Refsum disease, also known as Refsum syndrome or heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis, is a rare genetic disorder. It is named after Sigvald Bernhard Refsum, the Norwegian neurologist who first described the condition in 1946. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that both copies of the gene in each cell are mutated.

The disease is characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid, a fatty acid derived from dietary sources, in various tissues and body fluids. This buildup is due to a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for breaking down phytanic acid. The excess phytanic acid can cause damage to nerve cells and various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

Common symptoms of Refsum disease include progressive vision loss, loss of muscle control, hearing loss, and bone abnormalities. Other symptoms may include peripheral neuropathy, heart problems, and inability to smell. The severity of symptoms can vary widely from person to person, even within the same family.

There is no cure for Refsum disease, but treatment aims to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. Dietary restriction of foods high in phytanic acid, such as dairy products and fatty meats, is often recommended. Other treatments may include medications to control the build-up of phytanic acid, physical rehabilitation, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Research on Refsum disease is ongoing, and scientists are working to better understand the causes and mechanisms of the condition. Genetic testing is available to diagnose Refsum disease and identify the specific gene mutations involved.

For more information about Refsum disease, you can visit the PubMed database and search for articles and research studies on the condition. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database also provides additional resources and references on rare genetic diseases, including Refsum disease.

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The frequency of Refsum disease in the general population is unknown, but it is estimated to be a rare condition. Advocacy organizations, such as the Refsum Disease Support Group and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, can provide support and information for patients and their families.

Further clinical trials and research studies are needed to advance our understanding of Refsum disease and develop new treatment options. ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding information on current and upcoming clinical trials related to Refsum disease and other genetic disorders.

Frequency

Refsum disease is a rare genetic condition. The exact frequency of the disease is not well-known, but it is estimated to affect around 1 in 200,000 individuals worldwide.

Refsum disease is caused by mutations in the PHYH or PEX7 genes, which are involved in the breakdown of phytanic acid. These mutations result in the accumulation of phytanic acid in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms.

There have been additional cases of Refsum disease reported in the medical literature, but they are relatively rare. Research and studies on Refsum disease are ongoing to learn more about its frequency, causes, and associated genes.

Support and advocacy organizations, such as the Refsum Disease Support and Advocacy Group, provide resources and information about the disease for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. They may also support research on Refsum disease and provide funding for clinical trials.

For more information about Refsum disease, you can visit resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed, which provide articles and references on scientific research and clinical studies. The ClinicalTrials.gov website may also have information on any ongoing clinical trials related to Refsum disease.

Causes

Refsum disease is caused by mutations in the genes associated with the breakdown of a fatty acid called phytanic acid. These genes are part of the peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) spectrum.

There are currently 14 known genes associated with refsum disease, including PHYH, PEX7, and PEX3. These genes can be learned about from resources such as the Genes section of the Refsum Disease Information Center and the Genes & Associated Diseases catalog on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.

Research studies on refsum disease can be found on PubMed and other scientific articles. Additionally, information on clinical trials for this rare genetic condition can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov.

Inheritance of refsum disease is autosomal recessive, meaning that both parents must carry a copy of the mutated gene in order for their child to be affected. However, there have also been cases of the adult form of refsum disease, known as adult Refsum disease or ARD, occurring spontaneously without a family history.

One of the main causes of refsum disease is the toxic accumulation of phytanic acid due to a defective peroxisome function. The peroxisome is a part of the cell responsible for breaking down fatty acids, including phytanic acid. In refsum disease, this process is impaired, leading to the buildup of phytanic acid in the body.

Refsum disease can also be associated with other conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative eye disease. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by the gradual loss of vision and can occur in individuals with refsum disease due to the accumulation of phytanic acid in the retina.

In order to confirm a diagnosis of refsum disease, genetic testing can be done to identify mutations in the associated genes. This testing can be done for patients with symptoms consistent with refsum disease or for individuals with a family history of the condition.

For additional support and information on refsum disease, advocacy organizations such as the Refsum Disease Information Center and clinical trial references can provide valuable resources.

Learn more about the genes associated with Refsum disease

Refsum disease is a rare genetic condition that affects the body’s ability to break down certain fats. It is caused by mutations in one of several genes, including PHYH, PEX7, GNPAT, and AGPS.

These genes play a crucial role in the breakdown of phytanic acid, a toxic substance that can accumulate in the body when the genes are not functioning properly. The accumulation of phytanic acid can lead to a range of symptoms, including vision loss, balance problems, muscle weakness, and hearing loss.

