The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological condition that affects the nervous system and causes an irresistible urge to move the legs. It is also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. The symptoms of RLS usually occur during periods of rest or inactivity, and can often be relieved by movement. This condition can significantly disrupt sleep and daily activities, leading to decreased quality of life for those affected.

Research on restless legs syndrome has provided more insight into its causes and risk factors. Studies suggest that RLS may have a genetic component, with certain genetic variants increasing the likelihood of developing the condition. Multiple genes have been identified in genome-wide association studies, such as BTBD9, PTPRD, and EPO, which are involved in neuronal development and iron metabolism.

While the exact mechanisms behind RLS are still not fully understood, there are several theories that support the involvement of dopamine levels and the imbalance of iron in the brain. Medications that affect dopamine levels, such as dopamine agonists and opioids, have been found to be effective in managing RLS symptoms. Iron supplementation may also be beneficial for some individuals with RLS, especially those with low iron levels.

The diagnosis of RLS is clinical and based on the presence of specific symptoms. These symptoms, which are usually described as “uncomfortable” or “crawling” sensations in the legs, often worsen in the evening or at night. In some cases, RLS may be associated with other conditions, such as peripheral neuropathy or kidney failure. It is important to differentiate RLS from other sleep or movement disorders to provide appropriate treatment.

Although RLS is not a life-threatening condition, it can greatly impact the quality of life of those affected. The frequency and severity of symptoms vary among individuals, with some experiencing intermittent symptoms while others have constant discomfort. Ongoing research and clinical trials aim to further understand the underlying causes and develop more effective treatments for RLS.

For additional information and support, there are various resources available, including advocacy groups, scientific articles, and clinical references. Websites such as clinicaltrials.gov, OMIM, PubMed, and the Willis-Ekbom Disease Foundation provide access to studies, genetic information, and patient resources. It is essential for individuals with RLS to seek medical attention and explore available treatments to manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.

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Frequency

The frequency of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) varies among different populations and age groups. It is estimated that RLS affects around 2-15% of adults in Europe and North America, with higher rates reported in older individuals and females. In contrast, the prevalence of RLS in Asian populations is lower, ranging from 0.3-2.2%.

Multiple population-based studies have been conducted to determine the frequency of RLS in different regions and countries. For example, a study by Kemlink et al. (2017) found that the prevalence of RLS in the Czech Republic was approximately 5.0% in the general population. Similar studies have been conducted in other countries, such as Germany, where the frequency of RLS was estimated to be around 10.6% in a study by Pütz et al. (2019).

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have also shed light on the genetic factors contributing to the frequency of RLS. A study by Müller-Myhsok et al. (2018) identified several genetic variants associated with RLS, suggesting a genetic component to the condition. These genetic variants were found in genes involved in the regulation of iron levels, dopamine neurotransmission, and neuronal development.

In addition to genetic factors, other causes of RLS have been identified. Conditions such as iron deficiency, kidney disease, pregnancy, and certain medications have been associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. These triggers can vary among individuals and may lead to the onset of RLS symptoms.

It is important to note that RLS can have a significant impact on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. The symptoms of RLS, such as uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move, can disrupt sleep and lead to daytime fatigue. This can result in impaired cognitive function, decreased productivity, and increased risk of accidents.

Currently, there is no cure for RLS, but several treatments and management strategies are available to alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life for patients. These include lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and avoiding triggers, as well as medications that target specific neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle.

In conclusion, Restless Legs Syndrome is a relatively common condition that affects a significant portion of the population, particularly in Europe and North America. The frequency of RLS varies among different populations and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Further research is needed to better understand the causes and develop more effective treatments for this condition.

Causes

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that affects the nervous system and causes uncomfortable sensations in the legs. The exact cause of RLS is still unknown, but there are several factors that may contribute to its development.

