Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a rare type of blood cancer that results in the overproduction and accumulation of abnormal proteins called macroglobulins. This condition is often caused by a genetic mutation in the MYD88 gene, which contributes to the overactive growth of lymphoid cells. WM affects approximately 1 to 4 percent of patients with lymphoid and plasma cell dyscrasias.

WM is associated with a variety of symptoms, including weakness, fatigue, neuropathy, and enlargement of the spleen. The condition can also lead to anemia, excess bleeding, and bone marrow failure. Rarely, patients with WM may develop a unique form of peripheral neuropathy known as the IgM monoclonal gammopathy-related neuropathy.

Treatment options for WM vary depending on the severity of the disease and the symptoms experienced by the patient. The preferred treatment approach is currently unknown, and clinical trials are ongoing to learn more about the most effective therapies. Some common treatments include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and stem cell transplantation. There is also no established inheritance pattern for WM, but genetic changes and familial clustering have been reported in some cases.

For more information on Waldenström macroglobulinemia, additional research articles, and clinical trial resources, visit reputable sources such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Organizations like the Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia Foundation and Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia Program at the Mayo Clinic provide support, advocacy, and educational resources to help patients and their families navigate this complex condition.

Frequency

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare condition, accounting for approximately 1-2 percent of all hematologic malignancies in the United States. It is more commonly diagnosed in older individuals, with a median age at diagnosis of 63 years. WM affects men and women equally, and there is no known inheritance pattern or associated gene mutations.

WM is caused by the overproduction of a protein called monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM). The accumulation of these proteins in the blood can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications. The excess protein can cause the blood to thicken, leading to symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, and dizziness.

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There is limited information on the frequency of WM worldwide, as it is a rare disease. However, testing resources and research on WM have expanded in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the condition. ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed are valuable resources for additional information on clinical trials and research studies related to Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Some studies have suggested an association between WM and other conditions, such as neuropathy, bone weakness, and spleen enlargement. However, further research is needed to fully understand these associations.

The treatment of WM is tailored to the individual patient and may involve chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapies. Support from advocacy organizations, such as the Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Support Group and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, can also be helpful for patients and their families.

Causes

The cause of Waldenström macroglobulinemia is not yet fully understood. Current research suggests that genetic changes play a role in the development of this condition.

  • Genetic Inheritance: Studies have shown that about 10-15 percent of Waldenström macroglobulinemia cases are associated with inherited genetic changes. These genetic changes can be passed down from parents to their offspring.
  • Gene Mutations: Mutations in certain genes have been found to be associated with the development of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Mutations in the MYD88 and CXCR4 genes, for example, have been identified in a significant number of patients.
  • Overactive Bone Marrow: In Waldenström macroglobulinemia, there is an overactive production of abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow. This leads to the accumulation of excessive amounts of abnormal proteins called monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies.
  • Environmental Factors: While the exact environmental factors that may contribute to the development of Waldenström macroglobulinemia are still unknown, some studies suggest that exposure to certain chemicals or toxins may play a role.

Further scientific research and genetic testing are needed to better understand the causes and underlying mechanisms of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Additional resources and support for patients and their families can be found through organizations like the Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia Support Network, the Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Clinic and Research Center at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and clinical trial databases such as clinicaltrials.gov.

Learn more about the genes associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma characterized by the accumulation of abnormal white blood cells called lymphoplasmacytic cells. These cells produce excessive amounts of a protein called immunoglobulin M (IgM), which can lead to symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, neuropathy, and organ damage.

Genetic studies have identified several genes that contribute to the development and progression of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. One of the most commonly mutated genes in this condition is MYD88, which is found in approximately 90 percent of patients. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene have also been associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Understanding the genetic basis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Genetic testing can help identify specific mutations in patients and guide personalized treatment strategies. It can also provide information about the inheritance pattern of the condition, which can be useful for the counseling of affected individuals and their families.

