Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that leads to the overproduction of a substance called oxalate. This excess oxalate can cause damage to the kidneys and other organs in the body. There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, named type 1, type 2, and type 3, each caused by mutations in different genes.

Signs and symptoms of primary hyperoxaluria can vary, but often include kidney stones, recurrent urinary tract infections, and progressive kidney damage. In severe cases, it can lead to end-stage renal disease, where the kidneys can no longer function properly.

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that both copies of the gene must have mutations for the condition to develop. Testing for primary hyperoxaluria can be done through genetic testing, and there are resources available, such as OMIM, Genereviews, PubMed, and the NIH Genetic Testing Registry, that provide more information on the genes associated with this condition.

Treatment options for primary hyperoxaluria include medication to lower oxalate levels, increase fluid intake to prevent stone formation, and kidney transplantation in severe cases. There are ongoing research studies and clinical trials, listed on clinicaltrialsgov, that are investigating new treatments and therapies for this condition.

It is important for patients with primary hyperoxaluria to seek support and information from advocacy organizations, such as the Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation, to learn more about this rare genetic condition. Additional scientific articles and resources can be found on the website of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, which provides information on the genetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperoxaluria.

Frequency

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that leads to the overproduction of a substance called oxalate. There are different types of primary hyperoxaluria, each associated with different genes that function in the production of oxalate. The frequency of primary hyperoxaluria varies depending on the type.

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Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1) is the most common type of the condition and accounts for about 80% of cases. It is caused by mutations in the AGXT gene, which leads to the accumulation of glyoxylate and the overproduction of oxalate. PH1 is estimated to occur in about 1 in every 100,000 individuals worldwide.

Primary hyperoxaluria Type 2 (PH2) is less common, accounting for about 10% of cases. It is caused by mutations in the GRHPR gene, which also leads to accumulation of glyoxylate and overproduction of oxalate. PH2 is estimated to occur in about 1 in every 1,000,000 individuals worldwide.

Primary hyperoxaluria Type 3 (PH3) is the rarest type and is caused by mutations in the HOGA1 gene. The frequency of PH3 is not well-known, but it is believed to be even less common than PH2.

The signs and symptoms of primary hyperoxaluria can vary from mild to severe, with some individuals experiencing kidney stones or renal damage at a young age. Other individuals may not show any signs of the condition until later in life. Diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria is typically made through genetic testing.

For more information about primary hyperoxaluria and genetic testing, the following resources are available:

  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (https://omim.org/) provides detailed information about the genetic causes of primary hyperoxaluria.
  • GeneReviews: This resource (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1283/) offers detailed information about the clinical features, genetic testing, and management of primary hyperoxaluria.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/) lists ongoing clinical trials and studies related to primary hyperoxaluria and its treatment.
  • PubMed: This database (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) provides access to scientific articles and research studies on primary hyperoxaluria.
  • Nephrol Dial Transplant: The journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation often publishes articles related to primary hyperoxaluria and other renal diseases.

In addition to these resources, there are also several advocacy and support organizations that provide information and support to individuals and families affected by primary hyperoxaluria.

Causes

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in certain genes. There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, which are known as type 1, type 2, and type 3.

Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria: This type is caused by mutations in the AGXT gene. The AGXT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, which is involved in the breakdown of a compound called glyoxylate. Mutations in the AGXT gene lead to a deficiency of this enzyme, resulting in the buildup of glyoxylate and the production of high levels of oxalate. This excess oxalate can lead to the formation of oxalate crystals in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage.

Type 2 primary hyperoxaluria: This type is caused by mutations in the GRHPR gene. The GRHPR gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, which is involved in the breakdown of glyoxylate. Mutations in the GRHPR gene result in a deficiency of this enzyme, leading to the buildup of glyoxylate and the production of high levels of oxalate. As with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria, this excess oxalate can cause kidney damage.

Type 3 primary hyperoxaluria: This type is caused by mutations in the HOGA1 gene. The HOGA1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase, which is involved in the breakdown of a compound called hydroxyproline. Mutations in the HOGA1 gene result in a deficiency of this enzyme, leading to the buildup of hydroxyproline and the production of high levels of oxalate. Once again, this excess oxalate can cause kidney damage.

