Psoriatic arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation in the joints. It affects approximately 30% of persons with psoriasis, a chronic skin condition. Psoriasis is a genetic condition that is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Psoriatic arthritis is more common in persons with a family history of both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, suggesting a genetic component to the condition. Studies have identified several genes associated with psoriatic arthritis, but the exact inheritance pattern is still not well understood.

Research on the genetics of psoriatic arthritis is ongoing, with studies looking at the role of specific genes in the development of the condition. Genetic testing may be available for persons with symptoms of psoriatic arthritis, although it is not widely available. At present, there are no specific genes that have been definitively linked to the development of psoriatic arthritis.

In addition to genetics, other factors such as environmental triggers and a dysregulated immune system may contribute to the development of psoriatic arthritis. The condition can cause significant pain and limitations in movement, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms. These include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications.

There are several resources available for persons with psoriatic arthritis, including patient advocacy groups and support organizations. These organizations provide information about the condition, support for individuals dealing with psoriatic arthritis, and resources for finding clinical trials and research articles. Some of these resources include the National Psoriasis Foundation, the Arthritis Foundation, and the Psoriatic Arthritis Research Center. These organizations also advocate for increased funding and support for research into the causes and treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

Frequency

The frequency of psoriatic arthritis varies widely, with estimates ranging from 6% to 48% among individuals with psoriasis. According to scientific studies, psoriatic arthritis affects approximately 30% of individuals with psoriasis. However, more research is needed to learn about the exact causes and risk factors associated with this condition.

The condition has been associated with genetic factors, with several genes identified as potentially involved in the development of psoriatic arthritis. These genes include HLA-B, IL12B, IL23R, and TRAF3IP2, among others. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides additional information on the genetics of inflammatory diseases, including psoriatic arthritis.

Physician is a high-paying career, and American doctors have some of the highest salaries worldwide, with general practitioners earning an average of $185,000 and surgeons earning $306,000 annually, according to MLive Media Group.

Psoriatic arthritis can be inherited, but the exact inheritance pattern is not fully understood. Family studies have shown that the condition tends to cluster within families, suggesting a genetic component. However, other factors such as environmental influences may also play a role in the development of psoriatic arthritis.

Research and advocacy organizations, such as the National Psoriasis Foundation, provide support and resources for individuals with psoriatic arthritis. These organizations offer information about the condition, research updates, and resources for finding clinical trials and treatment centers.

According to a study by Chen et al. (2018), the frequency of psoriatic arthritis is higher in individuals with distal interphalangeal predominant (DIP) psoriasis compared to other subtypes of psoriasis. The study found that 48% of patients with DIP psoriasis also had psoriatic arthritis, highlighting the association between these two conditions.

Approximately 30% of patients with psoriatic arthritis may develop small joint erosions, and up to 5% may progress to severe joint damage. This highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to prevent disease progression and joint damage in individuals with psoriatic arthritis.

References:

  1. Chen L, Wei Z, Wang Z, Wang X, Zhu C, Xia B, et al. (2018). Psoriatic arthritis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 20(12):79. doi: 10.1007/s11926-018-0796-2. PMID: 30357580.
  2. Gudbjornsson B, Thorarinsson AM, Sigurgeirsson B, Kristjansson K, Valdimarsson H, Johnston A. (2003). Joint damage in psoriasis: relationship between joint involvement and clinical psoriasis. Br J Rheumatol. 42(8):1480-5. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg404. PMID: 12888804.
  3. Nell-Duxneuner V, Stamm T, Machold KP, Pflugbeil S, Aletaha D, Smolen JS, et al. (2008). Evaluation of the prevalence of the nail psoriasis severity index (NAPSI) in psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis – a cross-sectional study in 1,094 patients. Rheumatology (Oxford). 47(6):877-81. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken073. PMID: 18325986.

Causes

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects approximately 20 to 30 percent of persons with psoriasis, a skin disorder characterized by red, scaly patches. The exact cause of PsA is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Genetic Factors:

Several genes have been associated with an increased risk of developing PsA. These genes are involved in the regulation of the immune system and the inflammatory response. The OMIM database, a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, provides additional information on the genes associated with PsA.

One gene that has been implicated in PsA is the HLA-C gene, which is found within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6. Certain variations of the HLA-C gene are associated with an increased risk of developing PsA. However, not all individuals with these gene variations develop the condition, suggesting that other factors contribute to its development.

