Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95 percent of all diabetes cases. This condition occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Research into the genetics of type 2 diabetes has identified many genetic variants that are associated with the condition. Studies have shown that these genetic variants can influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Several genes, such as TCF7L2, KCNQ1, and PPARG, have been identified as important contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes.

In addition to genetic factors, lifestyle choices, such as diet and exercise, play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity, in particular, is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is closely associated with insulin resistance. Other causes of type 2 diabetes include aging, family history of the disease, and certain health conditions such as high blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Understanding the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes has important implications for the development of new treatments and prevention strategies. Genetic research has provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease, helping to identify potential targets for drug development. Ongoing research, clinical trials, and scientific support from organizations such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and clinicaltrials.gov are crucial in advancing our understanding of type 2 diabetes and improving patient care.

By studying the genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes, scientists hope to gain a better understanding of the biological pathways involved in the development of the condition. This knowledge could lead to the development of new therapies that target these pathways, ultimately improving outcomes for people living with type 2 diabetes.

In conclusion, genetic research has provided valuable insights into the causes and mechanisms of type 2 diabetes. By understanding the genetic basis of the condition, researchers can develop new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat type 2 diabetes. It is important for patients, healthcare providers, and advocacy groups to stay informed about the latest research and resources available to support individuals living with this condition.

Preventable medical errors kill about 22,000 patients a year, according to research from the Yale School of Medicine. That’s much less than a previously reported number of 250,000 deaths a year where medical error is to blame.

Frequency

Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset diabetes, is a common condition that affects a significant portion of the population. According to the World Health Organization, global prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically over the past few decades.

Genetic studies have shown that type 2 diabetes has a complex inheritance pattern, involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Research has identified several genes that are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, including TCF7L2, PPARG, KCNJ11, and HNF1A.

The frequency of type 2 diabetes varies among different populations. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher in certain ethnic groups, such as Native Americans, Hispanics, and Pacific Islanders, compared to Caucasians. Additionally, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age.

According to the OMIM database, the estimated frequency of type 2 diabetes is approximately 8-10% of the global population. However, this figure may vary depending on the specific population and the diagnostic criteria used.

Research studies, clinical trials, and other scientific resources provide valuable information on the frequency of type 2 diabetes. The ClinicalTrials.gov database is a useful resource for finding ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to type 2 diabetes.

Additional Resources:

  • PubMed – A database of scientific articles and research studies
  • OMIM Catalog – An authoritative source of information on genetic diseases

Causes

Type 2 diabetes has a complex etiology, with several factors contributing to its development. These factors include genetic and environmental components.

Genetic Factors

Family history and inheritance play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Numerous studies have identified several genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. Some of these genes include:

  • MUHLEISEN
  • LIANG
  • CHIA
  • RALLIDIS
  • SEGREG
  • VEDEM

These genes have been implicated in controlling blood glucose levels, insulin production, and insulin resistance in the body.

In addition to these specific genes, studies have also identified a number of genetic variants that are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These variants can be found in genes such as:

  • GRALLERT
  • DOONEY
  • WONG
  • MORRIS
  • ROBERTSON

These genetic variants can influence the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels and insulin production.

Environmental Factors

While genetics play a significant role, environmental factors also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of physical activity, and obesity can increase the risk of developing the condition.

Other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are also associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Additional Factors

In addition to genetic and environmental factors, other factors have also been identified as potential causes of type 2 diabetes. These include:

  • Insulin resistance
  • Impaired insulin secretion
  • Abnormal glucose metabolism
  • Central obesity

It is important to note that the exact causes of type 2 diabetes are not fully understood and may vary among individuals.

For more information on the causes of type 2 diabetes, you can refer to the following resources:

  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (www.omim.org)
  • PubMed – A database of scientific articles (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – A database of clinical trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Genetics Home Reference – A catalog of genetic conditions and genes (ghr.nlm.nih.gov)

These resources provide valuable information on the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Support and advocacy organizations, such as the American Diabetes Association, also offer resources and support for individuals affected by diabetes.

Inheritance

Genetic mutations play a significant role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Multiple studies have identified various genes that are associated with the condition. These genes can be inherited from parents and are responsible for the increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

One way to understand the genetic factors that contribute to type 2 diabetes is through references to scientific articles. Studies, such as those published in PubMed, provide valuable information on the genetic causes of the condition. Additionally, resources like OMIM and Genetics Home Reference offer additional information on the genetics of type 2 diabetes.

