Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by a triad of symptoms: ichthyosis, spasticity, and intellectual disability. It is named after the Swedish dermatologist Torsten Sjögren and the Swedish physician Tage Larsson, who first described the syndrome in the 1950s. The prevalence of this syndrome is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 individuals worldwide.

The cause of Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome is a mutation in the ALDH3A2 gene, which is responsible for producing an enzyme called fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in the breakdown of fats in the body. The mutation leads to a deficiency of this enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of fatty aldehydes in various tissues, including the skin and brain.

Patients with Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome typically present with congenital ichthyosis, a condition characterized by dry, scaly skin. The skin may have a yellowish or brownish appearance due to the accumulation of lipid crystals. The spasticity in the muscles leads to difficulty in walking and other motor impairments. Intellectual disability is also common in individuals with this syndrome.

Diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome is usually made based on the characteristic clinical features and confirmed through genetic testing. Testing for the ALDH3A2 gene mutation can be done through specialized laboratories or genetic centers. Additional information about this condition, including scientific articles, can be found on resources like OMIM, PubMed, and the Genetic Testing Registry.

Currently, there is no cure for Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome, and treatment is mainly supportive. Management involves the use of moisturizers and emollients to improve the skin condition and physical therapy to address the spasticity and motor difficulties. Ongoing research and clinical trials are being conducted to learn more about the causes and potential treatments for this rare genetic disorder.

In conclusion, Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and intellectual disability. It is caused by a mutation in the ALDH3A2 gene, leading to a deficiency in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. Diagnosis is made through clinical features and genetic testing. Although there is no cure currently available, resources, support, and advocacy are available for individuals and families affected by this syndrome.

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Frequency

The frequency of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is currently unknown. SLS is a rare genetic condition characterized by the triad of congenital ichthyosis (thickened scaly skin), intellectual disability, and spasticity (stiffness and contraction of muscles).

SLS is estimated to affect approximately 1 in every 250,000-500,000 individuals in the general population. However, the exact prevalence of the syndrome may be higher as it is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to its rarity and variable clinical presentation.

The syndrome was first described by Sjögren and Larsson in 1957, hence the name “Sjögren-Larsson syndrome”.

SLS has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, meaning that individuals with the condition have inherited an abnormal gene from both parents. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, which provides instructions for producing an enzyme called fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. These mutations result in a deficiency or dysfunction of the enzyme, leading to the accumulation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes in various tissues of the body.

The accumulation of these substances affects the formation and function of fats in the skin, leading to the characteristic ichthyosis. It also affects the formation and function of fats in the brain, resulting in the intellectual disability and spasticity seen in individuals with SLS.

Currently, there is no cure for SLS. Treatment is aimed at managing the symptoms and supporting the affected individual’s overall well-being. This may include symptomatic management of the skin condition, physical therapy to address spasticity and improve mobility, and educational and developmental support for intellectual disability.

For individuals and families affected by Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, there are several resources available for support and information. These include advocacy organizations, such as the Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Foundation, that provide educational materials, support groups, and access to genetic testing and clinical trials. Additionally, scientific articles, research studies, and genetic references can be found in databases such as PubMed, OMIM, and the ClinicalTrials.gov catalog.

As research continues, more is being learned about the causes, frequency, and treatment options for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. By increasing awareness and understanding of this rare condition, healthcare professionals can better recognize and diagnose affected individuals, leading to improved management and support.

Causes

The Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. Mutations in this gene lead to the deficiency or dysfunction of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme, which is responsible for the breakdown of long-chain fatty aldehydes. This enzyme deficiency results in the accumulation of fatty aldehydes in various tissues, particularly the skin, causing a specific type of ichthyosis characterized by dry, scaly skin.

Scientists have learned about the causative gene, ALDH3A2, from studies and research conducted on patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Further research and genetic testing have revealed more information about the genetic inheritance and prevalence of the syndrome. The ALDH3A2 gene follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, meaning that individuals must inherit two abnormal copies of the gene – one from each parent – in order to develop the syndrome.

The prevalence of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is estimated to be about 1 in 200,000 to 300,000 individuals worldwide. The actual frequency may vary among different populations and geographic regions. More information about the genetic cause and prevalence of the syndrome can be found in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and other scientific resources.

There is currently no cure for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, but management focuses on addressing the symptoms and improving quality of life for individuals with the condition. Treatment options include physical and occupational therapy to manage spasticity and improve mobility, as well as the use of topical creams and ointments to alleviate skin dryness and itching. Additional resources and support can be found through patient advocacy groups and organizations that specialize in rare genetic diseases.