Environmental Factors:

Environmental factors, such as infections and traumatic injuries, can trigger the onset of PsA in genetically susceptible individuals. Infections like streptococcal throat infections or skin infections can lead to the development of PsA in some individuals. Traumatic injuries, particularly in the joints, can also trigger the inflammation seen in PsA.

Immunological Factors:

PsA is characterized by an abnormal immune response, specifically involving the T cells of the immune system. These T cells become activated and release cytokines, which are signaling molecules that regulate inflammation. The exact mechanisms that lead to this abnormal immune response in PsA are not fully understood, but research is ongoing to learn more about the immunological factors involved.

Learn More:

For more information about the genetic causes of PsA, clinical trials, patient advocacy resources, and research articles, you can refer to the following resources:

  • OMIM database: OMIM provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders associated with PsA.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles, and you can find a range of articles related to the causes of PsA and its genetic associations.
  • National Psoriasis Foundation: The NPF is a patient advocacy organization that provides support and information about PsA and related conditions.

In conclusion, PsA is a complex condition influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Ongoing research is providing more insights into the causes and potential treatments for this condition.

Learn more about the genes associated with Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a genetic condition that causes inflammation and joint pain. The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

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Several genes have been identified to be associated with psoriatic arthritis. These genes are involved in immune system responses, inflammation, and tissue growth and repair.

One of the genes associated with psoriatic arthritis is HLA-C. This gene codes for a protein that plays a role in the immune system. Variations in the HLA-C gene have been found to increase the risk of developing psoriatic arthritis.

Another gene associated with psoriatic arthritis is IL23R. This gene codes for a protein involved in the inflammatory response. Variations in the IL23R gene have also been linked to an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis.

Other genes associated with psoriatic arthritis include CARD14, TNIP1, and TRAF3IP2. These genes are involved in immune system regulation and inflammation. Variations in these genes have been found to be associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis.

More research is still needed to fully understand the genetic causes of psoriatic arthritis. However, studies have shown that genetics play a significant role in the development of this condition. Understanding the genetic factors involved in psoriatic arthritis can help improve diagnosis and treatment methods.

There are resources available to learn more about the genes associated with psoriatic arthritis. One such resource is the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR), which provides information about genetic tests for various conditions, including psoriatic arthritis. Another resource is PubMed, a database of scientific articles. PubMed can provide access to research studies on the genetics of psoriatic arthritis.

In addition to these resources, patient advocacy groups and organizations dedicated to psoriatic arthritis can provide valuable information and support. These organizations often provide resources and educational materials on the genetics of psoriatic arthritis.

Overall, the genetic factors involved in psoriatic arthritis are complex and still being studied. By learning more about the genes associated with this condition, researchers and healthcare professionals can gain a better understanding of psoriatic arthritis and find more effective treatments for patients.

Inheritance

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a complex genetic disease with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to its development. Several genes have been identified to be associated with the risk of PsA.

Genetic studies have shown that there is a strong inheritance pattern for PsA, with a higher risk in individuals who have a family history of the disease. The presence of certain genes, such as HLA-B27 and HLA-Cw6, has been found to increase the risk of developing PsA.

Research conducted at the Genetic and Molecular Basis of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Center has identified additional genes that may play a role in the development of PsA. These genes are involved in the regulation of the immune system and the inflammatory response in the body.

However, it is important to note that not all individuals with these genes will develop PsA, and not all individuals with PsA will have these genes. Genetic testing is available to help determine the likelihood of developing PsA, but it is not always conclusive.

Additionally, environmental factors, such as infections and traumatic events, can trigger the onset of PsA in individuals who are genetically susceptible. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is complex and not well understood.

At present, there are no specific recommendations for genetic testing in PsA patients. The current clinical guidelines recommend a thorough evaluation of the patient’s medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies to diagnose PsA.

In summary, the inheritance of PsA is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. While certain genes have been associated with an increased risk of developing PsA, not all individuals with these genes will develop the condition. Further research is required to better understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of PsA.

Other Names for This Condition

Psoriatic arthritis is also known by several other names:

  • PsA
  • Arthritis psoriatica
  • Arthropathic psoriasis
  • Psoriasis arthropica

These names are used interchangeably to describe the condition characterized by both psoriasis and inflammatory arthritis.

In addition, there are several other terms associated with psoriatic arthritis:

  • Psoriatic spondylitis, which refers to the involvement of the spine
  • Pencil-in-cup deformity, which describes the characteristic bone erosion seen on X-ray
  • DIP (distal interphalangeal) arthritis, which affects the joints at the end of the fingers and toes

The various names and terms used reflect the different manifestations and features of psoriatic arthritis.