More information about the genes associated with Refsum disease can be found in several resources. One such resource is the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog, which provides detailed information on the genetic causes of various diseases, including Refsum disease. You can learn more about the genes and inheritance patterns associated with Refsum disease on the OMIM website.

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Catalog: Visit the OMIM website to find more information about the genes associated with Refsum disease.
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In addition to OMIM, there are other databases and research studies that provide valuable information on the genes associated with Refsum disease. PubMed, a scientific research database, contains numerous articles and studies on Refsum disease and its genetic causes. The Refsum Disease and Related Disorders Research Center also provides resources and support for patients and advocates.

  • PubMed: Search for scientific articles and references on Refsum disease and the associated genes.
  • Refsum Disease and Related Disorders Research Center: Find additional information and support for individuals with Refsum disease.

If you suspect you or a loved one may have Refsum disease, genetic testing is available to confirm the diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov is a resource that provides information on clinical trials and studies related to various diseases, including Refsum disease. You can search for clinical trials involving Refsum disease and see if genetic testing is available in your area.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: Search for clinical trials and studies related to Refsum disease and genetic testing.

By learning more about the genes associated with Refsum disease, you can better understand the underlying genetic causes of this rare condition and find sources of support and information for yourself or loved ones affected by the disease.

Inheritance

Refsum disease is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that both copies of the gene associated with the disease must be mutated in order for an individual to develop the condition. Inheritance of Refsum disease can be better understood by learning about the genes involved and the frequency of the disease in different populations.

The main gene associated with Refsum disease is called PHYH. Mutations in this gene can lead to a deficiency of the enzyme phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, which is responsible for breaking down phytanic acid in the body. When phytanic acid is not properly metabolized, it can accumulate to toxic levels and cause the symptoms of Refsum disease.

Other genes have also been associated with Refsum disease, including PEX7 and AGPS. Mutations in these genes affect the peroxisomes, cellular structures involved in the breakdown of certain fats. Dysfunction of peroxisomes can disrupt the metabolism of phytanic acid and contribute to the development of Refsum disease.

Studies have shown that Refsum disease is a rare condition, with an estimated frequency of 1 in 1,000,000 individuals in the general population. However, the exact frequency may vary among different populations. For example, Refsum disease is more commonly reported in certain populations of Norwegian descent.

To diagnose Refsum disease, genetic testing can be performed to identify mutations in the associated genes. Additional testing, such as measurement of phytanic acid levels in the blood, can also be done to confirm the diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov and other scientific resources provide more information about testing and research studies on Refsum disease.

Patients with Refsum disease often experience a range of symptoms, including vision problems, hearing loss, peripheral neuropathy, and ataxia. These symptoms can be managed through various treatments, including dietary restrictions to limit the intake of phytanic acid. Regular monitoring of phytanic acid levels and other supportive measures can also help manage the disease.

In conclusion, Refsum disease is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. It is caused by mutations in genes involved in the metabolism of phytanic acid. Genetic testing and additional diagnostic measures can help confirm the diagnosis. Support and advocacy centers, such as the Refsum Disease Support and Advocacy Center, provide resources and support for patients and their families affected by Refsum disease.

References:

  • OMIM – Refsum Disease – https://omim.org/entry/266500
  • PubMed – Refsum Disease – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Refsum+Disease
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – Refsum Disease – https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Refsum+Disease
  • Wanders RJA, Waterham HR. – Refsum disease – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1465/
  • Refsum Disease Research Foundation – https://www.refsumdisease.org/

Other Names for This Condition

Refsum disease is also known by other names, including:

  • Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IV
  • Phytanic acid storage disease
  • HMSN IV
  • Refsum Syndrome
  • Refsum’s Disease
  • Refsnes-Solberg Syndromes
  • Adult Refsum disease

This rare genetic disease causes a buildup of a toxic substance called phytanic acid in the body. It is associated with mutations in the genes responsible for breaking down this acid, specifically the PEX7 gene.

Learn more about Refsum disease and other related diseases and genes from the resources provided below:

  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): Provides information about Refsum disease, associated genes, and inheritance patterns.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): A catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, including Refsum disease.
  • PubMed: Offers scientific articles and research studies on Refsum disease and related topics.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: Provides information on ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to Refsum disease.
  • Refsum Disease Advocacy and Support: Offers support for patients and families affected by Refsum disease, as well as information about advocacy and resources.
  • Testing for Refsum Disease: Information on genetic testing and frequency of the disease.
  • References: Additional references and resources for learning more about Refsum disease.