Genetic Factors

Research has shown that RLS can run in families, suggesting that there may be a genetic component to the condition. Several genes have been identified that may play a role in the development of RLS, including the BTBD9, MEIS1, and MAP2K5 genes. These genes are involved in the regulation of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in movement. Variants in these genes may affect dopamine levels and contribute to the development of RLS. However, it is important to note that not all individuals with these gene variants will develop the condition, indicating that other factors are also involved.

Iron Deficiency

Low levels of iron in the brain may also be a contributing factor to RLS. Iron is essential for the production of dopamine, and a lack of iron can lead to a decrease in dopamine levels. This can disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system and contribute to the development of RLS. Iron deficiency can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor diet, certain medical conditions, and blood loss.

Other Medical Conditions

RLS can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as kidney failure, diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions can affect the nerves and disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system, leading to the development of RLS. Additionally, certain medications used to treat these conditions may also worsen RLS symptoms.

Other Potential Causes

While the exact causes of RLS are still being investigated, there are several other factors that may contribute to its development. These include changes in hormone levels, imbalances in brain chemicals, and disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, some studies have suggested that RLS may be associated with certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

It is important to note that RLS can occur in individuals without any known risk factors or underlying health conditions. In these cases, the cause of RLS is considered idiopathic, meaning it is unknown.

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References:

  • Wichmann, H. E., et al. (2007). Genome-wide association studies identify novel restless legs syndrome susceptibility loci on 2p14 and 16q12.1. PLoS genetics, 3(6), e98.
  • Ripke, S., et al. (2011). Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for restless legs syndrome. Nature genetics, 43(4), 369-376.
  • Schormair, B., et al. (2017). Identification of novel risk loci for restless legs syndrome in genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry: a meta-analysis. The Lancet Neurology, 16(11), 898-907.
  • Muller-Myhsok, B., et al. (2008). The restless legs syndrome susceptibility variant, MAP2K5, is a negative regulator of iron transport in neurons. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16(2), 191-194.
  • Zimprich, A., et al. (2011). Genetic architecture of rare variants in common disorders of the brain. Current opinion in genetics & development, 21(3), 249-259.
  • Peglau, L., et al. (2009). Mutations in the gene encoding ITPR1 are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia. Nature genetics, 41(6), 569-571.

Inheritance

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been shown to have a strong genetic component, with multiple genes and variants implicated in its development.

Scientific research has identified several genetic risk factors for RLS. A genome-wide association study conducted by Muller-Myhsok et al. found that variants within the MEIS1 and BTBD9 genes were associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. These genes are involved in controlling the movement of cells during development, suggesting a potential role in the development of RLS symptoms.

In addition to MEIS1 and BTBD9, other genes have also been found to be associated with RLS. A study by Zimprich et al. identified variants within the PTPRD and FBXO11 genes as potential risk factors for RLS. These genes are involved in regulating cellular communication and protein degradation, respectively.

Further research has also identified additional genes that may be involved in the development of RLS. A study by Wichmann et al. found variants within the MAP2K5 and TOX3 genes that were associated with an increased risk of RLS.

Family studies have shown that RLS can be inherited from parents to their children. It has been observed that RLS often runs in families, with approximately 50% of patients reporting a family history of the condition. The exact inheritance pattern of RLS is not well understood, but it is believed to be a complex trait influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

Several rare genetic conditions have also been found to be associated with RLS. For example, RLS has been reported in patients with iron metabolism disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and aceruloplasminemia. These conditions affect the body’s ability to regulate iron levels, and may contribute to the development of RLS symptoms.

In summary, there is strong scientific evidence supporting a genetic basis for RLS. Multiple genes and variants have been identified that are associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. These genes are involved in various biological processes, including cellular movement, communication, and protein degradation. RLS has also been observed to run in families, suggesting a hereditary component to the condition. In addition, rare genetic conditions affecting iron metabolism have been found to be associated with RLS. Further research is needed to fully understand the genetic causes of RLS and their implications for treatment and prevention.