For more information about the causes, genetic testing, and clinical trials related to Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, please refer to the references and articles provided in the scientific literature, as well as databases such as PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov.

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Learn more about the gene associated with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects the skin and nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, which provides instructions for making an enzyme called fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome inherit two copies of the mutated ALDH3A2 gene, one from each parent. The genetic mutation affects the formation and breakdown of fats in the body.

One of the main symptoms of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is the presence of crystals in the skin, which can be seen under a microscope. These crystals are a result of the abnormal breakdown of fats. Other symptoms include dry, scaly skin, spasticity (stiffness) in the muscles, and difficulty walking.

Genetic testing can be done to confirm a diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. This involves analyzing a patient’s DNA to look for mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. Testing is typically done on a blood sample or a small piece of tissue.

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare condition, with a prevalence of less than 1 in 100,000 individuals. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning both parents must carry a copy of the mutated gene for a child to be affected. If both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that the child will have the condition.

Research on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and the ALDH3A2 gene is ongoing. Scientists are trying to understand how the genetic mutation leads to the specific symptoms of the condition. This knowledge could help in the development of new treatments.

For more information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, genetic testing, and research studies, you can visit the following resources:

  • The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences’ Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – provides information about the condition, genetic testing, and research studies
  • OMIM – a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
  • PubMed – a database of scientific articles on the topic
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – a database of clinical research studies

Additional support and advocacy organizations may also have information on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, including resources for patients and their families.

Inheritance

The Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that both parents of an affected individual must carry a copy of the mutated gene and pass it on to their child for the condition to be present.

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is caused by mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH3A2) gene. These mutations impair the function of the ALDH3A2 enzyme, which plays a role in the breakdown of fatty aldehydes. As a result, fatty aldehydes accumulate in the body, leading to the characteristic features of the syndrome.

Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome by identifying mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. In addition to testing for mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, other genes associated with the syndrome may also be screened to exclude other diseases with similar clinical features.

The prevalence of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is rare, with an estimated frequency of around 1 in 250,000 individuals worldwide. The condition is more commonly observed in certain populations, such as individuals of Swedish descent.

Individuals with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome typically present with a triad of symptoms, including ichthyosis (a skin condition characterized by dry, scaling skin), spasticity (muscle stiffness and difficulty walking), and intellectual disability. The severity of these symptoms can vary among affected individuals.

Research studies and case reports provide more information about the causes, clinical features, and management of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. These articles can be found in scientific journals, online databases like PubMed and OMIM, and clinical trial registries like ClinicalTrials.gov.

Support and advocacy groups, such as the Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Support Center, can also provide resources and information for patients and their families. These organizations may offer support services, educational materials, and connections to other individuals affected by the syndrome.

References:

  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome – OMIM
  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome – Rare Diseases
  • ALDH3A2 gene – GeneCards
  • Sjögren-Larsson syndrome studies – PubMed
  • Sjögren-Larsson syndrome clinical trials – ClinicalTrials.gov

Other Names for This Condition

  • Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
  • Sjögren Larsson syndrome
  • SLS
  • Sjogren Larsson syndrome

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of intellectual disability, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. It is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, which is responsible for the production of an enzyme called fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase.

The condition is named after the Swedish dermatologist Torsten Sjögren and the Swedish neurologist Tage K.Larsson, who first described the syndrome in 1957. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome affects the skin, brain, and other tissues in the body.

Prevalence of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is estimated to be approximately 1 in 250,000 individuals worldwide. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the ALDH3A2 gene in each cell have mutations.

Diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is made based on the clinical features of the condition, as well as genetic testing. An analysis of the ALDH3A2 gene can confirm the diagnosis. Genetic testing can also determine whether a patient is a carrier of the condition.

There is no cure for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, and treatment mainly focuses on managing symptoms. This may include the use of creams and lotions to help with dry and scaly skin, physical therapy to improve mobility and walking, and medications to reduce spasticity. Additional resources for patients and their families can be found through advocacy groups and research centers.

For more information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, you can visit the following resources:

By learning more about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and the associated genes, researchers hope to develop better treatments and ultimately find a cure for this rare condition.

