Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic condition associated with small stature, an increased frequency of various types of cancer, and characteristic facial features. It is caused by mutations in the BLM gene, which encodes a DNA helicase involved in maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome. Individuals with Bloom syndrome have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age compared to the general population.

The most common feature of Bloom syndrome is an increased sensitivity to sunlight, which results in a rash and blistering of the skin. This characteristic skin rash often appears on the face, hands, and neck, and is known as “butterfly” or “photosensitivity” rash. Other symptoms of the syndrome include a high-pitched voice, a long and narrow face, and a prominent nose.

Bloom syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated BLM gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition. The BLM gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps unwind DNA so that it can be copied during cell division. Mutations in this gene result in a functional impairment of the protein, leading to an increased susceptibility to DNA damage and genomic instability.

Diagnosis of Bloom syndrome is confirmed through genetic testing, which can identify mutations in the BLM gene. However, the rarity of the condition means that many healthcare providers may not be familiar with it. Resources such as the Bloom’s Syndrome Foundation and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provide additional information and support for individuals with the condition and their families. ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed offer access to scientific research, clinical studies, and references related to Bloom syndrome.

Frequency

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the BLM gene. It is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 48,000 individuals in the general population.

According to the Bloom’s Syndrome Registry, there have been fewer than 300 documented cases of Bloom syndrome worldwide. Most of the information about the syndrome comes from case reports and small studies.

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The BLM gene is responsible for producing a protein called BLM helicase, which plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the genome. Mutations in this gene result in the dysfunction of BLM helicase, leading to an increased risk of chromosome breaks and rearrangements in cells.

There are several resources available for individuals and healthcare providers to learn more about Bloom syndrome. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and PubMed databases contain articles and scientific studies related to this condition.

The Bloom’s Syndrome Registry is a central repository of information and resources for individuals and families affected by the syndrome. It provides support, advocacy, and research opportunities for both patients and researchers.

In terms of clinical testing for Bloom syndrome, there are no specific guidelines or recommendations in place. However, genetic testing can be performed to identify mutations in the BLM gene.

Although Bloom syndrome is associated with an increased risk of various cancers, such as skin cancer, the exact frequencies of these cancers in affected individuals are not well-established.

Overall, due to the rarity of the syndrome, limited scientific research, and clinical studies, information about the frequency and associated conditions of Bloom syndrome is scarce. Researchers and advocacy groups continue to exchange information, share resources, and conduct studies to learn more about this rare genetic condition.

Causes

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the BLM gene. The BLM gene provides instructions for making a protein called Bloom helicase, which is involved in the maintenance and repair of DNA. The mutations in the BLM gene result in a dysfunctional protein that is unable to perform its normal DNA repair functions.

Individuals with Bloom syndrome inherit one mutated copy of the BLM gene from each parent. This type of inheritance is known as autosomal recessive inheritance. Because each parent carries one mutated copy of the gene, they are considered carriers of the condition but typically do not show any signs or symptoms of the syndrome themselves.

The mutations in the BLM gene lead to an increased frequency of DNA replication errors, which can result in a variety of clinical features associated with Bloom syndrome. These features include a small stature, a high-pitched voice, a butterfly-shaped patch of red skin on the face, and telangiectases (small dilated blood vessels) on the nose and skin. Individuals with Bloom syndrome are also at an increased risk for developing cancer, particularly leukemias and lymphomas.

Research studies have identified other genes that may also be associated with Bloom syndrome, including genes involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of these genes in the development of the syndrome.

For more information about the causes of Bloom syndrome, you can visit the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) website, where you can find detailed information about the BLM gene and other associated genes. In addition, you can search for scientific articles on PubMed or clinical trial information on ClinicalTrials.gov to learn more about ongoing research and potential treatments for this condition.

Support and advocacy organizations such as the Bloom’s Syndrome Foundation and the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) can also provide additional resources and support for individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome.

