood pressure and potential damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. It usually occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and even death, if left untreated.

The exact causes of preeclampsia are still not fully understood. However, research suggests that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development. Certain genes, for example, may make some women more susceptible to the condition than others. Additionally, conditions such as obesity and chronic hypertension can also increase the risk.

There is currently no known cure for preeclampsia, but there are various treatment options available to help manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications. These can include medications to lower blood pressure and bed rest to reduce stress on the body. Regular prenatal check-ups and close monitoring of blood pressure are also essential.

Advocacy and support resources are available for women and families affected by preeclampsia. Websites such as PubMed and OMIM provide additional information on the condition, including scientific articles and research studies. Furthermore, clinicaltrialsgov offers a registry of ongoing clinical trials that may be relevant to preeclampsia research and testing.

Overall, preeclampsia is a serious health condition that requires prompt medical attention. Women with a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, or previous preeclampsia in previous pregnancies may be at increased risk and should seek early prenatal care. By raising awareness and supporting research efforts, we can hope to improve understanding of this condition and ultimately find better ways to prevent and manage it.

References:

– PubMed website: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

Just under half – 49% – of Americans get their health insurance through their employer, according to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Another 19% of Americans are insured under Medicaid, 14% under Medicare, seven% under non-group plans and two% under other public insurers, while nine% of U.S. citizens remain uninsured.

– OMIM catalog: www.omim.org

– ClinicalTrials.gov: www.clinicaltrials.gov

Frequency

Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects approximately 2-8% of pregnancies worldwide. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Prevalence:

  • According to a study published in the Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, the worldwide prevalence of preeclampsia ranges from 2 to 8 percent.
  • The condition is more common in women who are pregnant for the first time, women carrying multiple pregnancies (such as twins or triplets), and women with a history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancies.

Genetic Inheritance:

  • Preeclampsia has been found to have a genetic component, with certain genes contributing to an increased risk of developing the condition.
  • Research studies have identified potential genetic markers associated with preeclampsia, and ongoing research aims to further understand the genetic basis of the condition.
  • OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, catalogs information on genes associated with preeclampsia and other genetic diseases.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

  • Preeclampsia is characterized by high blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine. Other symptoms may include swelling, sudden weight gain, headaches, and vision changes.
  • Diagnosis is typically made by a healthcare provider through regular prenatal check-ups, where blood pressure and urine are tested for signs of preeclampsia.

Treatment and Management:

  • There is currently no cure for preeclampsia, and the only definitive treatment is delivery of the baby.
  • However, healthcare providers may recommend medications and bed rest to manage symptoms and support the health of both the mother and baby.

Support and Resources:

  • Preeclampsia Foundation and other patient advocacy organizations provide support, resources, and information for women affected by preeclampsia.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical studies related to preeclampsia and other diseases, providing information on ongoing research and studies.
  • Scientific articles, textbooks, and references can be found for additional information on the condition.

Causes

The exact causes of preeclampsia are still not fully understood. However, research studies have indicated several factors that may increase the risk of developing this condition during pregnancy.

Pregnancies and Family History

Preeclampsia tends to occur more frequently in women who have had previous pregnancies with the condition. Additionally, a family history of preeclampsia or other hypertensive disorders during pregnancy increases the risk.

Genetic Factors

Studies have suggested a potential genetic inheritance of preeclampsia. Certain genes may play a role in predisposing women to the condition. Research is ongoing to identify these genes and understand their impact on the development of preeclampsia.

Abnormal Placental Development

Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal development of the placenta, which provides nourishment to the fetus. This abnormal development may contribute to the development of the condition.

Changes in Blood Vessels

During pregnancy, there are significant changes in blood vessel function and structure. In women who develop preeclampsia, these changes may be impaired, leading to high blood pressure and other symptoms of the condition.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Conditions

Women with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or obesity, have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia.

Immune System Dysfunction

There is evidence to suggest that dysfunction of the immune system may contribute to the development of preeclampsia. The immune system’s response to pregnancy and the placenta may be altered in women who develop the condition.

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances, such as abnormalities in the production or regulation of hormones during pregnancy, may contribute to the development of preeclampsia.