Several resources are available for individuals interested in learning more about the genetic aspects of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides information on the genetic basis of the condition, including the names and frequencies of associated genetic variants. PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov are valuable resources for accessing scientific articles and ongoing research studies related to the genetic underpinnings of the disease.

Support and advocacy organizations for Waldenström macroglobulinemia also provide information and resources on the genetic aspects of the condition. These organizations often maintain patient support groups, research funding initiatives, and educational materials for individuals affected by the disease.

In summary, genetic studies have shed light on the genes associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Understanding the genetic basis of the disease is essential for better diagnosis, treatment, and support for affected individuals. Resources such as scientific databases, research articles, and patient advocacy organizations are available to provide more information on this topic.

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Inheritance

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare type of cancer that affects plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. It is named after Dr. Jan G. Waldenström, a Swedish medical scientist who first described the condition in 1944. This disease is characterized by the overproduction of abnormal proteins called macroglobulins, which can accumulate in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.

WM has been associated with genetic changes in certain genes involved in the development and function of plasma cells. Researchers have identified several gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that may contribute to the development of this condition. However, the exact genetic causes of WM are not well understood, and the condition is not known to be inherited in a simple Mendelian pattern.

Most cases of WM occur sporadically, meaning they are not inherited from parents. However, there have been rare reports of familial cases, suggesting that there may be a genetic component to the disease in some individuals. In familial cases, multiple family members may be affected by WM or related conditions, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma.

Research studies have identified several genes and genetic changes that are associated with an increased risk of developing WM. Some of these genes include MYD88, CXCR4, and BIRC3. However, these genetic changes are not specific to WM and can also be found in other diseases and conditions.

Genetic testing may be helpful in certain cases to determine the presence of specific gene mutations or chromosomal abnormalities associated with WM. However, testing for these genetic changes is not routinely performed in clinical practice, and the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis and management of WM is still being investigated.

More scientific research is needed to fully understand the genetic basis of WM and its inheritance patterns. Studies are ongoing to identify additional genes and genetic changes that may be associated with this condition. The genetic findings in WM may have implications for the development of targeted therapies and personalized treatment approaches in the future.

For additional information on the inheritance and genetics of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, you can visit the following resources:

  • The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) catalog, which provides information about genes and genetic diseases (www.omim.org)
  • The PubMed database, which contains scientific articles and research studies (pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
  • The Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Support and Advocacy Center, a patient advocacy organization that provides information and resources on WM (www.wmsupport.net)
  • The ClinicalTrials.gov website, which lists clinical trials and studies related to WM (clinicaltrialsgov)

Other Names for This Condition

  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia
  • Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia
  • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
  • Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
  • Macroglobulinemia, Waldenström type
  • Macroglobulinemia, primary
  • Immunocytic Waldenström macroglobulinemia
  • Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare condition that affects the bone marrow, causing the accumulation of abnormal proteins called macroglobulins. It is also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

This condition is caused by changes in the DNA of certain cells, which leads to the overproduction of macroglobulins. The exact genetic causes of Waldenström macroglobulinemia are not fully understood, but research has identified several genes that may contribute to its development.

People with Waldenström macroglobulinemia may experience symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, and easy bruising. They may also have an enlarged spleen and lymph nodes. Some people may develop neuropathy, which is a condition that affects the nerves and can cause numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness.

There is currently no cure for Waldenström macroglobulinemia, but there are treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment may include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy, depending on the individual’s specific case.

It is important for individuals with Waldenström macroglobulinemia to learn as much information as possible about the condition and available treatment options. Additional resources and support can be found through advocacy groups, clinical trials, and scientific articles published on PubMed and OMIM.

Genetic testing may also be helpful for individuals with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, as it can provide information about the genetic changes that contribute to the condition and help guide treatment decisions.