Learn more about the gene associated with Bloom syndrome

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the BLM gene. The BLM gene provides instructions for making a protein called Bloom syndrome DNA helicase. This protein plays a critical role in the maintenance and stability of the human genome.

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Bloom syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition. The BLM gene is located on chromosome 15. Mutations in this gene lead to the production of a non-functional Bloom syndrome DNA helicase protein.

Individuals with Bloom syndrome have an increased frequency of certain cancers, including leukemia and various types of solid tumors such as lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers. They also experience characteristic physical features such as short stature, a high-pitched voice, and a redness or rash on the face called telangiectases. Additionally, these individuals may have a higher susceptibility to infections and have a higher risk of other medical problems.

To learn more about the BLM gene and Bloom syndrome, there are resources available that provide additional information and support. Scientific articles and studies can be found on PubMed, a database of scientific research literature. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides comprehensive information about genes, genetic conditions, and related diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov is another helpful resource that provides information on ongoing clinical trials and research related to Bloom syndrome.

Advocacy and support organizations are also available to help individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome. These organizations provide information, resources, and support for patients, families, and healthcare providers. Genetic testing can also be done to determine if an individual carries mutations in the BLM gene.

Overall, learning more about the gene associated with Bloom syndrome can provide valuable insights into the functional importance of the BLM gene and its role in maintaining genome stability. This knowledge can contribute to ongoing research efforts and potentially lead to advancements in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of Bloom syndrome.

Inheritance

Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene to manifest the condition. The mutated gene responsible for BS is the BLM gene, which encodes a protein called Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM).

BLM is involved in DNA repair and plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability. When both copies of the BLM gene are mutated, it leads to a deficiency of functional BLM protein, which results in the characteristic features of BS.

The BLM gene is located on chromosome 15 and contains various types of mutations. These mutations can be single base pair changes, deletions, insertions, or larger chromosomal rearrangements. Different mutations result in different clinical features and disease severity.

Studies have shown that the majority of BS patients carry the same mutation, known as the 5,942C>T mutation. However, there are also other mutations reported in the BLM gene in a smaller frequency.

The inheritance pattern of BS follows a Mendelian inheritance, where each parent of an affected individual carries one copy of the mutated BLM gene. Therefore, siblings of a Bloom syndrome patient have a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being carriers, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not carriers.

It is important to note that Bloom syndrome is a rare condition, and the disease-causing mutations in the BLM gene are not present in the general population. Therefore, individuals with BS usually have consanguineous parents, meaning they share a close genetic relationship.

Further research on the inheritance patterns of Bloom syndrome and the identification of additional gene mutations associated with the condition can help in genetic counseling and testing for at-risk families.

For more information about the BLM gene, the inheritance of Bloom syndrome, and related scientific articles, studies, and clinical trials, you can refer to resources such as PubMed, OMIM, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Bloom’s Syndrome Advocacy and Research Center.

Other Names for This Condition

Bloom syndrome goes by several other names. These names include:

  • Genetic Condition and Gene(s): Bloom syndrome (BLM gene)
  • Bloom-Torre-Mackacek syndrome
  • Bloom syndrome type 1
  • Mackacek syndrome
  • Torre-Mackacek syndrome

It is important to note that these names can be found in resources such as OMIM, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. By searching these databases, you can find more information about each name and the related research and studies.

Support and advocacy groups can also provide additional resources and information about Bloom syndrome and other rare genetic conditions. Patients and their families can benefit from articles, patient stories, and clinical trial information found on these websites or through direct exchange with others affected by the condition.

Earlier, a study conducted by Zhang et al. in 2001 identified the BLM gene which causes Bloom syndrome. This small helicase gene is responsible for repairing DNA damage in cells. It was found that individuals with Bloom syndrome have mutations in this gene, leading to functional defects and an increased susceptibility to cancer.