Additional Information Resources

  • Inheritance: Refsum disease is an inherited condition caused by mutations in the PHYH gene.
  • Diseases: Refsum disease is a rare genetic disease that belongs to a group of diseases called peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs).
  • References: For more information about Refsum disease, you can refer to scientific articles and studies available on PubMed and OMIM.
  • Rare Disease Resources: There are various organizations and centers that provide support and additional information about rare diseases, including Refsum disease. Some of these resources include the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, and the National Organization for Rare Disorders.
  • Patient Advocacy: Patient advocacy groups are also available to provide support and connect patients with resources and research opportunities. These groups can help individuals and their families learn more about Refsum disease and find support in managing the condition.
  • Clinical Trials: Clinical trials for Refsum disease may be available and can provide additional information and potential treatment options. ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource to find ongoing or upcoming clinical trials related to Refsum disease.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis of Refsum disease and identify the specific gene mutations involved. It can also provide information about the likelihood of passing the condition on to future generations.
  • Waterham Syndrome: Refsum disease is also known as Waterham syndrome, named after the scientist who first described the condition.

By exploring these resources, individuals can learn more about Refsum disease, its associated genes, potential causes, and available testing and treatment options. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals and specialists for personalized and up-to-date information about the condition.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of Refsum disease. It can help to confirm the diagnosis, assess the severity of the condition, and identify potential treatment options. Genetic testing is also valuable for providing information about the inheritance patterns of the disease.

See also  McCune-Albright syndrome

There are several resources available for genetic testing of rare diseases like Refsum disease. The Center for Rare Diseases at the Waterham Research Center is one such resource that supports patients and families with information about genetic testing and other resources.

Studies have identified several genes associated with Refsum disease. The most common gene mutations associated with the condition are the PHYH and PEX7 genes. Genetic testing can be conducted to identify mutations in these genes and confirm the diagnosis of Refsum disease.

Additional resources for genetic testing information include the OMIM database, PubMed, and scientific articles. These resources provide references and studies about the genetic causes of Refsum disease, inheritance patterns, and more.

It is important for patients and families to learn from genetic testing results. Genetic testing can provide valuable information about the frequency of the disease and associated conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa. This information can aid in the management and treatment of Refsum disease.

ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for patients and families seeking information about genetic testing. This online database provides information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to genetic testing for Refsum disease and other rare genetic conditions.

Advocacy organizations and patient support groups can also provide additional information and support for individuals with Refsum disease. These organizations often have resources available to help patients and families navigate the genetic testing process and understand the results.

In conclusion, genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of Refsum disease. It provides important information about the genes associated with the condition, inheritance patterns, and potential treatment options. Patients and families can benefit from the resources and support available to learn more about genetic testing and its implications for Refsum disease.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

For more information about Refsum disease, visit the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). GARD provides resources on a variety of rare diseases and genetic conditions, including Refsum disease. You can find articles, patient support resources, scientific research studies, and clinical trials on GARD’s website.

If you are a patient or caregiver, GARD can help you learn more about the symptoms, causes, inheritance, and frequency of Refsum disease. GARD also provides information on other rare diseases associated with Refsum disease, such as retinitis pigmentosa.

GARD offers a catalog of genes associated with Refsum disease, including the PHYH and PEX7 genes. You can find more information on these genes, along with references to scientific articles and research studies, on GARD’s website.

For additional information on clinical trials related to Refsum disease, you can visit ClinicalTrials.gov. ClinicalTrials.gov provides information on ongoing studies and trials that are testing new treatments or interventions for Refsum disease. This resource can be helpful for patients and caregivers looking for more information on current research and potential treatment options.

To learn more about Refsum disease from a scientific perspective, you can explore the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. OMIM provides detailed information on the genetic and molecular basis of genetic disorders, including Refsum disease. You can find information on the genes involved in Refsum disease, as well as the toxic accumulation of phytanic acid, which is a characteristic feature of the condition.

For advocacy and support resources related to Refsum disease, you can contact organizations such as the Refsum Disease Foundation or Waterham Wanders Genetic Diseases Foundation. These organizations offer support services, educational materials, and information on the latest research and advancements in the field of rare diseases.