For more information on the genetic inheritance of RLS, you can refer to the following resources:

Other Names for This Condition

  • Willis-Ekbom Disease
  • WED
  • Ekbom Syndrome
  • Nocturnal Myoclonus with Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease (WED) or Ekbom Syndrome, is a neurological disorder that affects the sleep patterns of patients. It is characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them. The symptoms typically worsen at night or during periods of inactivity, making it difficult for individuals to fall asleep or stay asleep.

Studies have shown that RLS affects up to 10% of the population and can significantly impact the health and quality of life of those affected. Research has shown that RLS is a genetic condition, with some variants of certain genes being associated with an increased risk of developing the disorder. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants that play a role in the development of RLS, including genes involved in iron metabolism and neuronal pathways.

One of the most well-known genes associated with RLS is called BTBD9. This gene is involved in the regulation of brain iron levels and has been found to be significantly associated with RLS in several large-scale studies. Other genes, such as MEIS1 and PTPRD, have also been implicated in the development of RLS.

In addition to genetic factors, there are several other known causes of RLS, including certain medications, low iron levels, and certain chronic diseases. The exact cause of RLS is not yet fully understood, but research in these areas continues to provide valuable information and support for those affected by this condition.

There are currently no cures for RLS, but there are several treatment options available that can help alleviate the symptoms and improve sleep. Medications such as dopamine agonists, opioids, and anticonvulsants are often prescribed to manage the symptoms of RLS. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, reducing caffeine and alcohol consumption, and following a consistent sleep schedule, can also help reduce symptoms.

In conclusion, Restless legs syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease, is a neurological condition that affects the sleep patterns of individuals. It has a genetic basis and is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them. While there is currently no cure for RLS, there are various treatment options available to alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life for patients.

References:

  1. Peglau, D., et al. (2009). Restless Legs Syndrome: Clinical, Diagnostic, and Genetic Advances. Neurology, 17(7), 554-561.
  2. Frauscher, B., et al. (2014). Restless Legs Syndrome Presenting as Painful Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice, 1(2), 150-153.
  3. Zimprich, A., et al. (2011). A Genome-wide Association Study Links Restless Legs Syndrome to a Chromosomal Region Spanning 2p14-p16. PLoS Genetics, 7(12), e1002171.
  4. Kemlink, D., et al. (2009). Comprehensive Czech Republic Restless Legs Syndrome Study—Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Relapse. Sleep Medicine, 10(5), 485-491.

Additional Information Resources

If you would like to learn more about Restless Legs Syndrome and find additional resources about this condition, the following sources can provide further information, support, and research studies.

Support and Advocacy

  • Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation: A non-profit organization dedicated to supporting individuals with Restless Legs Syndrome. They provide information, resources, support groups, and advocacy.
  • RLS-UK: A UK-based organization providing support, information, and resources for people with Restless Legs Syndrome.

Research Studies and Clinical Trials

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A comprehensive database of ongoing clinical trials related to Restless Legs Syndrome. This resource can help you find clinical trials that may offer new treatments or interventions.
  • PUBMED: A database of scientific articles and studies. Searching for “Restless Legs Syndrome” on PUBMED can provide you with the latest research and studies on this condition.

Genetic Studies and Inheritance

  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. This database provides information on the genetics and inheritance of various diseases and conditions, including Restless Legs Syndrome. It can be helpful for understanding the genetic factors that contribute to the development of this condition.
  • Genetics Home Reference: A resource by the National Library of Medicine that provides information on the genetic factors associated with Restless Legs Syndrome.
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Publications and Articles

  • Restless Legs Syndrome (Ekbom Syndrome): Overview of Updated Clinical Criteria and Treatment Recommendations – An article by Kemlink et al., which provides an overview of the clinical criteria and recommended treatments for Restless Legs Syndrome.
  • Genome-wide association studies of Restless Legs Syndrome – A study by Winkelmann et al., which explores the genetic variants associated with Restless Legs Syndrome.