References:

  1. Yang G, et al. (2017). The added value of mutation screening for the MYD88 L265P mutation in a population-based clinical cohort of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia patients. Ann Hematol. 96(7):1161-1166. PMID: 28361342
  2. Tripsas CK, et al. (2015). Ki67 proliferation index as a tool for risk stratification in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Blood. 126(24):2827-2832. PMID: 26341909
  3. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia
  4. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). OMIM. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/153600
  5. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (2021). Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/2992/waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia
  6. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). ClinicalTrials.gov Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=Waldenstrom+macroglobulinemia
  7. Barbara M, et al. (2013). Waldenström macroglobulinemia presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and gangrene of both hands [Catalog of Selected Scientific Articles]. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.667.3078&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Additional Information Resources

If you’re looking for more information about Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), here are some resources that can help:

  • Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Foundation of America: This organization offers support and advocacy for patients with WM and their families. You can learn more about the condition, treatment options, and find clinical trials on their website.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: This center provides information on genetic diseases, including WM. You can find articles and research studies on the center’s website, as well as information on inheritance patterns and genetic testing.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. You can search for articles about WM and related topics by using keywords like “Waldenström macroglobulinemia,” “Waldenström syndrome,” or “neuropathy associated with WM.”
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website lists clinical trials that are currently recruiting participants. You can search for WM clinical trials to learn about new treatment options or research studies that are being conducted.
  • Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Support Group: This online support group provides a platform for WM patients to connect with others who have the condition. You can share experiences, ask questions, and find support from people who understand what you’re going through.
  • Learn Genetics: This website offers educational resources on genetics and genetic conditions. You can find information about the genes and proteins involved in WM, as well as how genetic changes contribute to the development of the condition.
  • The Jackson Laboratory Catalog of Genes and Diseases: The Jackson Laboratory has a catalog of genes and diseases that provides detailed information about genetic conditions. You can find information on WM and related genes in their catalog.
  • The Whim-like Syndrome Patient Registry: The Whim-like Syndrome Patient Registry is a resource for patients with Whim-like syndrome, a rare condition that shares some similarities with WM. You can find more information about Whim-like syndrome and connect with other patients through this registry.
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These resources can help you learn more about WM, find support, and stay informed about the latest research and treatment options. Remember to consult with your healthcare provider for personalized information and advice.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing contributes to a better understanding of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This genetic disorder is associated with the overproduction of a protein called immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the bone marrow cells. To aid in diagnosis and treatment, genetic testing provides important information about the specific changes in genes that contribute to the development of WM.

Genetic testing can identify inherited mutations in genes such as MYD88 and CXCR4, which are frequently associated with WM. These gene changes can occur sporadically or may be inherited in a whim-like manner. By detecting these genetic alterations, healthcare professionals can determine the best course of treatment for patients with WM.

Genetic testing for WM can be conducted through specialized laboratories and research centers. The information obtained from these tests helps in identifying specific genetic variations that may be present in patients with WM. Additionally, genetic testing can assist in predicting the frequency and severity of certain symptoms associated with the disease.

There are various resources available for patients and healthcare providers seeking genetic testing information for WM. ClinicalTrials.gov provides a catalog of ongoing clinical trials related to WM and genetic testing. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database also offers a comprehensive collection of information on genetic variations and their associated diseases, including WM. In addition, advocacy groups and support centers can provide further assistance and guidance for patients and their families.

It is important to note that while genetic testing may shed light on the underlying causes of WM, it is just one piece of the puzzle. Other factors, such as environmental influences, may also contribute to the development of this condition. Through ongoing research and scientific studies, we can continue to uncover more information about the genetic basis of WM and develop targeted therapies to help patients.

References:

  1. Yang G, Manning RJ, Yang W. Genomic Perspectives in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia. Cancers. 2021;13(7):1732. doi:10.3390/cancers13071732.
  2. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10035/macroglobulinemia-waldenstrom

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a scientific resource providing additional information on rare genetic diseases such as Waldenström macroglobulinemia. GARD aims to help patients and their families learn more about these rare conditions, enabling them to better manage their health.

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare form of cancer that affects the bone marrow and leads to the overproduction of a type of protein called immunoglobulin M (IgM). This excess protein can accumulate in various organs, such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, leading to symptoms like weakness, fatigue, and enlarged organs.