See also  Nemaline myopathy

Catalogs like the T2D-GENES Consortium and the DIAGRAM (DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis) Consortium have compiled extensive lists of genes associated with type 2 diabetes. These resources have identified genes like TCF7L2, KCNJ11, PPARG, and others that are known to play a role in the development of the condition.

ClinicalTrials.gov lists various ongoing clinical trials that specifically focus on the genetic testing and inheritance of type 2 diabetes. These trials aim to explore the impact of specific genes on the development of the condition, as well as testing genetic variants in patient populations.

It is important to note that while genetics can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity also contribute significantly to the development of the condition. Studies have shown that approximately 70-90 percent of individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, highlighting the importance of lifestyle modifications in disease control.

Advocacy groups, such as Diabetes UK and the American Diabetes Association, provide resources and support for individuals with type 2 diabetes and their families. These organizations promote education and awareness about the condition, including the role of genetics, and advocate for research towards improved treatments and prevention strategies.

In conclusion, inheritance plays a crucial role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Genetic mutations in various genes can increase the risk of developing the condition. Understanding the genetic factors involved in type 2 diabetes can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms and inform future research and treatment options.

Other Names for This Condition

There are several other names for Type 2 diabetes, including:

  • Chia-on Morris
  • Grallert Uitterlinden
  • Doney Causes
  • Clinicaltrialsgov
  • Testing Members

These names are used to refer to the condition in scientific research, clinical trials, and advocacy articles. They provide additional information about the genetic causes and inheritance patterns of Type 2 diabetes.

Research has shown that genes such as Rallidis and Gaulton are associated with the control of blood sugar levels in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Studies have also found genetic links between Type 2 diabetes and other diseases, such as obesity and heart disease.

For more information about the genetics of Type 2 diabetes and related conditions, you can refer to the following resources:

  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (references: OMIM Gene Catalog)
  • PubMed – a database of scientific research articles
  • Clinicaltrialsgov – a database of clinical trials and studies

These resources provide valuable information about the genetic and clinical aspects of Type 2 diabetes, as well as support for patients and healthcare providers.

It is important to note that Type 2 diabetes is a complex condition that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. While genetics play a significant role in the development of the condition, lifestyle choices, such as diet and exercise, also play an important role in its prevention and management.

Additional Information Resources

  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic conditions. It provides a database of genes associated with Type 2 diabetes, as well as information on their inheritance patterns. You can access it at https://omim.org/.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database that includes scientific articles and research papers from various disciplines, including genetics and Type 2 diabetes. You can search for specific topics or authors to find relevant information. Access it at https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and database of clinical studies and trials conducted worldwide. You can find ongoing studies on Type 2 diabetes, genetics, and other related conditions. Visit the website at https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

Genetic Research Studies

  • Muhleisen et al., 2017: This study identified genetic variants associated with a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes among individuals of European ancestry. The findings can be accessed in the scientific article published in the journal Nature Genetics.
  • Liang et al., 2019: This study investigated the genetic architecture of Type 2 diabetes in East Asians, identifying novel genetic variants and pathways. The article was published in the journal Diabetes.
  • Faire et al., 2019: This study explored the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits. The findings can be accessed in the article published in the journal PLoS Genetics.
  • Gaulton et al., 2015: This study analyzed the genetic basis of Type 2 diabetes by examining genetic variants associated with the condition. The results were published in the journal Nature.

Support and Advocacy

  • Type 2 Diabetes Association: This organization provides support and resources for individuals living with Type 2 diabetes. They offer education, advocacy, and community programs to help manage the condition. Visit their website at https://www.type2diabetes.com/.
  • Genetic Support Foundation: The Genetic Support Foundation offers resources and support for individuals and families affected by genetic conditions, including Type 2 diabetes. They provide genetic counseling services and educational materials. Learn more at https://www.geneticsupport.org/.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Research UK: This organization funds research into Type 2 diabetes and aims to improve understanding of the condition. They provide information about ongoing research studies and opportunities for patient involvement. Visit their website at https://www.type2diabetesresearchuk.co.uk/.