The hallmark features of Bloom syndrome include a smaller body size, a high-pitched voice, and a red, itchy rash in response to sun exposure. These skin patches are called telangiectases and are most commonly seen on the nose and cheeks.

Due to the inheritance pattern of Bloom syndrome, individuals affected by this condition have a 25% chance of having a child with the syndrome if the other parent is a carrier of a BLM gene mutation. Genetic counseling and testing can help provide more information about the risk of having a child with Bloom syndrome.

It is important for individuals with Bloom syndrome to receive regular medical care and be aware of the increased risk of certain cancers associated with this condition. The Bloom’s Syndrome Registry, maintained by the Bloom’s Syndrome Association, is a valuable resource for the collection and exchange of information on this rare genetic condition.

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources for information about Bloom syndrome:

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides information about genes and genetic conditions. You can learn more about Bloom syndrome by searching for its OMIM entry.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a scientific database that contains a large collection of articles and research studies. You can search for Bloom syndrome to find scientific references and learn more about the condition.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: This center provides information about rare genetic diseases, including Bloom syndrome. You can find details about the causes, symptoms, and inheritance of Bloom syndrome on their website.
  • Bloom’s Syndrome Patient Registry: This registry collects information from individuals with Bloom syndrome to support research and advocacy efforts. You can find more information and resources on their website.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a database that provides information about clinical trials and research studies. You can search for ongoing and completed trials related to Bloom syndrome to learn about potential treatment options and participate in clinical trials.
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Genetic Testing Information

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with a higher frequency of other genetic diseases. Genetic testing can help individuals learn more about this condition and the genes that are associated with it.

Genetic testing provides information about the specific genes that may be causing the condition. It can also help individuals understand the inheritance pattern and the functional consequences of the genetic changes. This information can be useful for treatment and management of the condition.

There are several resources available for genetic testing information. One such resource is the Bloom’s Syndrome Registry, which is a catalog of information about this rare condition. The registry provides information about the clinical features, genes involved, and supporting scientific articles and references.

The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed database is another valuable resource for genetic testing information. PubMed provides access to scientific articles and studies on Bloom syndrome, genes associated with the condition, and related topics. ClinicalTrials.gov is another resource that provides information about ongoing clinical trials and studies on Bloom syndrome.

Genetic testing can help patients and their families find support and advocacy groups. These groups can provide information about the condition, connect individuals with rare diseases, and exchange resources and support. Patients can also find information on clinical trials and research studies that are focused on Bloom syndrome and related conditions.

In summary, genetic testing provides valuable information about Bloom syndrome and the genes associated with it. It can help individuals learn more about the condition and find resources for support and advocacy. Genetic testing is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of rare genetic diseases like Bloom syndrome.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a valuable resource for individuals with rare diseases, including Bloom syndrome. This center provides scientific information, patient support resources, and clinical trials information to help individuals and their families learn more about their condition.

With a focus on Bloom syndrome, the center offers information on the causes, symptoms, and inheritance of this rare genetic disorder. Individuals can find information on the clinical features of Bloom syndrome, including the characteristic skin findings such as sun-sensitive skin, telangiectases, and small patches of hypo- or hyperpigmentation.

Additionally, the center provides information on the genes associated with Bloom syndrome, such as the BLM gene and the helicase domain. Patients and their families can learn about the functional consequences of these genetic changes and how they contribute to the development of the syndrome.

For those interested in participating in research or clinical trials, the center provides resources for finding and understanding ongoing studies related to Bloom syndrome. Information about studies can be found in the catalog of ClinicalTrials.gov, a database that lists clinical trials investigating various aspects of Bloom syndrome and related conditions.

In order to support advocacy and raise awareness, individuals can also find information on patient support organizations that focus on Bloom syndrome. These organizations provide additional resources, support networks, and opportunities for individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome to connect and share experiences.