Other Factors

Other factors that may increase the risk of preeclampsia include first-time pregnancies, multiple pregnancies (such as twins or triplets), a history of preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy, and certain medical conditions like kidney disease or lupus.

See also  Liebenberg syndrome

These factors are not exhaustive, and ongoing research is being conducted to further understand the causes of preeclampsia. The information provided here is based on scientific studies and can be further explored through additional resources such as clinical trials registries, scholarly articles, and genetic information databases.

Inheritance

The inheritance patterns of preeclampsia have been the subject of numerous scientific studies. Several articles and additional references provide information on the genetic factors that contribute to the development of this condition. Familial aggregation studies have demonstrated a higher frequency of preeclampsia in relatives of affected women, indicating a potential genetic component.

Research has identified specific genes that may be associated with an increased risk of developing preeclampsia. For example, mutations in genes involved in blood pressure regulation, endothelial function, and the immune system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. These findings suggest that preeclampsia is a complex genetic disorder involving multiple genes and pathways.

Genetic testing is not currently available for routine clinical use. However, research in this area is ongoing, and there are clinical trials investigating the utility of genetic testing for preeclampsia. Additionally, resources such as the Preeclampsia Registry and online databases like Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) provide information on the genetic basis of preeclampsia.

While the exact inheritance pattern of preeclampsia is not fully understood, it is believed to be a complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to its development. It is important for individuals with a family history of preeclampsia to be aware of the increased risk and seek appropriate support and information during pregnancies.

Advocacy organizations and support groups for preeclampsia also provide helpful resources and information on inheritance patterns. These organizations often have catalogs of articles and scientific research related to preeclampsia, which can provide additional support and information for affected individuals and their families.

Resources Websites
PubMed www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
ClinicalTrials.gov www.clinicaltrialsgov
OMIM www.omim.org

Other Names for This Condition

  • Preeclampsia
  • Also known as toxemia, this health condition typically affects pregnant women and is characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs, most commonly the liver and kidneys.
  • Eclampsia: In severe cases, preeclampsia can progress to eclampsia, which involves seizures during pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH): This term is often used to describe high blood pressure that occurs during pregnancy.
  • Preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome: This term is used to refer to the combination of preeclampsia and eclampsia.
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: This is an umbrella term that includes preeclampsia and other hypertensive conditions that can occur during pregnancy.

These are just a few of the other names used to describe this condition, as there are many different terms and variations used in scientific literature, medical resources, and advocacy organizations.

For more information on the frequency, causes, inheritance, and additional health conditions associated with preeclampsia, you can refer to the following resources:

  1. Preeclampsia and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy – A comprehensive article on the topic from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  2. OMIM – An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders that provides detailed information on the genetics of preeclampsia
  3. Preeclampsia Registry – A registry that collects information from women with a history of preeclampsia to aid in developing further research and understanding of the condition
  4. PubMed – A database of scientific articles that contains many studies and references related to preeclampsia and related diseases
  5. ClinicalTrials.gov – A database of clinical trials that includes information on ongoing studies and testing related to preeclampsia

These resources can provide you with more detailed information and support if you or someone you know is affected by this condition.

Additional Information Resources

For developing more information on preeclampsia and eclampsia, you can refer to the following resources:

Research and Studies

  • PubMed: This is a database of scientific articles where you can find studies and research papers related to preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This registry provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to preeclampsia. You can find trials testing new treatments, diagnostic methods, and prevention strategies for this condition.

References and Information

  • Preeclampsia Foundation: This advocacy organization provides comprehensive information on preeclampsia and eclampsia, including symptoms, causes, and treatment options. They also offer support for women and families affected by this condition.
  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a database that catalogues genes and genetic disorders, including preeclampsia-related genes and inheritance patterns.

Support and Registry

  • Preeclampsia Registry: This registry aims to collect data from women who have been affected by preeclampsia to better understand the condition and its long-term effects. You can participate in the registry to contribute to future research.
  • Preeclampsia Foundation: In addition to providing information, this organization also offers support groups and resources for women and families dealing with preeclampsia. They have local chapters and online communities for connecting with others who have had similar experiences.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is a developing field that can provide important information about the genetic makeup of individuals. In the case of preeclampsia, genetic testing can be used to identify specific genes or genetic variants that may be associated with an increased risk of developing the condition.

