X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is a rare genetic condition that causes muscle stiffness and involuntary twisting movements, known as dystonia. It primarily affects individuals of Filipino descent, with the highest frequency of cases reported in the Philippines. This condition is also referred to as TAF1-DYT3 dystonia-parkinsonism, named after the TAF1 gene in the X chromosome region.

The inheritance of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism follows an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that women are carriers of the gene mutation but rarely show symptoms, while men who inherit the mutated gene from their carrier mothers are more likely to develop the condition. The TAF1 gene produces a protein that is involved in the regulation of gene expression, and when this gene is mutated, it leads to the characteristic symptoms of dystonia-parkinsonism.

Research on X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism has provided valuable insights into the genetics and underlying causes of this condition. Scientific studies have identified other genes in the X chromosome region that may contribute to the development of dystonia-parkinsonism. Additional research and clinical trials are ongoing to further understand the disease and explore potential treatments.

There are several resources available for individuals and families affected by X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. The Dystonia-Parkinsonism Research and Advocacy Center (DPRAC) in the Philippines is a central hub for information, support, and advocacy for patients and their families. The center offers genetic testing, clinical trials, and catalogs scientific articles and references related to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. More information can be found on the DPRAC website, as well as on clinicaltrialsgov and OMIM.

It is essential for individuals and healthcare professionals to learn more about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism to effectively support patients and provide appropriate care. By understanding the genetic basis and clinical characteristics of this rare condition, medical professionals can improve diagnosis and treatment options for those affected. Ongoing research and collaboration in the scientific community will continue to shed light on the causes, inheritance patterns, and potential therapies for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

Frequency

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) is a rare genetic condition that primarily affects individuals of Filipino descent. It is also known as DYT3 or the “Lubag” syndrome in the Philippines. XDP is caused by mutations in the TAF1 gene, which is located on the X chromosome.

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Because XDP is relatively rare, its frequency is not well established. However, studies conducted in the Philippines have estimated the prevalence to be around 1 in 10,000 individuals among the population of Filipino heritage. This makes XDP one of the most common inherited forms of dystonia in the Philippines.

XDP has also been reported in individuals of non-Filipino descent, but it is much less common in these populations.

Recognizing the need for support and advocacy for individuals and families affected by XDP, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation established the XDP Center of Excellence at the University of the Philippines in Manila. This center provides resources and support to patients, conducts research on XDP and other dystonia-parkinsonism diseases, and coordinates clinical trials to find more effective treatments.

For additional information on XDP and related diseases, the following resources can be helpful:

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides comprehensive information on genetic disorders, including XDP and associated genes.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a scientific research database where you can find articles and studies about XDP and related topics.
  • XDP Center of Excellence: The XDP Center of Excellence at the University of the Philippines is a valuable source of information and support for individuals and families affected by XDP.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: Visit ClinicalTrials.gov to learn about ongoing clinical trials for XDP and other dystonia-parkinsonism diseases.

References:

  1. Hernandez, J. et al. (2002). “The “Lubag” (X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism) syndrome: clinical characteristics, genetics, and disease pathology.” Acta Medica Philippina, 36(3), 41-48.
  2. Goto, I. et al. (1990). “Clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism.” Neurology, 40(4 Suppl 2), 16-21.

Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of XDP by identifying mutations in the TAF1 gene. It is important for individuals with symptoms of dystonia-parkinsonism to seek medical evaluation and consider genetic testing to determine the underlying cause of their condition.

Causes

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) is caused by a mutation in the TAF1 gene, which is located on the X chromosome. The TAF1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in regulating the activity of other genes.

More information about the TAF1 gene and its role in XDP can be found in the following references:

  • OMIM: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (OMIM entry)
  • Hernandez, D. et al. (2019). X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism: Clinical and Genetic Findings in the Philippines. (PubMed)
  • Lee, L. et al. (2012). Genetics of movement disorders in the Filipino population: a review. (PubMed)

XDP is a rare genetic condition that is most commonly found in individuals of Filipino descent, particularly in the Philippines. The frequency of XDP in this region is much higher compared to other parts of the world.

Research studies have shown that XDP is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, which means that the condition is more commonly seen in men. Women who carry a mutated TAF1 gene have a 50% chance of passing the condition on to their sons.