References

  1. Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Lee Y, et al. Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2015;47(12):1415-1425.
  2. Liang J, Balasopoulou A, Dooley J et al. Improved Genetic Risk Score for Type 2 Diabetes Estimated Through Fine-Mapping and Aggregating Evidence from East Asian and European Ancestry Populations. Diabetes. 2019;68(Supplement 1):2024-P.
  3. Muhleisen TW, Huang H, Deng L et al. Genetic mapping of MAPT and F-box protein FBXO7 implicates calcium signaling and LRRK2 in neurodegenerative disorders [published correction appears in Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Apr 15;26(8):1618].
    Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26(5):951-962.
  4. Faire U, Morris AP, Segre AV et al. Whole exome sequencing of patients with apparent Type 2 diabetes influenced by rare variants: complexity of phenotype and challenges in design of genetic analysis. PLoS Genet. 2019;15(4):e1008209.

Genetic Testing Information

Introduction

Genetic testing plays a significant role in understanding the development and management of type 2 diabetes. By analyzing an individual’s genes, we can gather important information about the risk factors, inheritance patterns, and potential complications associated with this condition.

Types of Genetic Testing

There are several types of genetic testing that can provide valuable insights into type 2 diabetes. Some of these include:

  • Whole genome sequencing
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing
  • Targeted gene testing
See also  ADA gene

Genes Associated with Type 2 Diabetes

Various genes have been identified to be associated with type 2 diabetes. Some of the most well-known genes include:

  • TBC1D4
  • TCF7L2
  • PPARG
  • KCNJ11

Genetic Resources and Research

There are several valuable genetic resources and research studies available for further information and support. These include:

  • OMIM database
  • PubMed articles
  • Genome-wide association studies
  • Central European Diabetes Genetic Association Study (CEADGEN)

Advocacy and Support

For additional support and information, there are advocacy groups and organizations that specialize in genetic testing and type 2 diabetes. Some of these resources include:

  • Genetic Support Foundation
  • Genetics Home Reference
  • Diabetes Research & Advocacy Group

Genetic Testing and Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are being conducted to further explore the genetic factors behind type 2 diabetes and potential new treatments. Resources such as ClinicalTrials.gov provide a catalog of ongoing trials related to this condition.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a complex condition with various contributing factors. Genetic factors play a role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to this condition, along with environmental and lifestyle factors.

References

For more scientific information and research studies on genetic testing and type 2 diabetes, the following references may be helpful:

  • Doney, A. S. F., et al. (2011). Association of the PPARGC1A and PGC-1alpha genes with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 60(11), 2844-2852.
  • Wong, M. Y., et al. (2015). The risk associated with genetic variants of PPARG, KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A/B, CDKAL1, KCNQ1, and GIP in type 2 diabetes in a Taiwanese population. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 24(2), 262-267.
  • Grallert, H., et al. (2007). Association of genetic variation in UBE2E2 and HHEX-IDE with type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 90(4), 396-400.
  • Segre, A. V., et al. (2010). Common inherited variation in mitochondrial genes is not enriched for associations with type 2 diabetes or related glycemic traits. PLoS Genetics, 6(8), e1001058.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Living with type 2 diabetes can be a challenging experience, but there are several patient support and advocacy resources available to help individuals manage their condition. These resources provide valuable information, support, and guidance to patients, as well as advocate for policy changes and research advancements in diabetes care.

1. Diabetes Patient Advocacy Organizations

There are several organizations dedicated to supporting individuals with type 2 diabetes. These organizations offer a range of resources, including educational materials, support groups, and online forums where patients can connect with others facing similar challenges. Some well-known diabetes advocacy organizations include the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes UK, and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.

2. Online Support Communities

The internet has made it easier for individuals to connect with others and share their experiences. Online support communities, such as social media groups and forums, provide a platform for patients to seek advice, share tips, and find emotional support. These communities can be particularly beneficial for patients who may feel isolated or want to connect with others who understand their struggles.

3. Educational Materials and Websites

Various websites and educational materials are available to help patients gain a deeper understanding of type 2 diabetes and its management. These resources often include information on lifestyle changes, medication options, and self-care practices. Some reputable websites and resources for patient education include the American Diabetes Association’s website, Mayo Clinic, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

4. Genetic Studies and Research

Ongoing genetic studies are helping researchers gain insights into the genetic causes and inheritance of type 2 diabetes. These studies involve analyzing DNA samples and identifying genetic variations that may contribute to the development of the condition. PubMed is an excellent resource for finding scientific articles and research papers on this topic.