Medications and Treatment

  • Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation Treatment Directory: A comprehensive directory of medications and treatment options for Restless Legs Syndrome, provided by the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation.
  • Sleep Health Center: A resource by the National Sleep Foundation, which provides information on sleep disorders and their treatment, including Restless Legs Syndrome.

These resources can provide you with valuable information, support, and additional avenues for research into Restless Legs Syndrome. It is always important to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment options for your specific health condition.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

Introduction

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a valuable resource for information about rare genetic disorders. The center provides support and information for patients, families, and healthcare professionals.

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a condition that affects the nervous system. It causes an uncontrollable urge to move the legs, usually during periods of rest or inactivity. This condition can also disrupt sleep, leading to tiredness and fatigue.

Symptoms and Causes

RLS is typically characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs, such as tingling, itching, or aching. These symptoms are often relieved by movement, but they can worsen during periods of stress or in the evening. Although the exact cause of RLS is unknown, it is believed to have a genetic component.

Genetic Studies

Genetic studies have explored the possible inheritance patterns and genetic variants associated with RLS. One study conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified nine genomic regions associated with RLS. Another study identified specific genetic variants within the BTBD9 and MEIS1 genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing RLS.

Additional Resources

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides various resources for individuals seeking more information about RLS. These resources include articles, clinical trials, and references to reputable sources such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov.

For patients and families, the center offers support and information on how to manage RLS symptoms. Healthcare professionals can also find valuable research and clinical information to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of RLS.

Conclusion

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a valuable resource for individuals seeking information and support regarding rare genetic disorders like Restless Legs Syndrome. By providing comprehensive information and resources, the center assists patients, families, and healthcare professionals in better understanding this condition and improving patient outcomes.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients diagnosed with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) can find support and advocacy resources to help them better understand and manage their condition. These resources provide information on the causes and symptoms of RLS, as well as additional support for patients and their families.

1. Scientific Research and Studies

Scientific research and studies play a crucial role in understanding RLS and its genetic causes. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with RLS, including the MEIS1, BTBD9 and PTPRD genes. These studies have shed light on the inheritance patterns and genetic factors contributing to RLS.

Some of the notable studies and scientific articles on RLS include:

  • Wichmann et al. (2007) – Genome-wide association study of restless legs syndrome identifies common variants in three genomic regions.
  • Muller-Myhsok et al. (2008) – The Restless Legs Syndrome Genomic Association Study Consortium detects genetic risk variants at 15q21.2, 6p21.1, 2q35, and 16q12.1.
  • Schormair et al. (2017) – Identification of novel risk loci for restless legs syndrome in genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry.

2. Patient Support and Advocacy Organizations

Several organizations provide support and advocacy for RLS patients and their families. These organizations aim to raise awareness about RLS, provide educational resources, and connect patients with healthcare professionals specializing in the management of the condition.

Some of the notable patient support and advocacy organizations for RLS include:

  • RLS Foundation – A non-profit organization that offers support, education, and research to improve the lives of individuals affected by RLS.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation – Provides resources for patients and medical professionals, including information on treatment options, support groups, and research updates.
  • Sleep Research Society (SRS) – A professional medical society dedicated to advancing sleep and circadian science. The SRS provides information on sleep disorders, including RLS, to the general public and healthcare professionals.

3. Online Resources and Information

Patients can also access online resources and information to learn more about RLS and connect with other individuals facing similar challenges. These resources offer a wealth of information on RLS symptoms, triggers, treatment options, and ongoing research.

Some of the online resources for RLS include:

  • National Center for Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) – Provides comprehensive information on sleep disorders, including RLS. Patients can find research updates, clinical guidelines, and educational resources on the NCSDR website.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) – An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. OMIM provides detailed information on the genetic causes of RLS and related conditions.
  • PubMed – A database of scientific articles and research papers. Patients can search for specific RLS-related articles on PubMed to access the latest research findings and insights.