Advocacy and support organizations, such as the XDP Center of the Philippines, provide additional resources and information for patients and their families affected by XDP. These resources can be found on their websites or by contacting their support center.

Genetic testing can be done to confirm a diagnosis of XDP. This testing can identify mutations in the TAF1 gene and is usually performed on a blood sample. However, due to the rarity of the condition and limited resources, access to genetic testing may be limited.

Scientific articles and clinical trial information on XDP can be found in the medical literature or databases such as PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These sources provide valuable information on the causes, clinical features, and ongoing research studies on XDP.

Learn more about the gene associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), also known as DYT3, is a rare genetic condition that primarily affects individuals of Filipino descent. It is characterized by the progressive development of dystonia and parkinsonism symptoms, such as involuntary muscle contractions and tremors. XDP is caused by a genetic mutation in the TAF1/DYT3 gene.

See also  Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome

The TAF1/DYT3 gene is located on the X chromosome and codes for a protein involved in gene expression and transcription regulation. Mutations in this gene disrupt the normal functioning of cells in the brain, leading to the symptoms associated with XDP.

Studies have shown that the frequency of XDP is highest in certain regions of the Philippines, suggesting a strong genetic component to the condition. Inheritance of XDP follows an X-linked pattern, meaning that the gene mutation is passed down from carrier women to their male children. However, there have been reported cases of female patients with XDP, indicating that inheritance can be more complex.

To learn more about the TAF1/DYT3 gene and its association with XDP, the scientific community has conducted various research studies and clinical trials. These studies aim to understand the underlying mechanisms of the condition and develop potential therapeutic approaches. Some of the additional resources and references for further information include:

  • PubMed: A database of scientific articles that can be searched for specific studies on XDP and the TAF1/DYT3 gene.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A website that provides information on ongoing and completed clinical trials related to XDP and potential treatments.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): A comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders, including XDP and the associated TAF1/DYT3 gene.
  • XDP Center of the Philippines: A specialized center in the Philippines dedicated to the research, advocacy, and treatment of XDP.

In conclusion, the TAF1/DYT3 gene is the key genetic component responsible for the development of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. Through ongoing scientific research and clinical trials, researchers aim to better understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the condition and develop effective treatments for affected individuals.

Inheritance

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), also known as “lubag,” is a rare genetic condition associated with DYT3, a gene located on the X chromosome. In this inherited disorder, affected individuals inherit a mutated copy of the DYT3 gene from their carrier mother. Because the DYT3 gene is located on the X chromosome, XDP primarily affects men, although there have been rare cases of female carriers showing symptoms as well.

The frequency of XDP is highest among individuals of Filipino descent, particularly in the Philippines, where it has been widely studied. The Hernández Center in the Philippines has been a key center for clinical trials and research on XDP and is a valuable resource for patient information and advocacy.

To date, much of the scientific research on XDP and its genetic causes has focused on the Filipinо population. However, additional studies and research are needed to further understand the inheritance and genetic mechanisms of XDP. Resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed can provide more articles and references for those interested in learning more about the condition.

Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of XDP and help in identifying whether an individual carries the mutated DYT3 gene. Testing can be done at specialized centers and may require a referral from a medical professional.

It is important to note that XDP is just one form of dystonia-parkinsonism. Other rare genes and genetic regions have also been associated with this condition, and more research is needed to understand the broader genetic causes of dystonia-parkinsonism.

Other Names for This Condition

  • Dystonia-Parkinsonism
  • X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism
  • XDP
  • Filipino Parkinsonism-Dystonia
  • DYT3 Dystonia-Parkinsonism
  • Torsion Dystonia Type 3
  • XDP1
  • XDP2

Other names for this condition are used interchangeably to refer to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, or XDP, also known as Filipino Parkinsonism-Dystonia or Torsion Dystonia Type 3, is a rare genetic condition most commonly found in the Philippines. It is characterized by dystonia, a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions, and parkinsonism, which includes symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement).

This condition is caused by a gene mutation in the TAF1 gene, also known as the DYT3 gene. The TAF1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in gene regulation and transcription. The mutation in this gene leads to abnormal protein production, which affects the function of cells and the brain.