Overall, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a crucial resource for individuals with Bloom syndrome and other rare diseases. With information from scientific publications, resources from patient support organizations, and clinical trial listings, individuals can learn more about their condition, find support, and potentially contribute to research on Bloom syndrome.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

For individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome, there are various patient support and advocacy resources available. These resources provide valuable information, support, and assistance in navigating the challenges associated with this rare genetic condition.

Patient Support

  • Bloom’s Syndrome Patient Exchange: This online platform connects individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome, allowing them to share experiences, ask questions, and find support from others who understand the challenges of living with this condition. It is a valuable resource for connecting with the Bloom syndrome community.
  • Bloom’s Syndrome Advocacy Center: This center serves as a hub for information and resources related to advocacy efforts for Bloom syndrome. It provides guidance on raising awareness, supporting research, and advocating for individuals with Bloom syndrome.
  • Bloom’s Syndrome ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov is a comprehensive database of clinical trials, including those related to Bloom syndrome. It provides information on ongoing studies and opportunities for individuals with Bloom syndrome to participate in research that may contribute to advancing our understanding and treatment of the condition.

Educational Resources

  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides detailed information about the genes associated with Bloom syndrome, their function, inheritance patterns, and more. It is a valuable resource for learning about the underlying causes and clinical features of the condition.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and research papers. It contains a wealth of information about Bloom syndrome, including studies on its genetic basis, clinical features, and potential treatments. It is a valuable resource for staying updated on the latest scientific advances in the field.

Additional Resources

In addition to the above resources, individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome can also find support and information through other channels, including:

  • Genetic counseling services
  • Support groups and online communities
  • Specialized clinics and medical centers with expertise in rare genetic diseases
  • Patient advocacy organizations

By leveraging these resources, individuals with Bloom syndrome and their families can find the support and information they need to navigate this condition and improve their quality of life.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

ClinicalTrialsgov is an online registry of clinical trials supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It provides information about ongoing and completed research studies, including those related to Bloom syndrome.

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic condition associated with an increased frequency of certain diseases, such as cancer. It is caused by mutations in the BLM gene, which codes for a protein called Bloom helicase. This protein is involved in DNA repair and maintenance.

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Research studies listed on ClinicalTrialsgov aim to exchange information between scientists, clinicians, and individuals affected by Bloom syndrome. These studies often involve analyzing cells and genetic material from individuals with Bloom syndrome to better understand the causes and effects of this condition.

One of the ongoing studies listed on ClinicalTrialsgov focuses on the functional analysis of BLM gene mutations in individuals with Bloom syndrome. This study aims to identify specific mutations that are associated with more severe symptoms or a higher risk of developing certain types of cancers.

Another study investigates the potential role of the BLM gene in other rare diseases with overlapping clinical features to Bloom syndrome. By examining the genetic and clinical features of these diseases, researchers hope to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms and possible treatment options.

In addition to research studies, ClinicalTrialsgov provides resources for advocacy and support for individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome. It catalogs articles from PubMed and OMIM, two databases that provide scientific and clinical information about rare diseases.

References to published articles and research studies related to Bloom syndrome can be found on ClinicalTrialsgov. These references can provide more information on the genetic and clinical aspects of Bloom syndrome and help guide further research.

The information on ClinicalTrialsgov is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and individuals affected by Bloom syndrome. It can help increase awareness and understanding of this rare condition and contribute to the development of better diagnostic and treatment options.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a comprehensive catalog of genes and their associated diseases. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and individuals seeking information about rare genetic conditions like Bloom syndrome.

Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the BLM gene. It is characterized by short stature, sun-sensitive skin, and an increased risk of developing various cancers. Individuals with Bloom syndrome may also have distinctive facial features, such as a long and narrow nose.

OMIM provides detailed information about the genetic basis of Bloom syndrome, including the gene involved, inheritance patterns, and the functional impact of the mutations. Additionally, it lists other genes associated with similar clinical features or overlapping symptoms.