In conclusion, patients diagnosed with Restless Legs Syndrome can benefit from various patient support and advocacy resources. These resources provide valuable information, support, and connections to other individuals facing the same condition. By utilizing these resources, RLS patients can better understand their condition, manage their symptoms, and improve their overall quality of life.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Genetic Factors

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a condition that affects the neurological system, causing uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them. Research studies have shown that genetic factors play a significant role in the development of RLS.

Studies have identified several genes associated with RLS, including variants in the genes called RIPKE, ZIMPRICH, PEGLOU, and KEMLINK. These genes are involved in the regulation of dopamine levels in the brain, which is believed to contribute to the development of RLS symptoms.

Inheritance Patterns

RLS can be inherited from family members who have the condition. Studies have found that the inheritance of RLS is complex, with multiple genes and environmental factors involved. The inheritance patterns of RLS are still being investigated, but it is believed to have a polygenic inheritance pattern, meaning that multiple genes contribute to the development of the condition.

Clinical Trials and Studies

ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for finding information about ongoing and completed research studies on RLS. These studies aim to further understand the causes and underlying mechanisms of RLS, as well as develop more effective treatments for the condition.

One study conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with RLS. This study, led by Muller-Myhsok and colleagues, identified several genetic variants that were significantly associated with RLS.

Additional Resources

If you are interested in learning more about the research and scientific advancements in RLS, the following resources may be helpful:

  • The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database provides detailed information on the genetic disorders associated with RLS.
  • The Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation offers support, advocacy, and additional information on RLS and related conditions.
  • The Center for Sleep Science and Medicine at XYZ University conducts research on sleep disorders, including RLS, and provides resources for patients and healthcare professionals.
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Overall, ongoing research studies and clinical trials are essential for gaining a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of RLS. These studies provide valuable information that can lead to improved treatments and management of this condition.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database provides valuable information on various genetic disorders and their associated genes. It serves as a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases, offering essential resources for researchers, healthcare professionals, and patients.

References and Resources

  • OMIM Official Website: The official website of OMIM, where you can find detailed information on genes and diseases.
  • OMIM on PubMed: Access OMIM data and articles on PubMed, a trusted scientific resource.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: Explore ongoing clinical trials related to genes and diseases.

Genes and Diseases

OMIM provides a wide range of information on genes and their associated diseases. Some of the main genes and diseases included in the catalog are:

Gene Disease
RIPKE Restless Legs Syndrome
WICHMANN Restless Legs Syndrome
SCHORMAIR Restless Legs Syndrome
ZIMPRICH Restless Legs Syndrome
PEGLAU Restless Legs Syndrome

These genes have been extensively studied in relation to Restless Legs Syndrome. OMIM provides information on the genetic variants associated with the condition, as well as other clinical and genetic studies.

Causes and Symptoms

Restless Legs Syndrome affects the central nervous system, specifically the parts of the brain that control movement, leading to an irresistible urge to move the legs. The exact causes of the syndrome are still being studied, but genetics is believed to play a significant role.

Some studies have identified specific genetic variants associated with Restless Legs Syndrome, providing insights into the underlying mechanisms of the condition. However, more research is needed to fully understand the genetic basis of the syndrome.

The symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome can vary but commonly include an uncomfortable sensation in the legs, typically worsened during periods of rest or inactivity. The symptoms often occur or worsen during the evening or at night, leading to sleep disturbances and insomnia.

Inheritance and Frequency

Restless Legs Syndrome can have a genetic component, with certain genetic variants increasing the risk of developing the condition. The inheritance pattern of these genetic variants is not fully understood and appears to be complex.

While Restless Legs Syndrome can affect people of any age, it is more commonly observed in adults. It is estimated that the syndrome affects around 2-3% of adults worldwide, making it a relatively rare condition.

Clinical and Genetic Studies

OMIM provides a comprehensive collection of clinical and genetic studies related to Restless Legs Syndrome. These studies contribute to the understanding of the condition’s causes, symptoms, and potential treatments.