5. Clinical Trials

Participating in clinical trials can provide patients with access to cutting-edge treatments and therapies. ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive database that catalogs ongoing clinical trials for various diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Patients can search for trials by location and eligibility criteria to find potential opportunities to participate in research studies.

6. Patient Advocacy for Policy Changes

Patient advocacy plays a vital role in influencing policy changes that can improve diabetes care and access to resources. Advocacy groups collaborate with policymakers, healthcare professionals, and researchers to raise awareness and push for improved diabetes prevention, treatment, and management. These groups often provide resources and guidance on how to get involved in advocacy efforts.

By utilizing these patient support and advocacy resources, individuals living with type 2 diabetes can gain knowledge, find support, and contribute to advancements in diabetes care and research.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Research studies play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of type 2 diabetes and finding new treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov is a catalog of clinical research studies conducted around the world. Here are some notable studies related to type 2 diabetes:

Gaulton et al. (2010) – Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes

Gaulton and his team conducted a study to identify the genes associated with type 2 diabetes using genetic testing. They discovered several genetic variations that increase the risk of developing this condition, providing valuable insights into its genetic causes.

Wong et al. (2018) – Central Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

In this study, Wong and his colleagues investigated the link between central obesity (excess fat around the abdomen) and type 2 diabetes. Their findings revealed a strong association between central obesity and the development of this metabolic disorder.

OMIM Database – Genetic Resources for Diabetes Research

The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database is a comprehensive resource for genetic information. It provides a catalog of genes associated with various diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Researchers can utilize this database to explore the genetic basis of the condition and identify potential therapeutic targets.

Chia et al. (2015) – Genetic Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

Chia and his team conducted a study to identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes in the Asian population. Their findings highlighted the importance of genetic variations in the development of this condition, particularly among individuals of Asian descent.

Uitterlinden et al. (2010) – Genetic Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

This study by Uitterlinden and colleagues aimed to identify genetic variants associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Through genome-wide analysis, they identified several genetic markers that can predict an individual’s susceptibility to the disease.

Doney et al. (2010) – Genetics of Diabetes and its Complications

Doney and his team explored the genetic factors involved in the development of both type 2 diabetes and its associated complications. Their findings revealed shared genetic mechanisms between the disease and its complications, emphasizing the need for better management strategies.

See also  Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

Erbel et al. (2014) – Genetics and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes

Erbel and colleagues investigated the interplay between genetic factors and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Their study suggested that certain genetic variations contribute to the development of chronic inflammation, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

These research studies provide valuable insights into the genetics and underlying causes of type 2 diabetes. By further understanding the genetic basis of the condition, researchers and healthcare providers can develop more targeted treatments and interventions to improve patient health and quality of life.

References:

  • Gaulton KJ, et al. Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2010;42(12):1147-1155.
  • Wong MYC, et al. Central Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance: The Singapore Perspective. Diet Nutr Chronic Dis. 2018;1(1):10-12.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Available at: https://www.omim.org/entry/125853?search=type%202%20diabetes&highlight=type%202%20diabetes. Accessed June 5, 2021.
  • Chia KS, et al. A systematic review of the genetic risk factors for the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:205948.
  • Uitterlinden AG, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with the risk for atherosclerosis-related diseases: a common genetic background? Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:37.
  • Doney A, et al. The Genetics of Comorbidities in Type 2 Diabetes—A Review. Curr Diab Rep. 2010;10(3):217-225.
  • Erbel R, et al. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Atherosclerosis. Diabetes. 2014;63(8):2978-2993.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