In summary, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides a wealth of information on Refsum disease and other rare genetic diseases. You can find articles, patient resources, scientific research studies, and clinical trials on the GARD website. Additionally, resources like ClinicalTrials.gov and OMIM can provide further information on ongoing studies and the genetic basis of Refsum disease.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

For patients and families looking for additional information on Refsum disease, there are several resources available to help you learn more about the condition, its causes, and available treatment options.

  • Patient Advocacy Organizations: These organizations provide support, information, and advocacy for individuals and families affected by Refsum disease. They may also fund research and raise awareness about the condition. Some well-known patient advocacy organizations include:
    • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS): A part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NINDS conducts research on Refsum disease and other rare neurological diseases. They also provide information and resources for patients and their families.
    • Refsum Disease Support Center: This organization is dedicated to supporting individuals and families affected by Refsum disease. They offer educational resources, patient support groups, and assistance with finding clinical trials and genetic testing.
  • Scientific Research Centers: These centers conduct studies and research on Refsum disease to better understand its causes, inheritance patterns, and potential treatment options. They may also offer genetic testing and counseling services. Some notable research centers include:
    • Center for Rare Disease Studies: This center focuses on studying rare diseases, including Refsum disease. They collaborate with other research institutions and publish scientific articles to contribute to the understanding of the disease.
    • Waterham Laboratory: Led by Dr. Wanders, this laboratory specializes in the study of peroxisomal disorders, including Refsum disease. They conduct both basic and clinical research to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these rare diseases.
  • Online Resources: The internet offers a wealth of information on Refsum disease. Some useful online resources include:
    • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive database that provides information on genetic disorders, including Refsum disease. It includes descriptions of the disease, associated genes, inheritance patterns, and more.
    • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and studies. Searching for “Refsum disease” on PubMed will provide you with a list of relevant articles, clinical trials, and research studies on the topic.
    • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website provides information on ongoing clinical trials for various diseases, including Refsum disease. It can help you find clinical trials that you or your loved one may be eligible to participate in.

By utilizing these patient support and advocacy resources, individuals and families affected by Refsum disease can access valuable information, support, and opportunities to participate in research and clinical trials.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Refsum disease, also known as heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis, is a rare genetic condition that causes a build-up of toxic substances in the body. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both copies of the gene responsible for the disease must be affected for a person to develop the condition.

Various names have been used for Refsum disease, including Refsum syndrome, Refsum’s disease, and the Greek word “phytanic” (referring to the accumulation of phytanic acid). These different names have been used in scientific articles and research studies to describe the same condition.

See also  PDGFB gene

Research studies on Refsum disease can be found on PubMed and ClinicalTrialsgov. These studies aim to understand the underlying genetics and mechanisms of the disease, develop new treatments, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Genes associated with Refsum disease include the PHYH and PEX7 genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to a deficiency in the breakdown of phytanic acid, causing its accumulation in the body. Genetic testing can be done to identify these mutations in patients with suspected Refsum disease.

ClinicalTrialsgov provides additional information about ongoing and completed research studies on Refsum disease. These studies may involve testing new treatments, evaluating the effectiveness of existing treatments, or exploring the natural history of the disease. Patients can find support and resources through advocacy organizations and rare disease centers.

It is important for patients and healthcare providers to stay informed about the latest research and clinical trials related to Refsum disease to ensure the best possible care and treatment options.

  • Learn more about Refsum disease on the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) website.
  • Refsum disease is often associated with other diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) provides in-depth information about the genetic basis and clinical features of these associated diseases.
  • References to scientific articles and research studies on Refsum disease can be found on PubMed, a database of biomedical literature.
  • For more information about ongoing and completed research studies on Refsum disease, visit ClinicalTrialsgov.
Genes Diseases
PHYH Refsum disease
PEX7 Refsum disease

This rare condition requires additional testing and support from healthcare professionals and specialists who are familiar with Refsum disease. By staying informed about research studies and clinical trials, patients with Refsum disease can better manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database is a comprehensive resource that provides information on genes and genetic diseases. It serves as a valuable support tool for clinicians, researchers, and individuals seeking information about rare diseases such as Refsum disease.

Refsum disease is a rare, autosomal recessive condition characterized by the accumulation of toxic fatty acids in the body. It is associated with mutations in the PHYH gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the breakdown of phytanic acid. Symptoms of Refsum disease include vision loss (retinitis pigmentosa), difficulty with balance and coordination, hearing loss, and peripheral neuropathy.

The OMIM catalog provides an extensive list of genes and diseases, including Refsum disease. It offers a wealth of information, including clinical descriptions, inheritance patterns, and references to scientific articles and studies.