It’s important to note that primary hyperoxaluria is a rare condition. For more information about the causes of primary hyperoxaluria, individuals can visit the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database, where they can learn more about the specific genes and mutations associated with this condition.

In addition to OMIM, individuals can also find more scientific articles and research studies about the causes of primary hyperoxaluria on PubMed, a database of scientific literature. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) also provides resources and support for individuals with primary hyperoxaluria through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center.

There are also genetic testing resources available for individuals who suspect they may have primary hyperoxaluria or who have a family history of the condition. Genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis and identify the specific gene mutations responsible.

See also  SMARCB1 gene

It’s worth noting that there are other rare diseases and conditions associated with primary hyperoxaluria, including secondary oxalosis, which can occur as a result of certain medical treatments or conditions that cause the body to produce excessive amounts of oxalate. Individuals with primary hyperoxaluria may also be interested in participating in clinical trials, which can provide access to experimental treatments and further contribute to research efforts aimed at finding new treatments and improving patient outcomes.

For more information about the causes of primary hyperoxaluria, individuals can visit the following resources and websites:

  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (www.omim.org)
  • PubMed – a database of scientific articles (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)
  • NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (rarediseases.info.nih.gov)
  • NIDDK – National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (www.niddk.nih.gov)
  • Genetic testing resources – such as commercial genetic testing companies or genetics clinics
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – a database of clinical trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Advocacy organizations and support groups for individuals with primary hyperoxaluria

Further research and understanding of the causes of primary hyperoxaluria are ongoing, and individuals with this condition are encouraged to stay informed about the latest developments in the field.

Learn more about the genes associated with Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in certain genes. These genetic mutations affect the function of enzymes that are involved in the normal metabolism of a substance called glyoxylate. When these enzymes do not function properly, glyoxylate is converted to a substance called oxalate. High levels of oxalate can lead to the formation of kidney stones and damage to the kidneys.

There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, each associated with different genes:

  1. Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria is associated with mutations in the AGXT gene.
  2. Type 2 primary hyperoxaluria is associated with mutations in the GRHPR gene.
  3. Type 3 primary hyperoxaluria is associated with mutations in the HOGA1 gene.

Research has shown that these genes are important for the proper function of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glyoxylate and oxalate. Understanding these genes and how they are affected in primary hyperoxaluria can provide valuable insight into the causes of the condition.

To learn more about these genes and their role in primary hyperoxaluria, you can visit various scientific resources such as PubMed, OMIM, and GeneReviews®. These resources provide detailed information about the genetic basis of primary hyperoxaluria, including the specific genes involved, their inheritance patterns, and their associated clinical signs and symptoms. Additionally, they may have articles and research studies that provide further information on the topic.

If you are a patient or caregiver looking for more information and support, there are also advocacy organizations that provide resources and support for individuals with primary hyperoxaluria. These organizations can provide information about the condition, connect you with healthcare providers experienced in treating primary hyperoxaluria, and help you find clinical trials or studies that may be relevant to your situation.

In summary, primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition associated with mutations in specific genes involved in the metabolism of glyoxylate and oxalate. Understanding these genes and their function can lead to a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Various resources, including scientific literature and advocacy organizations, are available to learn more about the genes associated with primary hyperoxaluria and to provide support for individuals and their families affected by this condition.

Inheritance

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that both copies of the responsible gene in each cell have mutations. Individuals with only one mutated copy of the gene are called carriers and typically do not show signs or symptoms of the condition.

There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, each caused by mutations in a different gene:

  1. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1) is caused by mutations in the AGXT gene.
  2. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 (PH2) is caused by mutations in the GRHPR gene.
  3. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 3 (PH3) is caused by mutations in the HOGA1 gene.

These genes provide instructions for making enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of glyoxylate, a molecule that is normally broken down in the body. Mutations in these genes lead to an accumulation of glyoxylate, which is converted to oxalate. High levels of oxalate can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other complications associated with primary hyperoxaluria.

Testing for primary hyperoxaluria can be done to confirm a diagnosis or to identify carriers. Genetic testing can identify mutations in the responsible genes, while urine and blood tests can measure levels of oxalate. It is important to diagnose primary hyperoxaluria early on in order to prevent kidney damage and provide appropriate treatment.