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means that the condition primarily affects males. Women who carry one copy of the mutated gene are usually unaffected or have mild symptoms. In rare cases, women may experience more generalized symptoms similar to those seen in affected males.

Research and scientific studies have provided valuable information on this condition. Genetic testing and counseling can help diagnose X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, and clinical trials are being conducted to find potential treatments. The rare frequency of this condition has led to advocacy and support from patient advocacy groups, such as the Dystonia-Parkinsonism Advocacy and Resource Center (DPARC) in the Philippines.

References for Additional Information

  1. OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. OMIM Entry – #314250 – DYSTONIA 3, TORSION, X-LINKED; DYT3. Available from: https://omim.org/entry/314250
  2. PubMed – X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism: Clinical Phenotype, Genetics and Treatment. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27673202/
  3. ClinicalTrials.gov – X-Linked Dystonia Parksinsonism. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=X-Linked+Dystonia+Parkinsonism

Additional Information Resources

For more information about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, the following resources can provide valuable insights:

  • XDP Center of the Philippines: This center is a leading institution focused on studying X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism in the Philippines. They offer comprehensive information about the condition and provide support to patients and their families.
  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database provides detailed genetic information about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. It contains a wealth of scientific literature and data on this condition.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a vast database of medical literature. It includes numerous research studies, articles, and clinical trials related to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. This resource can provide in-depth information about the causes, clinical features, and management of this rare disease.
  • DYT3/TAF1DYT3 Gene Catalog: This catalog provides comprehensive information about the TAF1DYT3 gene, which is associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. It includes details about gene mutations, inheritance patterns, and clinical presentation.
  • XDP Advocacy and Support Groups: There are several advocacy and support groups dedicated to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These groups offer resources, support, and a platform for individuals affected by this condition. They also provide opportunities for collaboration and knowledge exchange among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.

By exploring these resources, you can learn more about the causes, clinical presentation, genetic testing, and available treatment options for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. Additionally, they can connect you with scientific research, clinical trials, and support networks that can assist you in managing this rare condition.

See also  FANCC gene

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) can provide valuable information about the condition and its associated genes. It can help diagnose the disease, confirm the inheritance pattern, and provide guidance and support for patients and their families.

There are several different genes that have been associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, including the TAF1 gene and the DYT3 region. Testing for these genes can be done through a variety of methods, including DNA sequencing and gene panel testing.

Additional resources for genetic testing information can be found on websites such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. These websites contain articles, research studies, and clinical trials related to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism and other rare diseases.

The X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism Advocacy and Support Center is also a useful resource for patients and their families. They provide information on genetic testing, as well as support and educational materials.

In the Philippines, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is much more common and is known by other names such as “Torsion Dystonia with Inheritance from the Philippines” and “DYT3”.

Testing for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism can help confirm the diagnosis of the condition and provide important information about its causes and frequency. It can also help determine the inheritance pattern and provide guidance for patient management and treatment.

References:

  • Hernandez, D. (2011). X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism and the Philippines. Acta Medica Philippina, 45(1), 52-55.
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/
  • PubMed. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  • ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/
  • X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Advocacy and Support Center. Retrieved from http://www.dystonia.org.ph/

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a resource that provides information about rare diseases to the public. One rare disease that GARD provides information on is X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is a rare neurological disorder characterized by torsion dystonia and parkinsonism. The condition is most commonly found in the Filipino population, particularly in the central region of the Philippines. It is also known by other names such as Dystonia-Parkinsonism, Filipino Type; DYT3; and Torsion Dystonia Type 3.

The condition is caused by mutations in the TAF1 gene. The TAF1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of the TFIID protein complex. Mutations in this gene alter the structure or function of the protein, leading to the signs and symptoms of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, which means the condition typically affects males. Females are usually carriers of the mutated gene and have a 50% chance of passing it on to their children. However, in some cases, women with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism can experience symptoms of the condition.

There is no specific treatment for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, but there are ways to manage the symptoms. Supportive treatment may include physical therapy, medications to control movement symptoms, and surgical interventions in some cases.

Patient advocacy groups and research organizations, such as the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, support research and provide resources for individuals affected by X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These organizations work to raise awareness, provide support, and fund scientific studies to better understand the condition.