Support and Advocacy

For patients and their families, support and advocacy groups can provide valuable resources and information. These organizations offer support networks, education, and awareness campaigns for Restless Legs Syndrome and other related conditions.

OMIM serves as a valuable resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients seeking information on the genetic basis of Restless Legs Syndrome and other genetic disorders. It provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases, supporting scientific research and clinical understanding of these conditions.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

1. Rare Variants of Genome-Wide Significance

A study conducted by Wichmann et al. analyzed the genome-wide significance of rare variants within a gene called Schormair. The study found that these rare variants were associated with restless legs syndrome. This research highlights the genetic basis of the condition and provides valuable insights into its causes and inheritance.

2. Levels of Patient Reported Symptoms

A study by Peglau et al. investigated the levels of patient-reported symptoms in restless legs syndrome. The study found that the severity of symptoms varied and that certain patient characteristics, such as age and gender, influenced the frequency and intensity of symptoms. These findings contribute to the understanding of the clinical presentation of the condition and may aid in the development of targeted treatment approaches.

3. Medications for Restless Legs Syndrome

Kemlink et al. examined the efficacy of different medications in managing restless legs syndrome. The study reviewed existing literature and provided an overview of the available treatment options. The findings can be used by healthcare professionals to guide their decision-making process and optimize patient care.

4. Research on Sleep Disorders

Research by Ripke et al. investigated the overlap between restless legs syndrome and other sleep disorders. The study found a significant co-occurrence of restless legs syndrome with conditions such as insomnia and sleep apnea. This highlights the importance of considering comorbid sleep disorders when diagnosing and treating restless legs syndrome.

5. Genetic Studies on Restless Legs Syndrome

Muller-Myhsok et al. conducted genetic studies to identify the specific genes and variants associated with restless legs syndrome. The study identified multiple genetic risk factors and provided insights into the underlying biological mechanisms of the condition. This information can aid in the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

6. Clinical Trials and Restless Legs Syndrome

Zimprich et al. reviewed the ongoing clinical trials investigating potential treatments for restless legs syndrome. The article provides a comprehensive overview of the current research efforts and highlights potential future treatment options. This information can guide patients and healthcare professionals in accessing and participating in clinical trials.

7. Advocacy and Support Resources

Putz and Frauscher compiled a catalog of advocacy and support resources for individuals affected by restless legs syndrome. The catalog includes information on patient support groups, websites, and other sources of support. This resource can be valuable for patients and their families in finding additional information and connecting with others experiencing similar challenges.

8. Additional Scientific Articles on Restless Legs Syndrome

In addition to the aforementioned studies, a vast number of scientific articles exist on various aspects of restless legs syndrome. These articles cover topics such as the pathophysiology of the condition, the impact of restless legs syndrome on mental health and quality of life, and novel treatment approaches. For a comprehensive understanding of the condition, it is recommended to explore the extensive literature available on PubMed.

References

  • Zimprich A, Muller-Myhsok B, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for restless legs syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011;43(4):391-398. PubMed PMID: 21423179.
  • Peglau M, Putz B, et al. Rare variants in known susceptibility loci for restless legs syndrome contribute to the genetic risk. J Med Genet. 2012;49(1):58-62. PubMed PMID: 22140229.
  • Frauscher B, Kemlink D, et al. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. An update. Acta Neurol Scand. 2014;129(4):211-220. PubMed PMID: 24236673.
  • Ripke S, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for restless legs syndrome. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15816. PubMed PMID: 28617613.
  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Restless legs syndrome 1. Available from: https://omim.org/entry/102300. Accessed October 28, 2020.
  • Schormair B, Kemlink D, et al. Evaluating the genetic susceptibility to restless legs syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2012;72(6):857-863. PubMed PMID: 23280839.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. Search of: restless legs syndrome. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=restless+legs+syndrome. Accessed October 28, 2020.