Additional Information Resources

Here is some additional information and resources about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome:

  • Names: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is also known as SLS or SLS syndrome.
  • Frequency: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare condition, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 250,000 to 1 in 400,000 individuals worldwide.
  • Clinical Features: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is characterized by a triad of symptoms including ichthyosis (a skin condition), spasticity (stiffness and difficulty in walking), and mental retardation.
  • Genetic Cause: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, which is responsible for the production of an enzyme involved in the breakdown of fats.
  • Inheritance: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both parents must carry a mutation in the ALDH3A2 gene for their child to be affected.
  • Associated Diseases: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome can be associated with other diseases such as retinal dystrophy, hearing loss, epilepsy, and skeletal abnormalities.
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For more information on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, you can visit the following resources:

  • National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): The NORD website provides information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, including a description of the condition, its symptoms, and treatment options. They also have a list of support and advocacy groups for patients and their families.
  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Foundation: This organization is dedicated to promoting research and providing support to individuals and families affected by Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Their website offers resources, information, and updates on ongoing research and clinical trials.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. They provide detailed information on the genetics, clinical features, and management of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.
  • Genetic Testing and Counseling: Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Consult a genetic counselor or a healthcare professional for more information about genetic testing options.
  • Scientific Articles and Research Studies: There are several scientific articles and research studies available that provide further insights into the condition, its causes, and potential treatments. These can be found in scientific journals and databases, such as PubMed.

Remember that each individual’s experience with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome may vary, and it is important to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized information and guidance.

Genetic Testing Information

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare genetic condition that affects the skin and nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. In this section, we provide information about genetic testing for SLS.

Frequency and Inheritance: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare condition, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 250,000 individuals worldwide. It follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, meaning that both parents must carry a mutated copy of the gene for the condition to be passed on to their child.

Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Testing typically involves sequencing the ALDH3A2 gene to identify mutations that are associated with the condition. This testing can be done using a blood sample or a sample of skin tissue.

Clinical Trials: There are currently no clinical trials specifically focused on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. However, researchers are conducting scientific studies to learn more about the causes and mechanisms of the condition. More information about ongoing studies can be found on websites like PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov.

Additional Resources: For more information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, genetic testing, and available support resources, you can visit the following websites:

  • The Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Foundation (link: www.slsf.org) provides information and support for patients and their families.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (link: www.rarediseases.org) offers further information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.
  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database (link: www.omim.org) provides comprehensive information about the genetics and inheritance of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

Conclusion: Genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. It can help confirm the presence of mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene and provide valuable information about the condition. Patients and their families can benefit from learning about the available resources and support groups. Research and clinical trials are ongoing to better understand the underlying causes of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and develop potential treatments.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a central resource for information on genetic and rare diseases. It provides valuable information on a wide range of rare diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

As a genetic condition, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. This gene is responsible for the production of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A2. The absence or impairment of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of certain fatty aldehydes in the body, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of the syndrome.

With regard to the inheritance pattern, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome follows an autosomal recessive pattern. This means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated ALDH3A2 gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition.

There are several resources available for individuals seeking more information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides a comprehensive overview of the condition, including its symptoms, causes, prevalence, and inheritance. In addition, the center offers links to other reliable sources of information, such as the National Institutes of Health’s Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and PubMed, where scientific articles and studies on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome can be found.

Testing for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome can be done through genetic testing, which looks for mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. This testing can help confirm a diagnosis and provide valuable information for patients and their families.

In terms of support and advocacy, there are organizations and patient support groups dedicated to providing resources and assistance to individuals with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and their families. These organizations can offer support networks, access to clinical trials, and additional information on living with the condition.

The symptoms of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome primarily affect the skin and the central nervous system. Some of the key features of the condition include ichthyosis, a dry, scaly skin condition, and spasticity, a form of muscle stiffness that can affect mobility and walking. Individuals with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome may also have intellectual disability and other neurological abnormalities.

Although the exact frequency of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is unknown, it is considered a rare condition. The prevalence is estimated to be between 1 in 250,000 and 1 in 1,000,000 individuals worldwide.

References:

  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), ALDH3A2 gene
  • PubMed, scientific articles on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
  • ClinicalTrials.gov, clinical trials related to Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients and families affected by Sjögren-Larsson syndrome can find valuable information and support from various resources. These resources provide articles, scientific studies, and other information about the syndrome, its causes, prevalence, and associated conditions.

Patient Advocacy Organizations:

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) – OMIM provides a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. It offers information on the genetic basis of the condition and its clinical features.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – This website provides information on ongoing clinical trials related to Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Patients and families can learn about potential research opportunities and new treatment options.

Support Centers:

  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome Foundation – The foundation aims to enhance the understanding and support the needs of individuals with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and their families. It provides resources, support groups, and connects families affected by this condition.

Additional Information and Research:

  • PubMed – PubMed is a valuable resource for finding scientific articles and research studies related to Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. It provides an extensive database of scientific literature on various medical conditions.

Patient support and advocacy resources play an essential role in providing information, support, and encouragement to individuals and families affected by rare conditions like Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. These resources help patients connect with others facing similar challenges, learn about the latest research developments, and access relevant support services.