For more information about primary hyperoxaluria, the causes, inheritance, and clinical trials, you can visit the following resources:

These resources provide additional scientific information on primary hyperoxaluria, including research studies, clinical trials, and support for patients and advocacy organizations.

Other Names for This Condition

Primary hyperoxaluria is also known by several other names, including:

  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 1
  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 2
  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 3
  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 4
  • PH1
  • PH2
  • PH3
  • PH4
  • Hyperoxaluria-primary
  • Primary hyperoxaluria I
  • Primary hyperoxaluria II
  • Primary hyperoxaluria III
  • Primary hyperoxaluria IV
  • Nephrolithiasis, oxalosis type 1
  • Nephrolithiasis, oxalosis type 2
  • Nephrolithiasis, oxalosis type 3
  • Nephrolithiasis, oxalosis type 4
  • Oxalate nephrolithiasis

These names reflect the different types of primary hyperoxaluria and the associated kidney damage caused by excessive production or reduced elimination of oxalate. The condition is rare, and additional information can be found in scientific articles, research studies, and resources such as the Genereviewsr, OMIM, PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and advocacy organizations.

Additional Information Resources

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition associated with the overproduction of oxalate, which can lead to damage in the kidneys and other organs. If you are interested in learning more about this condition, the following resources may provide further information and support:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles and studies on various medical topics. Searching for “primary hyperoxaluria” on PubMed can provide you with more information about the causes, signs, and inheritance of this condition.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: This online resource provides comprehensive information on rare genetic diseases, including primary hyperoxaluria. It offers an overview of the condition, its symptoms, and treatment options.
  • Genereviews: A website that provides in-depth reviews on genetic diseases. The page dedicated to primary hyperoxaluria contains detailed information on the different types of this condition, their genetic causes, and clinical features.
  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It offers detailed information on the genes associated with primary hyperoxaluria.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website lists ongoing and completed clinical trials related to various medical conditions, including primary hyperoxaluria. It can provide information on any ongoing research studies or clinical trials that are investigating new treatments or interventions.
See also  EYA1 gene

In addition to these resources, there are also various patient support and advocacy groups that can provide further information and support for individuals and families affected by primary hyperoxaluria. These organizations may offer educational materials, support groups, and resources for finding specialist care. Some examples include:

  • Primary Hyperoxaluria Foundation
  • Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis Support Network

By utilizing these resources, you can further expand your knowledge and understanding of primary hyperoxaluria, its genetic basis, clinical presentations, and ongoing research.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria, a rare condition that leads to the overproduction of oxalate in the body. There are three main types of primary hyperoxaluria, called type 1, type 2, and type 3. Each type is associated with different genes and inheritance patterns.

Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the specific genes involved in primary hyperoxaluria and the inheritance pattern of the condition. It can help individuals understand the underlying cause of their kidney problems and provide insights into the risk of passing the condition on to their children.

Primary hyperoxaluria is caused by mutations in genes involved in glyoxylate metabolism, which lead to the overproduction of oxalate. This excess oxalate can build up in the kidneys and other organs, causing damage over time. Genetic testing can identify these mutations and provide information about the specific genes involved.

There are several resources available for individuals and healthcare professionals seeking genetic testing information for primary hyperoxaluria. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) is a comprehensive catalog of genetic tests, providing information on the frequency, clinical utility, and scientific evidence for each test.

In addition, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides detailed information on the genes associated with primary hyperoxaluria and other genetic diseases. PubMed, a database of scientific articles, can be searched to find relevant studies and research on the genetic causes and clinical presentations of primary hyperoxaluria.

Genetic testing for primary hyperoxaluria can be done through specialized laboratories and genetic testing centers. These centers can provide additional resources and support, such as patient advocacy groups and educational materials. ClinicalTrials.gov is also a valuable resource for finding ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to primary hyperoxaluria.

In summary, genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria. It provides important information about the specific genes involved, the inheritance pattern, and the risk of passing the condition on to future generations. By identifying the underlying genetic causes of primary hyperoxaluria, genetic testing can lead to more targeted and effective treatment approaches.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). GARD provides information about rare diseases and genetic conditions to individuals and families seeking answers.