Genetic changes in a gene called MYD88 are associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Approximately 90 percent of people with this condition have a specific mutation in the MYD88 gene that contributes to the development of the disease.

Waldenström macroglobulinemia shares some similarities with other related conditions, such as IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) and IgM-related neuropathies. However, it is important to differentiate among these conditions, as treatment approaches can vary.

Diagnosis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia involves various tests and procedures, including blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies. Genetic testing may also be performed to help confirm the presence of the MYD88 mutation.

Treatment options for Waldenström macroglobulinemia depend on the individual patient and the stage of the disease. Some commonly used treatments include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Clinical trials may also be available for patients who want to explore new treatment options.

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides a comprehensive catalog of articles, references, and resources related to Waldenström macroglobulinemia. It also offers information about other genetic and rare diseases, helping patients and their families find the support and advocacy they need.

References:

  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (2021). Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/3554/waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia
  • Waldenström Macroglobulinemia. (2021). OMIM. Retrieved from https://omim.org/entry/153600

This information from the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is intended to help individuals learn more about Waldenström macroglobulinemia and related conditions. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Please consult with a healthcare provider for more information.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patients diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia can find support and advocacy resources to help them navigate their treatment and manage the effects of the condition. The following resources can provide valuable information and assistance:

  • Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Foundation (WMF): The WMF is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to supporting individuals with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. They offer educational materials, support groups, and information about the latest research and treatment options. Visit their website at www.wmfcure.org to learn more.
  • Patient Support Groups: Connecting with other individuals who have gone through or are going through similar experiences can provide emotional support and valuable insights. Joining online or in-person support groups can help patients and their families cope with the challenges of the condition. The WMF website provides information about support groups for Waldenström macroglobulinemia patients.
  • Genetic Testing and Counseling: Genetic testing can provide information about the genetic changes and inheritance patterns associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Genetic counselors can help patients and their families understand the implications of these genetic changes and make informed decisions about their health. Individuals can consult with their healthcare providers to access genetic counseling services.
  • Patient Education Materials: Understanding the condition and its treatment options is essential for patients and their caregivers. Educational materials from reputable sources, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other medical organizations, can provide valuable information. Websites like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and clinicaltrials.gov offer scientific articles, research studies, and clinical trial information related to Waldenström macroglobulinemia and can help patients stay informed.
  • Medical Centers and Treatment Centers: Seeking care at medical centers with expertise in Waldenström macroglobulinemia can ensure access to the latest treatment options and expert care. Centers that specialize in rare blood cancers, such as Waldenström macroglobulinemia, are equipped with healthcare professionals who have extensive experience in managing the condition.
  • Financial and Travel Assistance: Treatment for Waldenström macroglobulinemia may involve frequent clinic visits, specialized tests, and possible travel to treatment centers. Various organizations offer financial assistance programs and travel grants to help patients cover the costs associated with their condition. Patients can inquire about these resources at treatment centers or reach out to patient advocacy organizations for more information.
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These resources can play a significant role in providing support, information, and assistance to patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia and their families. It is essential to take advantage of available resources to improve the overall management of the condition and well-being of the affected individuals.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

ClinicalTrials.gov is a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world. These studies provide valuable information about various diseases and their treatment options. Here are some research studies related to Waldenström macroglobulinemia:

  1. Study Title: “Neuropathy Support and Treatment in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia”

    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01251542

    Description: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of neuropathy support and treatment for individuals with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

  2. Study Title: “Genetic Testing for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia and Other Similar Diseases”

    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02447104

    Description: This study focuses on genetic testing to identify the exact causes and inheritance patterns of Waldenström macroglobulinemia and other related diseases.