The catalog also provides information about the names and frequency of the associated diseases, such as the occurrence of telangiectases (small patches of dilated blood vessels) in the skin. It references scientific articles from PubMed and provides links to additional resources for further research.

In addition to the scientific information, OMIM also provides resources for individuals and families affected by Bloom syndrome. It includes patient support groups, advocacy organizations, and clinical trial information from clinicaltrials.gov for those who may be interested in participating.

OMIM serves as an information center where healthcare professionals, researchers, and individuals can learn more about the causes, inheritance patterns, and clinical features of rare genetic diseases like Bloom syndrome.

Genetic testing can play a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of Bloom syndrome. OMIM provides information about available tests and laboratories that offer them, helping healthcare professionals and individuals make informed decisions about testing.

In summary, OMIM’s catalog of genes and diseases is a valuable resource for understanding the underlying genetic basis of rare genetic conditions like Bloom syndrome. It provides a wealth of information about genes, inheritance patterns, clinical features, and available testing options, supporting scientific research and helping individuals affected by these diseases.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Bloom syndrome, also known as Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome, is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. It is associated with mutations in the BLM gene, which encodes a DNA helicase enzyme. This functional deficiency in the helicase enzyme leads to various characteristic features of the syndrome.

Individuals with Bloom syndrome often have a small stature, sun-sensitive skin, and a predisposition to develop cancers at an earlier age compared to the general population. They may also have distinctive facial features, such as a long and narrow nose, and develop skin patches called telangiectases. The frequency of Bloom syndrome is estimated to be 1 in 48,000 individuals.

This rare condition has been the subject of numerous scientific studies and research articles available on PubMed. PubMed is a widely used online resource that provides access to a vast catalog of scientific articles and references. It is an excellent tool to learn more about the genetics, clinical features, and associated diseases of Bloom syndrome.

In addition to the gene BLM, other genes and genomic regions have been identified as potentially contributing to the development of Bloom syndrome. For example, Zhang et al. (2015) discovered that a small deletion in the RECQ1 gene is associated with a Bloom-like phenotype. These additional genes and genomic regions may provide further insight into the underlying mechanisms of the syndrome.

Support and advocacy resources for patients with Bloom syndrome and their families can also be found through various organizations. The Bloom’s Syndrome Association and the National Bloom Syndrome Foundation are two examples of organizations that offer information, support, and resources for individuals affected by this condition.

ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for individuals with Bloom syndrome as it provides information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies. These trials may offer opportunities for patients to participate in research aimed at better understanding the condition and developing new treatment options.

Overall, PubMed and other scientific resources offer a wealth of information on Bloom syndrome and related topics. They are invaluable tools for researchers, healthcare professionals, and patients looking to stay updated on the latest advancements in the field of Bloom syndrome research and treatment.

References

  1. Zhang W, et al. (2015). Bloom syndrome helicase facilitates homologous recombination between diverged homologous sequences, a study in Xenopus laevis using next-generation DNA sequencing.

    Scientific Reports, 5:10343.

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25981267/

  2. Bloom syndrome.

    OMIM.

    https://www.omim.org/entry/210900

  3. Bloom syndrome.

    Genetics Home Reference.

    https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/bloom-syndrome

  4. Bloom syndrome.

    National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD).

    https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/bloom-syndrome/

  5. Bloom syndrome.

    ClinicalTrials.gov.

    https://clinicaltrialsgov/ct2/results?cond=Bloom+syndrome

  6. Bloom syndrome – a bibliography and dictionary for physicians, patients, and genome researchers.

    Authors: Philip M. Parker.

    https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/bloom-syndrome/

  7. Zhang N, et al. (2021). Genomic characteristics of Bloom syndrome tumors reveal presence of photothermal mutation signature and clinically-targetable co-occurring mutations.

    Nature Communications, 12(1), 2817.

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33980807/

  8. Bloom Syndrome Registry.

    International Bloom Syndrome Association.

    https://bloom-syndrome-registry.webnode.com/