GARD offers a wide range of resources to support individuals with primary hyperoxaluria and other rare diseases. The center’s website provides in-depth information about the signs, symptoms, and inheritance of primary hyperoxaluria, as well as additional resources for further learning. GARD also offers a variety of other resources, including links to scientific articles, clinical trial information, and patient advocacy groups.

Individuals with primary hyperoxaluria may experience damage to their kidneys due to the build-up of a substance called oxalate. GARD provides information on the function and genes associated with the condition, as well as information on genetic testing and resources for individuals and families affected by primary hyperoxaluria.

To learn more about primary hyperoxaluria and related conditions, individuals can visit the GARD website and access a variety of resources. GARD provides links to scientific studies, clinical trial information from ClinicalTrials.gov, and articles from PubMed. The center also offers a Rare Diseases Information Catalog, which provides resources and information about rare diseases and conditions. Individuals can also find additional information on GARD’s OMIM and GeneReviewsr websites.

GARD aims to provide comprehensive information and support for individuals with primary hyperoxaluria and their families. The center’s resources can help individuals understand the causes and inheritance patterns of primary hyperoxaluria, as well as the impact it can have on the kidneys and overall health. By providing up-to-date information and research, GARD aims to support individuals in their journey to better understand and manage primary hyperoxaluria.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients with primary hyperoxaluria or oxalosis and their families can benefit from various patient support and advocacy resources. These resources provide valuable information about the condition, available treatments, and additional support for individuals affected by this rare genetic disorder.

Support Resources

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: Information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to primary hyperoxaluria and oxalosis can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov. This resource is a great way to stay updated on the latest advancements in the field.
  • Genes and diseases: Genes and Diseases is an online catalog of genes associated with various genetic disorders, including primary hyperoxaluria. It provides detailed information about the genes involved in this condition and their inheritance patterns.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) offers comprehensive information about primary hyperoxaluria and other rare genetic disorders. It provides resources for patients, families, and healthcare professionals.
  • Genetic counseling: Genetic counseling services can help individuals and families affected by primary hyperoxaluria understand the condition, its causes, inheritance patterns, and available testing options. They also provide emotional support and guidance throughout the diagnosis and management process.

Advocacy Resources

  • Genetic Oxalate Stone Diseases (GOSD): GOSD is a patient advocacy organization that aims to support individuals with primary hyperoxaluria and raise awareness about the condition. They provide educational resources, support networks, and advocacy initiatives.
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria Research Foundation (PHRF): The PHRF is a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure for primary hyperoxaluria and supporting affected individuals. They fund scientific research, provide patient support, and advocate for increased awareness and funding for the condition.
  • Scientific literature and articles: Keeping up with scientific literature and articles on primary hyperoxaluria can provide valuable insights into the latest research and treatment options. Resources like PubMed and GeneReviews can help individuals stay informed about the condition’s advancements.

By utilizing these patient support and advocacy resources, individuals with primary hyperoxaluria can access information, connect with others facing similar challenges, and find the support they need to manage their condition effectively.

See also  Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that leads to the overproduction of a substance called oxalate. This excess oxalate can build up in the kidneys and other organs, causing damage and dysfunction. There are three main types of primary hyperoxaluria, which are known as primary hyperoxaluria type 1, type 2, and type 3. Each type is associated with specific genetic changes and inheritance patterns.

Research studies on primary hyperoxaluria are being conducted to learn more about this condition, its underlying causes, and potential treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov, a database of clinical studies, provides information on ongoing research studies related to primary hyperoxaluria and other rare genetic diseases.

These studies aim to improve our understanding of primary hyperoxaluria and develop new strategies for diagnosis, management, and treatment. They investigate different aspects of the condition, including the signs and symptoms, genetic inheritance, renal function, and the genetic changes associated with the various types of primary hyperoxaluria.

By participating in these research studies, patients and their families can contribute to the development of new knowledge and potential therapies for primary hyperoxaluria. Patients can also access additional resources and support through clinicaltrialsgov, such as information on genetic testing, advocacy organizations, and patient support groups.

For more information about primary hyperoxaluria, its genetic causes, and related research articles, visit resources such as PubMed, OMIM, and GeneReviews®. These sources provide comprehensive information about the condition and its associated genes.