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Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

The genetic cause of Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) has been extensively studied. Numerous research studies have focused on testing and identifying the genes associated with this rare condition. Through genetic testing, scientists have discovered that mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene are the primary cause of SLS.

Patient studies have provided valuable insights into the clinical manifestations of SLS. These studies have observed that SLS is characterized by spasticity, ichthyosis (a condition causing dry and scaly skin), and intellectual disability. The rarity of this syndrome has made it more challenging for researchers to conduct large-scale studies.

ClinicalTrials.gov, a catalog of research studies, provides additional information about SLS studies and relevant clinical trials. By exploring the database, researchers and clinicians can learn more about ongoing trials, their objectives, and their methods for studying SLS.

These studies aim to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological factors associated with SLS. Some studies have focused on the formation of fatty crystals in the skin and other tissues, which are apparent in SLS patients. Other research explores the role of the ALDH3A2 gene and its impact on the metabolism of aldehydes in the body.

Resources like PubMed and OMIM also provide scientific articles and references about SLS, supporting further research and understanding of the condition. These resources help researchers and clinicians stay up-to-date with the latest findings and advancements in SLS research.

Given the rarity of Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome, collaboration among researchers, clinicians, and patient support organizations is crucial. Through collective efforts, scientists can gain a deeper understanding of the syndrome’s causes, prevalence, and associated diseases.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by a triad of symptoms including ichthyosis, spasticity, and intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene, which is responsible for the production of an enzyme called fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH). This enzyme is involved in the breakdown of fatty alcohol molecules, and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene disrupt this process.

The syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene – one from each parent – in order to develop the condition. The prevalence of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 births.

Patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome typically exhibit apparent symptoms at birth or during early childhood. The skin is affected by ichthyosis, a condition characterized by dry, scaly skin that may have a “fish scale” or “alligator skin” appearance. Additionally, patients may experience spasticity, which is a stiffness or tightness of the muscles, leading to difficulties with movements such as walking. Intellectual disability is also common in individuals with this syndrome.

Other associated features of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome include the formation of crystals in the urine, known as oxaluria, and the accumulation of fatty aldehydes in various tissues of the body. However, the exact cause of these additional symptoms is still not fully understood.

Scientific research on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is ongoing, with studies focused on understanding the genetic basis of the condition, the role of fatty aldehyde accumulation in disease progression, and potential treatment options. Genetic testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and to identify the specific mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene.

For more information about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, genetic testing, and related resources, the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database is a valuable source. OMIM contains comprehensive information on genes and genetic diseases, including references to scientific articles, clinical trials, and advocacy and support resources.

References:

  • OMIM – Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: https://omim.org/entry/270200
  • PubMed – Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: https://clinicaltrials.gov/

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PubMed is a valuable resource for scientific articles about the Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. This rare genetic condition is characterized by the triad of congenital ichthyosis, spasticity, and intellectual disability. Researchers have conducted extensive studies to understand the causes and underlying mechanisms of this syndrome.

Genetic testing has enabled the identification of the gene responsible for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, known as the ALDH3A2 gene. Additional studies have explored the clinical features associated with this condition, including the prevalence, frequency, and apparent inheritance patterns of the syndrome.

The formation of abnormal lipid (fats) crystals in the skin and other tissues is also a key characteristic of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Scientific articles on PubMed provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of this phenomenon.

Moreover, the Sjögren-Larsson syndrome has been associated with other genetic diseases, and researchers have investigated the relationships between these conditions. The OMIM catalog, a database of genetic conditions, can provide more information on the genes and diseases associated with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

Scientific articles on PubMed also discuss the clinical trials and research studies conducted to better understand and support patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. This includes testing of potential treatments and therapies to alleviate symptoms such as spasticity and walking difficulties.

In addition to scientific research, there are advocacy and support resources available for individuals and families affected by Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. These resources aim to raise awareness, provide information, and promote the well-being of patients with this rare condition.

References to scientific articles on PubMed:

  • [1] Title of the first article
  • [2] Title of the second article
  • [3] Title of the third article
  • [4] Title of the fourth article
  • [5] Title of the fifth article

These articles can serve as valuable sources of information for healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals seeking to learn more about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and related topics.

References

Here is a list of references for further information on Sjögren-Larsson syndrome:

Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome:

Clinical Trials and Research Studies:

Genetic Testing and Inheritance:

Additional Resources:

Scientific Articles:

  • “Clinical and genetic studies in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 60, no. 1, 2010, pp. 46-52. ScienceDirect. Web. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923181110002120.
  • “Ichthyosis as a Model to Explore Birth Defects in Epidermal Ro