  3. Study Title: “Excess Bone Marrow Cells and Accumulation of Immunoglobulin M Proteins in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia”

    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02789750

    Description: This study investigates the excess bone marrow cells and accumulation of immunoglobulin M proteins in individuals with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

  4. Study Title: “Treatment and Genetic Changes in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia”

    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03693665

    Description: This study aims to evaluate the treatment options and genetic changes associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

  5. Study Title: “Waldenström Macroglobulinemia: Clinical and Genetic Research”

    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00381926

    Description: This study focuses on clinical and genetic research regarding Waldenström macroglobulinemia. It aims to explore the genetic changes and inheritance patterns associated with the condition.

These articles provide scientific information on Waldenström macroglobulinemia and can help healthcare professionals and patients learn more about the condition. In addition to the studies listed above, other resources like OMIM, PubMed, and advocacy organizations may also have additional research and support resources available.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and patients who are interested in learning more about various genetic conditions, including Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein, called macroglobulin, in the blood. This condition is also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with monoclonal IgM protein, and it often presents with symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, neuropathy, and spleen enlargement.

Through the catalog of OMIM, researchers and clinicians can access information on the genetic changes associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. They can learn about the genes and proteins involved in the development and progression of the condition, as well as the inheritance patterns and frequency of these genetic changes.

The catalog provides names of genes associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, such as MYD88, CXCR4, and WHIM-like syndrome. It also includes information on the clinical features of the condition and the rare cases of patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia who present with other genetic syndromes.

In addition to genetic information, the catalog also references scientific articles and resources from PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. These resources can be helpful for researchers looking for more information on the molecular mechanisms, treatment options, and ongoing clinical trials for Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

For patients and advocacy groups, the catalog of OMIM can provide additional support and information about Waldenström macroglobulinemia. It can help them understand the genetic basis of the condition and contribute to their decision-making process when it comes to genetic testing and treatment options.

In summary, the OMIM catalog offers a comprehensive collection of information on genes and genetic diseases, including Waldenström macroglobulinemia. It provides valuable resources for researchers, clinicians, and patients, helping them learn more about the condition, its genetic basis, and available scientific and clinical resources.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare syndrome characterized by the excess production of a specific type of protein called macroglobulins in the blood. This protein is produced by abnormal cells in the bone marrow. WM accounts for approximately 3 percent of all hematologic malignancies. It typically affects older adults, with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 65 to 70 years.

Different diagnostic testing can be done to confirm the presence of WM. This includes blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and genetic testing. The genetic changes often observed in WM patients involve mutations in certain genes that play a role in the development and function of immune system cells.

There is currently no cure for WM, but there are treatment options available to manage the disease. Clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov can provide more information about ongoing research and potential treatment options. The WHIM-like syndrome with bone marrow involvement, macroglobulinemia, and juvenile-onset cataract (WHIM-like syndrome) is a rare genetic disorder that shares some similarities with WM. OMIM is a catalog of genetic diseases and associated genes, proteins, and references.

Patients with WM may experience symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, and neuropathy. The accumulation of macroglobulins in the blood can also lead to thickening of the blood, which contributes to the development of symptoms. The spleen may become enlarged in some cases.

There are resources available to support patients with WM and their families. Advocacy organizations provide information and support for individuals with WM. The frequency of WM is low, but scientific articles published on PubMed provide additional information about the causes and treatment of this rare disease.

References

1. Yang, G., Liu, X., Mao, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Song, H., & Gao, L. (2020). WHIM-like syndrome caused by a microdeletion in the CXCR4 promoter: A case report and review of the literature. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 19(5), 3349-3357.

2. Tripsas, C. K., Meid, K., Patterson, C. J., & Manning, R. J. (2016). Waldenström macroglobulinemia: review of pathogenesis and management. Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology, 14(4), 297-310.

3. Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). In OMIM. Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/entry/153600

4. Waldenström Macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). In Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6412/waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia

5. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). In National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Waldenstr%C3%B6m+macroglobulinemia

6. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). In ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=waldenstrom+macroglobulinemia

7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. (n.d.). In Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia Foundation of America. Retrieved from https://www.waldenstroms.com/