In summary, primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition that can lead to severe kidney damage. Research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov are aimed at improving our understanding of this condition and developing new approaches for diagnosis and treatment. By participating in these studies, individuals with primary hyperoxaluria can contribute to the advancement of medical knowledge and potentially benefit from new therapies.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of rare genetic diseases and the genes associated with them. It provides comprehensive information about these conditions, including their clinical features, inheritance patterns, and supporting scientific research.

Primary hyperoxaluria is one of the rare genetic diseases listed in OMIM. It is a condition that leads to the overproduction of oxalate, which can accumulate and cause damage to the kidneys and other organs. There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, namely type 1, type 2, and type 3, each caused by mutations in different genes.

Individuals with primary hyperoxaluria may experience signs of the condition, such as kidney stones, recurrent urinary tract infections, and kidney damage. The condition can be diagnosed through genetic testing, which can identify the specific gene mutation responsible for the disease.

The frequency of primary hyperoxaluria is relatively rare, with only a few hundred known cases worldwide. Due to its rarity, there is limited scientific research and resources available for this condition. However, organizations like Genereviews, as well as advocacy and support groups, provide additional information and resources for individuals affected by primary hyperoxaluria.

For more information about primary hyperoxaluria and other rare genetic diseases, OMIM is a valuable resource. It contains detailed descriptions of the genes involved, the clinical features associated with each type, and references to scientific articles and studies. OMIM can be accessed online, and users can search for specific diseases or genes of interest.

In addition to OMIM, other resources like PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov can provide further information on ongoing research and clinical trials related to primary hyperoxaluria. These platforms can be useful for individuals looking for the latest advancements in the field and potential treatment options.

Overall, OMIM serves as a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases, including primary hyperoxaluria. It provides crucial information for genetic testing, clinical diagnosis, and further scientific research on this rare condition.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic condition characterized by the overproduction of oxalate in the body. This excess oxalate can lead to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause damage to the kidneys and other organs.

Individuals with primary hyperoxaluria have mutations in the genes responsible for the production of the enzymes that metabolize glyoxylate, a precursor of oxalate. There are several types of primary hyperoxaluria, each associated with different genes.

Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for primary hyperoxaluria. Researchers have conducted studies to learn more about the condition and develop effective therapies.

Some of the articles on PubMed focus on the genetic basis of primary hyperoxaluria and provide detailed information about the genes and genetic mutations associated with the condition. These articles can be useful for genetic testing centers and individuals who want to learn more about the specific genetic changes that can lead to primary hyperoxaluria.

In addition to genetic information, there are also articles on PubMed that provide clinical information about primary hyperoxaluria. These articles describe the signs and symptoms of the condition, as well as the damage it can cause to the kidneys and other organs. They may also discuss the different types of primary hyperoxaluria and their frequency in the population.

PubMed is a valuable resource for researchers studying primary hyperoxaluria. The scientific articles available on PubMed provide up-to-date information on the latest research findings, clinical trials, and advancements in treatment options. Researchers can use this information to support their own studies and further our understanding of this rare genetic condition.

Advocacy groups and individuals affected by primary hyperoxaluria can also benefit from the articles available on PubMed. They can find information about support resources, clinical trial opportunities, and additional references for further reading.

In summary, PubMed is a valuable resource for anyone interested in primary hyperoxaluria. The scientific articles available on the platform provide information on the genetic basis of the condition, clinical presentations, treatment options, and ongoing research studies. Whether you are a researcher, healthcare provider, or individual affected by primary hyperoxaluria, PubMed has a wealth of information to support your needs.

References

  • PH1, PH2 Data Presentation. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://primaryhyperoxaluria.org/ph1-ph2-data-presentation/
  • Primary hyperoxaluria. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.omim.org/clinicalSynopsis/259900
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria type 1. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1283/
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria type 2. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234280/
  • Primary hyperoxaluria. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/primary-hyperoxaluria/
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria. (2022, August 23). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/primary-hyperoxaluria/
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://genereviews.nrdrs.org/index.php?content=hyperoxaluria1&tab=info&page=background
  • Primary hyperoxaluria. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/primary-hyperoxaluria
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/primary-hyperoxaluria
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria. (2021, May 21). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/982116-overview