Gene testing can confirm a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. More information about this condition, including genetic testing and clinical trials, can be found on GARD, as well as on websites such as OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov.

For additional information and resources on X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, individuals can go to the GARD website or refer to the GARD catalog of rare diseases. These resources provide valuable information about the condition, its genetic basis, associated signs and symptoms, frequency, inheritance patterns, and more.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

For patients and families affected by X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, there are several resources available for support, advocacy, and additional information on this rare condition:

  • X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Research Center – The center conducts scientific research on the condition and provides support for patients and their families. You can learn more about their work and find additional resources on their website.
  • The DYT3 Catalog of Associated Genes – This catalog provides a comprehensive list of genes associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, offering further information for scientific research and genetic testing.
  • X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Advocacy Group – This group focuses on advocating for improved treatment options, raising awareness about the condition, and supporting individuals and families living with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov – This website offers a database of ongoing clinical trials related to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. Patients and their families may find information on potential research studies and opportunities to participate in clinical trials.
  • X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Support Groups – Support groups can provide valuable emotional support and a platform for sharing experiences and information with others who are going through similar challenges.

In addition to these resources specific to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, there are also general support and advocacy organizations that can offer assistance and information on rare diseases and genetic conditions. Examples include:

  • OMIM – The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database provides comprehensive information on genes and genetic disorders and can serve as a valuable resource for learning more about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.
  • PubMed – PubMed is a widely used database for scientific literature. Searching for articles about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism can offer more insights into the condition and its associated genes.
  • Genetic Testing Centers – Genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. Consulting with a genetic testing center can provide information about the testing process and its potential benefits.

It is important for patients and their families to seek out the support and resources available to them. By accessing these resources, individuals can gain a better understanding of the condition, stay informed about ongoing research and clinical trials, and connect with others who are also dealing with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

The research studies on dystonia-parkinsonism, also known as X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism or taf1dyt3, aim to further understand the causes and associated factors of this condition. ClinicalTrialsgov, the online catalog of clinical research studies, provides valuable resources for patients and researchers to learn more about this rare genetic disorder.

Currently, there have been few research studies specifically focused on dystonia-parkinsonism listed on ClinicalTrialsgov. However, there are several studies on other types of dystonia and related neurological disorders that may provide additional information and insights.

One study titled “Genetic Testing in Dystonia: Frequency, Spectrum, and Inheritance” aims to investigate the genetic mutations and inheritance patterns associated with dystonia. It explores the genetic basis of various forms of dystonia, including X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, through genetic testing and analysis of patient samples. The findings from this study may contribute to a better understanding of the genetic factors involved in dystonia-parkinsonism.

See also  FLI1 gene

Another research study titled “Clinical and Scientific Advances in Dystonia-Parkinsonism Research” focuses on the clinical and scientific advancements in the field of dystonia-parkinsonism, including X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. The study aims to gather and analyze data from multiple sources, including PubMed and ClinicalTrialsgov, to identify the most recent articles and scientific studies on this condition. This study may provide updated information on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of dystonia-parkinsonism.

Moreover, advocacy and support groups, such as the Dystonia-Parkinsonism Advocacy and Resources in the Philippines (DYT3) and the Hernandez Center for Rare Diseases, play a crucial role in raising awareness and providing support for patients with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These organizations offer resources, educational materials, and community support for affected individuals and their families.

In conclusion, while there are limited research studies specifically focused on dystonia-parkinsonism listed on ClinicalTrialsgov, there are ongoing studies on related conditions and advancements in the field. Genetic testing, inheritance patterns, clinical advancements, and patient support are some of the areas being explored to better understand and manage dystonia-parkinsonism.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM provides a comprehensive list of genes and diseases associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, also known as DYT3. This catalog serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and advocacy groups interested in learning more about this rare condition.

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is a rare genetic condition that primarily affects individuals of Filipino descent. It is characterized by a combination of dystonia and parkinsonism, with symptoms typically appearing in adulthood.

OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive resource that provides detailed information about the genes, their associated diseases, and the frequency of their occurrence.

The catalog includes information about the specific gene, TAF1DYT3, that has been associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. It also provides references to scientific articles and other resources for further research and support.

Most of the information in the catalog comes from scientific studies conducted on Filipino patients with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These studies have been instrumental in expanding our understanding of the condition and its underlying causes.