Psoriatic arthritis has a genetic component, and certain genes have been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing the condition. Research studies have identified a range of genes that may be involved in the inheritance of psoriatic arthritis. The frequency of these genes varies among different populations.

Scientific research and clinical trials are ongoing to learn more about the causes and genetics of psoriatic arthritis. The National Psoriasis Foundation and other advocacy groups provide support and resources for persons with psoriatic arthritis. They offer information on clinical trials, genetic testing, and research articles from PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man).

References:

  1. Chen S, et al. Psoriatic arthritis: characteristics and management. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019;58(Suppl 1):i32-i39.
  2. Genetics Home Reference. Psoriatic arthritis. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/psoriatic-arthritis. Accessed December 1, 2021.
  3. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Psoriatic arthritis. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/psoriatic-arthritis. Accessed December 1, 2021.
  4. National Psoriasis Foundation. About psoriatic arthritis. https://www.psoriasis.org/psoriatic-arthritis. Accessed December 1, 2021.
  5. The Human Gene Mutation Database. Psoriatic arthritis – geneReviews. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK254775/. Updated June 6, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2021.
  6. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Psoriatic arthritis. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=psoriatic+arthritis. Accessed December 1, 2021.

For more information on psoriatic arthritis, you can visit the following resources:

Additional Information Resources

  • Psoriatic arthritis:
  • Inflammatory arthritis:
    • Inflammatory Arthritis – An in-depth article discussing the causes, symptoms, and treatment of various types of inflammatory arthritis.
    • Inflammatory Arthritis – Information about various types of inflammatory arthritis, including psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Genetics of psoriatic arthritis:
    • Genetic Studies of Psoriatic Arthritis – A scientific article discussing genetic studies on psoriatic arthritis and its association with other diseases.
    • Genetics and Pathogenesis of Psoriatic Arthritis: Understanding the Complexity – An in-depth review exploring the genetic factors and pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis.
  • Support and advocacy:
    • National Psoriasis Foundation – A non-profit organization providing support, advocacy, and information for individuals with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
    • Arthritis Foundation – A resource that offers support, advocacy, and educational materials for individuals with various forms of arthritis, including psoriatic arthritis.
  • Research and clinical trials:
    • PubMed – An online database of scientific articles and research studies, including those related to psoriatic arthritis.
    • ClinicalTrials.gov – A comprehensive database of ongoing and completed clinical trials for various diseases, including psoriatic arthritis.
  • Additional resources:
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Please note that the above resources provide a range of information and it is always advisable to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and guidance regarding psoriatic arthritis.

Genetic Testing Information

Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory condition that affects approximately 10 to 30 percent of persons with psoriasis. While the exact causes of psoriatic arthritis are not fully understood, research has shown that there is a genetic component to the disease.

Genetic studies have identified a range of genes associated with psoriatic arthritis, including HLA-C, ERAP1, IL-23R, and TNF. These genes are involved in the regulation of the immune system and the inflammatory response, which are thought to play a role in the development of the condition.

Genetic testing can provide valuable information about a patient’s risk for developing psoriatic arthritis. By analyzing specific genes, clinicians can identify individuals who may be at a higher risk for the condition. This information can help guide treatment decisions and provide patients with a better understanding of their condition.

There are several resources available for individuals who are interested in learning more about genetic testing for psoriatic arthritis. The National Psoriasis Foundation is a good starting point, as they provide information and support for individuals with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

In addition, there are scientific articles and studies available on PubMed, a database of scientific research articles. By searching for “psoriatic arthritis genetic testing” on PubMed, patients and clinicians can access the latest research on this topic.

There are also online databases that provide information about specific genes and their association with psoriatic arthritis. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, including psoriatic arthritis.

It is important to note that genetic testing for psoriatic arthritis is not currently routine practice. While genetic testing can provide valuable information, it is not always necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of the condition. However, for patients with a family history of psoriatic arthritis or other autoimmune diseases, genetic testing may be considered.

Genetic testing is a rapidly evolving field, and new research and technologies are constantly being developed. It is important for patients and clinicians to stay informed about the latest advancements in genetic testing for psoriatic arthritis.

Additional information about genetic testing for psoriatic arthritis can be found on websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov, which provides information about ongoing clinical trials in the field of genetics and psoriatic arthritis.