There are several genetic testing methods available for preeclampsia. These include:

  • Sequencing: This method involves analyzing the DNA sequence of specific genes to identify any mutations or variations that may be associated with preeclampsia.
  • Genotyping: This method involves examining specific regions of the genome to identify genetic markers that may be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia.
  • Family history analysis: By studying the family history of individuals affected by preeclampsia, researchers can identify patterns of inheritance and potentially identify specific genes that may be involved.
See also  What are whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing

Genetic testing for preeclampsia can be done through research studies, clinical trials, or in the context of patient care. It is important to note that genetic testing does not diagnose preeclampsia, but rather provides information about an individual’s genetic predisposition to the condition.

Genetic testing for preeclampsia is not routinely performed in clinical practice. However, it may be recommended for individuals with a personal or family history of preeclampsia or other hypertensive conditions in pregnancy.

References and additional information on genetic testing for preeclampsia can be found on websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and OMIM. These resources provide access to scientific articles, studies, clinical trials, and other information related to the genetic testing of preeclampsia.

In summary, genetic testing for preeclampsia is a developing field that offers valuable insights into the genetic factors that may contribute to the condition. While it is not currently used as a diagnostic tool, genetic testing can provide important information for research, advocacy, and support for individuals and families affected by preeclampsia.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

For patients and families affected by preeclampsia and eclampsia, there are numerous resources available for support and advocacy. These resources provide valuable information on the conditions, research, and support networks.

1. Preeclampsia Foundation

The Preeclampsia Foundation is a non-profit organization that provides support, education, and advocacy for women and families impacted by preeclampsia. Their website offers resources for understanding preeclampsia, including educational articles, research updates, and patient stories. They also provide a helpline for additional support.

2. Eclampsia Foundation

The Eclampsia Foundation focuses on supporting women who have experienced seizures or eclampsia during pregnancy. They offer educational materials, online support groups, and resources for navigating prenatal care and postpartum recovery. They also advocate for improved healthcare policies and protocols related to eclampsia.

3. Genetic Counseling

Genetic counseling can be helpful for women with a family history of preeclampsia. Genetic counselors can provide information on the inheritance and causes of preeclampsia, as well as discuss genetic testing options. They can also offer support and guidance for future pregnancies.

4. ClinicalTrials.gov

ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive database of ongoing and completed clinical trials. Patients and their families can search for research studies related to preeclampsia and eclampsia to find potential opportunities for participation. This can provide access to innovative treatments and contribute to the advancement of medical knowledge.

5. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)

OMIM is a scientific database that catalogs the genetic causes of diseases. By searching for preeclampsia in OMIM, patients and families can access information on the genes and genetic mutations associated with the condition. This knowledge can aid in understanding the underlying mechanisms of preeclampsia and guide future research efforts.

6. PubMed

PubMed is a resource for accessing scientific articles and research studies. Patients and families can search for articles related to preeclampsia to gain a deeper understanding of the condition and its management. PubMed can provide the latest research findings and evidence-based approaches to care.

7. Support Groups

Various online and in-person support groups exist for women and families affected by preeclampsia and eclampsia. These groups offer a safe space to share experiences, ask questions, and find emotional support. They can also provide recommendations for healthcare providers and resources in specific regions.

8. Health Information Registries

Health information registries, such as those maintained by government agencies or non-profit organizations, can provide valuable data and statistics on the prevalence and impact of preeclampsia. Accessing these registries can help patients and families understand the scope of the condition and advocate for improved healthcare policies.

Overall, patient support and advocacy resources play a crucial role in providing information, support, and a sense of community for women and families affected by preeclampsia and eclampsia. By utilizing these resources, patients can empower themselves and actively participate in their healthcare journey.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

  • Genetic Testing for Preeclampsia Risk: This study aims to identify genetic factors associated with the development of preeclampsia. Researchers will analyze genetic data from women with and without preeclampsia to identify specific genes that may be linked to the condition.

  • Support for Families Affected by Preeclampsia: This study focuses on providing additional support and resources to families affected by preeclampsia. Researchers will evaluate the effectiveness of different support strategies in improving the physical and mental health outcomes of both patients and their families.

  • Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: This study aims to gain a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind hypertensive disorders, including preeclampsia and eclampsia. Researchers will investigate the role of various genetic and environmental factors in the development of these conditions.

  • Frequency of Preeclampsia in Women with a History of Hypertensive Disorders: This study will assess the frequency of preeclampsia in women who have a history of hypertensive disorders during previous pregnancies. The goal is to determine the likelihood of developing preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies based on a woman’s medical history.

  • Research on the Inheritance of Preeclampsia: This study aims to investigate the inheritance patterns of preeclampsia and identify specific genes involved in the condition. Researchers will collect genetic and clinical data from affected families to assess the role of genetic factors in the development of preeclampsia.

For additional information and resources on preeclampsia, please visit the ClinicalTrials.gov website. You can search for specific studies, browse scientific articles, and access patient advocacy groups for support. The PubMed and OMIM databases are also valuable resources for finding research articles and genetic information related to preeclampsia and other related conditions.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs, most commonly the liver and kidneys. It usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide.

See also  IRGM gene

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) registry is a comprehensive database that provides information about the genetic causes of various diseases, including preeclampsia. OMIM collects and organizes data from scientific articles, clinical trials, and other sources to provide a catalog of genes and diseases.

Genes and Preeclampsia

OMIM contains information about genes that are associated with preeclampsia. These genes play a role in the development and functioning of the body, including blood pressure regulation and vascular health. Studies have identified several genetic variations that may increase the risk of developing preeclampsia.

Some of the genes associated with preeclampsia include:

  • ACVR1
  • ENG
  • FLT1
  • HIF1A
  • VDR

Diseases and Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia can lead to various complications and other conditions in affected women. These include:

  1. Eclampsia: Seizures in addition to high blood pressure and organ damage.
  2. HELLP syndrome: A severe form of preeclampsia characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.
  3. Chronic hypertension: High blood pressure that occurs before pregnancy or before the 20th week.
  4. Preterm birth: Delivering the baby before 37 weeks of gestation.

Frequency and Inheritance

Preeclampsia affects about 5-8 percent of pregnancies worldwide. The condition is generally thought to have a genetic component, with multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to its development.

Preeclampsia can be inherited through a polygenic or multifactorial pattern, meaning that multiple genes and environmental factors together contribute to the development of the condition. Genetic testing can provide additional information about the risk of developing preeclampsia.

Additional Resources

For more information about preeclampsia, its causes, and available resources, you may refer to the following sources:

These resources provide support, advocacy, and information for patients and healthcare professionals involved in the research and clinical management of preeclampsia and related conditions.

References

  1. Steegers EA, von Dadelszen P, Duvekot JJ, et al. Preeclampsia. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):631-644. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60279-6
  2. Roberts JM, August PA, Bakris G, et al. Hypertension in pregnancy: report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(5):1122-1131. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000437382.03963.88

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Preeclampsia is a condition that normally occurs during pregnancy. It is characterized by high blood pressure and signs of damage to other organ systems, most often the liver and kidneys. This condition can be life-threatening for both the mother and the fetus.

Research studies have shown that preeclampsia affects approximately 5-8% of pregnancies. It is more common in women who have a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney disease, or certain autoimmune diseases.

Several scientific articles on PubMed have investigated the causes, frequency, and genetic inheritance of preeclampsia. These studies have identified several genes that may be associated with the development of this condition. Some of these genes are involved in regulating blood pressure and the immune system.

Advocacy groups and healthcare organizations also provide resources and information on preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials testing new treatments for various diseases, including preeclampsia. Additional information and references can be found on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, which provides information on genetic conditions.

Studies have also explored the impact of preeclampsia on the long-term health of affected women and their families. Research has shown that women who have had preeclampsia are at increased risk for developing chronic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and other conditions later in life.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information for healthcare professionals and researchers studying preeclampsia. These articles contribute to the understanding of the condition and may lead to the development of new diagnostic tests and treatments.

References
Article Journal Year
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2015 Apr; 79(3): 188–197. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 2015
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: An Overview of Classification and Diagnosis J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2011 Aug; 33(8): 767–778. 2011
Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Mar; 27(3): 66–71. 2016

References

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