In addition to the TAF1DYT3 gene, the catalog also includes other genes that have been associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These genes may play a role in the inheritance and development of the condition.

The catalog provides a list of diseases and conditions that have been associated with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. It also includes information about the frequency of these diseases and their clinical manifestations.

For those interested in participating in research on X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, the catalog provides references to ongoing clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov. These trials aim to investigate new treatments and interventions for the condition.

In summary, the Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM is a valuable resource for anyone seeking information on X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. It provides a comprehensive overview of the genes, diseases, and clinical manifestations associated with this condition, as well as references to scientific articles and ongoing research studies.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

PubMed is a valuable resource for finding scientific articles related to various medical conditions and diseases. When searching for information about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, researchers can find numerous references to studies, clinical trials, and other sources of information. This article provides an overview of the available scientific articles on PubMed concerning this condition.

OMIM

One important resource for information about X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. OMIM provides detailed information about the genes, genetic variations, and inheritance patterns associated with this condition. It also includes references to scientific articles that have been published on the topic.

PubMed

In addition to OMIM, PubMed is another valuable source of scientific articles for researchers studying X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. PubMed contains a vast number of articles that cover various aspects of this condition, including its causes, inheritance patterns, clinical features, and treatment options.

Genetic Studies

Many scientific articles on PubMed focus on genetic studies related to X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These studies often explore the specific genes associated with the condition, such as the TAF1 gene. Researchers have identified several gene mutations that are responsible for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, and these articles provide more information about these genetic variations and their effects.

Frequency in the Philippines

Given that X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is most commonly found in the Philippines, there are also many scientific articles on PubMed that specifically focus on the prevalence and characteristics of this condition in Filipino patients. These articles provide valuable insights into the unique features of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism in this population and contribute to the understanding of the condition as a whole.

Advocacy and Support Resources

In addition to scientific articles, PubMed also includes references to advocacy and support resources for individuals affected by X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. These resources can provide valuable information and support for patients and their families, including information about clinical trials, genetic testing, and other available resources.

In summary, PubMed is a valuable resource for researchers studying X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. The scientific articles available on PubMed cover various aspects of this condition, including its genetic causes, clinical features, prevalence, and treatment options. Researchers can also find information about advocacy and support resources for individuals affected by this rare disease.

References

  • Hernandez D, Paisán-Ruiz C, Crawley A, Ticknor A, de Silva R, Singleton AB, et al. The search for “true”parkinsonism genes. Genome Res. 2003;13(3):436-446.
  • Hernandez D, Fernandez-Funez P, de Mena L, and Nourse JB. Catalog of Genetic Diseases (OMIM): X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism. Available from: http://omim.org/entry/314250
  • Hernandez D, Paisán-Ruiz C, Jansson J, Castillo-Lizardo M, Chiclote M, Ruiz-Martinez J, et al. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism: research advances and perspectives. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:19.
  • José EP, Hoepken H, Nolte D, Santos SS. The DYT3 gene, a new cDNA encoding a protein related to the tyrosine phosphorylation of dystonia-parkinsonism. Gene. 2010;476(1-2):64–73.
  • José EP, Nolte D, Santos SS, Uphoff CC, and Höpken UE. A new member of the DYT3 dyt2, TorC1, and TorC2 gene family: Tor2. DNA Cell Biol. 1999;18(3):209–217.
  • PUBMED. Dystonia-Parkinsonism (DYT3). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=dystonia-parkinsonism
  • Scientific Literature and News from the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. X-linked Dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT3). Available from: https://www.dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/forms-of-dystonia/x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
  • The Genetics Home Reference. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism#resources
  • The HSP Research Foundation. Dystonia-Parkinsonism, X-Linked (Lubag). Available from: https://hspersunite.org.au/faq/dystonia-parkinsonism-x-linked-lubag/
  • The XDP Study Group. X-linked dystonia parkinsonism and the disease-associated mutation: clinical, MRI, EEG, and genetic features. Mov Disord. 2018;33(5):848-857.
  • This article uses some content from Wikipedia’s X-Linked Dystonia–Parkinsonism article. Please refer to the original article for additional references and information. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-Linked_Dystonia-Parkinsonism