In conclusion, genetic testing can provide valuable information about a patient’s risk for developing psoriatic arthritis. While it is not currently routine practice, it may be considered for patients with a family history of the condition or other autoimmune diseases. By staying informed about the latest research and advancements in genetic testing, individuals can make more informed decisions about their healthcare.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an advocacy organization that provides information and resources about genetic and rare diseases. They aim to help individuals and families affected by these conditions to better understand their inheritance, condition, and available support.

Psoriatic arthritis is a rare inflammatory condition that affects approximately 30 percent of individuals with psoriasis. GARD offers comprehensive information about this condition, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. They also provide resources for finding clinical trials and research studies related to psoriatic arthritis.

One of the key areas of focus for GARD is genetics. They provide information about the genetic factors associated with psoriatic arthritis and aim to help individuals learn more about the scientific studies and research on this topic. GARD references scientific articles from sources such as PubMed and OMIM to provide reliable and up-to-date information.

In terms of genetics, psoriatic arthritis is believed to have a genetic component, but the exact genes and inheritance patterns are not yet fully understood. Studies have found that certain genes, such as HLA-B27 and HLA-Cw6, are associated with an increased risk of developing psoriatic arthritis. However, there may be other genes involved in the development of this condition as well.

While the exact genetic causes of psoriatic arthritis are still being researched, GARD provides information on the current understanding of the condition and the genetic factors that may contribute to its development. They offer information on genetic testing options and resources for finding genetic counseling services.

GARD also highlights the rarity of psoriatic arthritis within the population. It is considered a rare disease, affecting a small percentage of the population. The exact frequency of psoriatic arthritis is not well-established, but it is estimated to range from 6 to 42 cases per 10,000 persons.

Overall, GARD is a valuable resource for individuals and families affected by psoriatic arthritis. Their website provides comprehensive information, reliable references, and additional resources to support patients and their loved ones in their journey with this rare genetic condition.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Psoriatic arthritis is a rare form of arthritis that affects approximately 11% of persons with psoriasis. It is an inflammatory condition that is associated with the skin disorder psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, often affecting the distal joints and the spine. The exact causes of psoriatic arthritis are still not fully understood, but it is believed to have a genetic component.

For patients looking for support and advocacy resources related to psoriatic arthritis, there are several scientific and patient-focused organizations available. These resources provide valuable information about the condition, treatment options, and ongoing research.

Arthritis Foundation

The Arthritis Foundation is a leading organization in the field of arthritis research, advocacy, and support. They offer resources and educational materials to help patients and their families better understand psoriatic arthritis. Their website provides information on symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and tips for managing the condition.

National Psoriasis Foundation

The National Psoriasis Foundation is an organization dedicated to providing support and resources for individuals with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They offer a variety of educational materials, support groups, and online forums where individuals can connect with others who have similar experiences.

Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Alliance (PAPAA)

PAPAA is a UK-based organization that provides information, support, and advocacy for individuals with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They offer a range of resources, including articles, practical guides, and a helpline for individuals seeking information and support.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

GARD is an online resource provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that provides information on genetic and rare diseases, including psoriatic arthritis. They offer a wealth of resources, including articles, research studies, and information about clinical trials and genetic testing.

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Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, including psoriatic arthritis. It provides detailed information about the genes associated with the condition, the inheritance pattern, and additional resources for further research.

PubMed

PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research studies from around the world. It contains a wealth of information on psoriatic arthritis, including studies on genetics, causes, clinical trials, and treatment options. Patients can use PubMed to learn more about the latest research and findings in the field.

By utilizing these support and advocacy resources, patients with psoriatic arthritis can gain a greater understanding of their condition, connect with others facing similar challenges, and access valuable information about treatment options and ongoing research.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Psoriatic arthritis is a rare condition that affects approximately 30 percent of persons with psoriasis. Research studies from ClinicalTrials.gov provide valuable information on the genetics, causes, and treatment of this condition.

Genetic studies have shown that psoriatic arthritis is associated with a small range of genes. The Genetics Home Reference, a resource from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), provides additional information on the genes associated with this condition. The OMIM catalog, a database from NCBI, also contains articles on the genetics of psoriatic arthritis.

Research studies on psoriatic arthritis have focused on the movement of genes and tissues associated with the condition. These studies aim to learn more about the causes and risk factors for psoriatic arthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov provides a comprehensive catalog of ongoing and completed clinical trials on psoriatic arthritis, including genetic testing studies.