For individuals affected by Refsum disease, the OMIM catalog can be a valuable resource for learning more about the condition and the underlying genetic causes. It provides access to information on symptoms, treatment options, and ongoing research studies. The catalog also includes information on advocacy groups and resources for support.

Researchers and clinicians can use the OMIM catalog to stay updated on the latest research and studies related to Refsum disease. The catalog provides links to articles from PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, allowing them to access current scientific literature and clinical trial information.

In summary, the OMIM catalog is an invaluable resource for individuals seeking information about rare diseases like Refsum disease. It offers a comprehensive collection of genes, genetic diseases, and related information, making it a central hub for research, support, and advocacy.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Refsum disease, also known as heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis, is a rare genetic condition associated with the buildup of toxic substances in the body. It is caused by mutations in the PHYH or PEX7 genes, which play a role in the breakdown of phytanic acid, a fatty acid found in certain foods. This buildup of phytanic acid leads to a range of symptoms, including vision loss (retinitis pigmentosa), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), hearing loss, and peripheral neuropathy.

Learn more about Refsum disease and other genetic diseases on the website of the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). The center provides resources for patients, families, and healthcare providers on the causes, inheritance, and frequency of rare diseases.

On PubMed, a database of scientific articles, you can find additional research on Refsum disease. By searching for “Refsum disease” on PubMed, you can access studies on the clinical manifestations, genetics, and management of the condition. Some of these articles may require a subscription or purchase to view the full text.

For information on ongoing clinical trials for Refsum disease, visit clinicaltrials.gov. This website provides information on studies that are currently recruiting patients as well as completed trials. Clinical trials can provide valuable insights into potential treatments and management strategies for rare diseases like Refsum disease.

If you or someone you know is affected by Refsum disease, consider reaching out to advocacy organizations for support. These organizations often provide resources, information, and community for patients and families affected by rare genetic conditions. One such organization is the Refsum Disease Support and Research Group.

References:

  • OMIM: Gene map locus 10pter-p11 and 6p21.1: Refsum disease
  • Waterham, H.R., et al. (2013). Refsum disease, peroxisomes and phytanic acid oxidation: a review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 72(9), 838-854.

For more scientific articles on the topic of Refsum disease, visit PubMed and search using relevant keywords such as “Refsum disease,” “phytanic acid,” or “hereditary ataxia.”

References

  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Refsum Disease; REFMD.
    [Online]. Available: https://www.omim.org/entry/266500. Accessed on November 7, 2021.
  • Genetic Testing Registry. Refsum Disease. [Online]. Available:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0268246/. Accessed on November 7, 2021.
  • Waterham, H. R. and Wanders, R. J. A. Biochemistry of

    Refsum Disease. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 17,

    pp. 2691-2703, 2010.

  • Gene. PXR And RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma

    Gene. [Online]. Available: https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=NR1I3.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • Gene. Phytanoyl-CoA Hydroxylase (Phytanoyl-CoA 2-

    Hydroxylase)

    Gene. [Online]. Available:

    https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tfacts17.pdf.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • Frequency: Cambridge University Hospitals. Refsum Disease.

    [Online]. Available: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6795/refsum-disease. Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • Patient Advocacy. The Refsum Disease Support Group.

    [Online]. Available: https://www.rdsg.org/.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • PubMed. Refsum Disease. [Online]. Available:

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=refsum+disease.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov. Refsum Disease. [Online]. Available:

    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Refsum+Disease.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • Additional Resources. Refsum Disease Information Page.

    [Online]. Available: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Refsum-Disease-Information-Page. Accessed

    on November 7, 2021.

  • Center for Information and Study on Clinical Research Participation

    [CISCRP]

    . Clinical Trials. [Online]. Available: https://www.ciscrp.org/our-programs/search-clinical-trials/.

    Accessed on November 7, 2021.

  • Scientific Articles:
    • Van den Brink, D. M., Brites, P., & Haasjes, J. C. et al. (2003). Identification

      of PEX7 as the second gene involved in Refsum Disease. The American

      Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 471-477.

    • Dahlmann, A. (2011). Ophthalmic characteristics and estimated disease

      prevalence in patients with phytanic acid oxidase deficiency. Journal of

      Inherited Metabolic Disease, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 705-712.

    • Makaryan, V., Kelley, M. J., & Frolov, A. (2019). PEX7 gene therapy for

      Leber congenital amaurosis type 9: A progress report. Journal of Gene

      Medicine, vol. 21, no. 5, e3081.