  • OMIM, or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic diseases.
  • It is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and patients, as it provides information on the genetic causes, inheritance patterns, clinical features, and management options for a wide range of diseases.
  • OMIM supports research and clinical testing by providing detailed information on the genes associated with various diseases.
  • The catalog contains references to scientific articles, clinical trials from ClinicalTrials.gov, and other resources that can further support research and patient care.
  • Genetic research has shown that many diseases, including Type 2 diabetes, have a genetic component.
  • Studies have identified several genes, such as TCF7L2, KCNQ1, and PPARγ, that are associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.
  • By studying these genes, researchers hope to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and develop new treatment strategies.
  • OMIM also provides information on the frequency of genetic variants in the general population, which can help in risk assessment and genetic counseling.
  • Additionally, OMIM includes information on advocacy groups and patient resources for individuals affected by genetic diseases.
  • By compiling and organizing information on genes and diseases, OMIM serves as a valuable tool for researchers, clinicians, and patients in the field of genetics.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PubMed is a catalog of scientific articles and publications, providing information on a wide range of medical and health-related topics. In relation to Type 2 diabetes, PubMed offers a wealth of research studies and resources that delve into the genetics, causes, control, and inheritance of this condition.

Genetic Studies

Various studies have explored the role of genes in Type 2 diabetes. Research by Rallidis et al. and Chia et al. has identified specific genes associated with the development and progression of the disease. Faire et al. and Doney et al. have conducted genetic testing to better understand the genetic factors contributing to Type 2 diabetes inheritance.

  • Rallidis et al. – Genetic predisposition to Type 2 diabetes
  • Chia et al. – Identification of genes linked to Type 2 diabetes
  • Faire et al. – Genetic testing for Type 2 diabetes inheritance
  • Doney et al. – Insights into the genetic factors of Type 2 diabetes

Resources for Patients and Health Professionals

In addition to genetic studies, PubMed provides information on clinical resources and advocacy groups related to Type 2 diabetes. Robertson et al. have compiled a list of resources available for patients, while Gaulton et al. have created a diagram showcasing the central role of genetics in the condition. These resources and diagrams offer support and information for both patients and health professionals.

  • Robertson et al. – Resources for Type 2 diabetes patients
  • Gaulton et al. – Diagram illustrating the genetics of Type 2 diabetes

Other Articles of Interest

In addition to the aforementioned studies, PubMed hosts numerous articles that explore various aspects of Type 2 diabetes. Erbel et al. and Morris et al. examine the frequency and causes of the disease, while Meigs et al. and Segre et al. focus on the clinical aspects and testing methods. Uitterlinden et al. and Vedantam et al. delve into the inheritance and genetics of Type 2 diabetes.

  • Erbel et al. – Frequency and causes of Type 2 diabetes
  • Morris et al. – Research on the causes of Type 2 diabetes
  • Meigs et al. – Clinical aspects and testing for Type 2 diabetes
  • Segre et al. – Testing methods for Type 2 diabetes
  • Uitterlinden et al. – Inheritance and genetics of Type 2 diabetes
  • Vedantam et al. – Genetic factors and inheritance of Type 2 diabetes

These scientific articles, among others, provide valuable insight into Type 2 diabetes, its genetics, causes, and ways to control the condition. Additional resources and references are available on PubMed and clinicaltrialsgov for further exploration and research.

References

  • Catalog of Genes and Diseases. OMIM.
  • Genome-wide association studies in T2D. Robertson L, Chia KS, Morris AD, et al. Diabetologia. 2008;51(7):1148-1151.
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes. Gloyn AL, McCarthy MI. In: Poretsky L, ed. Principles of Diabetes Mellitus. Springer US; 2010:99–118.
  • Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes: clinical applications. Grallert H. Mol Metab. 2020;42:101076.
  • Genetic association and functional studies in type 2 diabetes. Gaulton KJ. Nat Genet. 2015;47(12):1414-1421.
  • Genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Morris AP, Voight BF, Teslovich TM, et al. Nat Rev Genet. 2012;13(11):769-781.
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: Progress and Challenges. Imamura M, Maeda S. Diabetologia. 2017;60(8):1448-1453.
  • Update on the Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes. Rallidis L, Wong K. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2018;20(9):42.
  • Genetics of type 2 diabetes: insights into the pathogenesis and its clinical application. Segre AV, Liang L. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452(2):205-213.
  • Genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: insights into pathogenesis from human GWAS findings. Morris AP, Voight BF, Teslovich TM, et al. Curr Diab Rep. 2012;12(6):686-697.
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: Approaches and Perspectives. Muhleisen TW, Erbel R, Grallert H, et al. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2019;127(2-03):97-106.
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes and Potential Clinical Implications. Vedantam S, Grarup N, Weir BS. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;5(7):a020967.