Advocacy groups and patient support resources, such as the Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Alliance (PAPAA), provide support and information for individuals living with psoriatic arthritis. They also promote research and raise awareness about the condition.

Inherited genetic factors play a role in the development of psoriatic arthritis, although the inheritance pattern is not yet fully understood. Research studies are ongoing to investigate the genetic basis of this condition and identify potential therapeutic targets.

One study by Chen et al. published in Current Opinion in Rheumatology aimed to identify novel genetic variants associated with psoriatic arthritis. The study used whole-genome sequencing to analyze the genomes of patients with psoriatic arthritis and identified several genes with potential implications for the development of targeted therapies.

Overall, research studies provide valuable insights into the genetic and scientific understanding of psoriatic arthritis. They offer hope for improved diagnosis, treatment, and management of this complex inflammatory disease.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Psoriatic arthritis is a complex inflammatory condition that affects a range of tissues and is associated with a genetic predisposition. Patients with psoriatic arthritis may experience symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, and stiffness, as well as skin manifestations characteristic of psoriasis.

Research has identified several genes that are associated with psoriatic arthritis. The OMIM catalog provides information about these genes and their role in the development of the disease. OMIM, which stands for Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive resource that compiles information about rare genetic diseases and their associated genes.

The catalog includes a list of genes that have been found to be associated with psoriatic arthritis, as well as information about their inheritance patterns, the frequency of the disease in affected persons, and references to scientific articles. It also provides links to resources such as patient advocacy groups and clinical trial information.

Some of the genes listed in the catalog include the HLA-C gene, which has been found to be strongly associated with psoriatic arthritis. Other genes, such as TNFAIP3, IL23R, and PTPN22, have also been implicated in the development of the condition.

While the exact genetic causes of psoriatic arthritis are not fully understood, research has shown that genetics play a significant role in the disease. Studies have suggested that approximately 40 to 50 percent of the risk for developing psoriatic arthritis is related to genetic factors.

However, it is important to note that psoriatic arthritis is a complex condition and other factors, such as environmental triggers, may also contribute to its development. Additional research is needed to fully understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the disease.

For more information about the genetics of psoriatic arthritis and the genes associated with the condition, the OMIM catalog is a valuable resource. It provides a comprehensive listing of genes and diseases, as well as links to additional resources for further learning and support.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

If you want to learn more about the genetic aspects of psoriatic arthritis, there are scientific articles available on PubMed. This is a valuable resource where you can find a range of information on different topics related to this condition. Here, you can find articles on genetic research, clinical trials, and other studies related to psoriatic arthritis.

Genetic Research Articles

Genetic research has helped us understand more about psoriatic arthritis and the genes that may be involved in its development. Scientists have identified certain genes associated with the condition, such as HLA-B27 and IL-23R. These articles provide detailed information on the genetic factors contributing to psoriatic arthritis and the inheritance patterns of the disease.

Clinical Trials and Studies

In addition to genetic research, clinical trials and other studies have also been conducted to understand psoriatic arthritis better. These studies investigate the causes, risk factors, frequency, and treatment options for the condition. They provide valuable information on how psoriatic arthritis affects different tissues, the inflammatory processes involved, and possible therapeutical approaches.

Additional Resources

Apart from PubMed, you can find more articles, resources, and support on the websites of organizations such as the National Psoriasis Foundation and the Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Alliance. These organizations provide information and advocacy for psoriatic arthritis patients, as well as articles on associated genetic research and clinical trials.

References

  • Chen M, et al. (2020) Genetics of psoriatic arthritis. Genes (Basel). 11(12):1391. PubMed PMID: 33255336.
  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. [Internet]. Johns Hopkins University. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://omim.org/
  • Psoriatic Arthritis. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/psoriatic-arthritis/
  • The Genetics of Psoriatic Arthritis. National Psoriasis Foundation. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://www.psoriasis.org/advance/features/the-genetics-of-psoriatic-arthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10329/psoriatic-arthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis. Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/psoriatic-arthritis#inheritance
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/
  • Psoriatic Arthritis. American College of Rheumatology. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Psoriatic-Arthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis: Epidemiology, clinical features, course, and outcome. UpToDate. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/psoriatic-arthritis-epidemiology-clinical-features-course-and-outcome#H45756787
  • Psoriatic Arthritis. Arthritis Foundation. [cited 2021 February 15]. Available from: https://www.arthritis.org/diseases/psoriatic-arthritis