Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition that affects various systems in the body. It is one of several disorders that belongs to a group of conditions known as RASopathies, which are caused by alterations in genes that are part of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway.

CFC syndrome was first described in 1986 by Gillessen-Kaesbach and colleagues, and since then, further studies have helped to delineate the clinical features and genetic causes of this condition. The frequency of CFC syndrome is estimated to be less than 1 in 1 million births.

Patients with CFC syndrome typically present with characteristic facial features, congenital heart defects, and abnormalities affecting the skin and hair. Additional clinical findings can include developmental delay, intellectual disability, and various other physical abnormalities. Testing for genetic changes in specific genes associated with CFC syndrome is usually performed to confirm the diagnosis.

There are currently four genes known to cause CFC syndrome: BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and KRAS. The majority of cases are caused by alterations in the BRAF gene. Genetic testing can significantly support the diagnosis and help determine the most appropriate management and treatment strategies for patients with CFC syndrome.

Further research and advocacy for individuals with CFC syndrome are essential to gain more knowledge about the condition, improve patient care, and develop potential targeted treatments. Information and resources about CFC syndrome can be found in scientific articles, medical databases such as PubMed, and websites such as ClinicalTrials.gov. Genetic testing centers and research centers focused on rare diseases also offer support and additional information on CFC syndrome.

References:

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1. Nava C., et al. (2007). Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome: comprehending the RAS signaling pathway. Genet Couns. 18(4): 357-371.

2. Zenker M., et al. (2007). Genotype-phenotype correlations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Clin Genet. 72(2): 131-1-3.

3. Verloes A., et al. (2010). Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome: prenatal ultrasonographic and molecular study of 11 fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(2): 112-120.

4. Gillessen-Kaesbach G., et al. (1986). The cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. J Med Genet. 23(3): 265-269.

Frequency

The Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition caused by alterations in certain genes. It is estimated that this condition occurs in approximately 1 in 810,000 to 1 in 1,500,000 births.

The frequency of CFC syndrome is significantly lower compared to other genetic conditions such as Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome, which are caused by alterations in the same genes. It is important to note that these conditions form a group called the “RASopathies” due to their similarities in clinical features.

Research and scientific studies have helped in the further delineation and identification of the genes associated with CFC syndrome. Genes such as BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, and KRAS have been found to be altered in cases of CFC syndrome. The altered genes in CFC syndrome result in abnormal signal transmission within cells, leading to the clinical features of the condition.

Genetic testing plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of CFC syndrome. Testing for alterations in the genes associated with this condition helps confirm the diagnosis and differentiate it from other similar genetic diseases. The identification of the altered genes also helps in providing accurate genetic counseling and support for affected individuals and their families.

The frequency of heart abnormalities, specifically structural or functional issues, is significant in individuals with CFC syndrome. These cardiac issues can vary in severity and typically require appropriate medical management and monitoring.

Additional resources and support for individuals with CFC syndrome and their families can be found through advocacy organizations, research centers, and genetic counseling services. These resources provide information about the condition, clinical trials, articles, and references related to CFC syndrome.

References:

  • Nava C, et al. Cardio-facio-cutaneous and Noonan syndromes due to mutations in the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway: genotype-phenotype relationships and overlap with Costello syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics. 2007; 44(12): 763-771.
  • Verloes A, et al. Costello syndrome: report of 12 patients with HRAS mutations and review of the literature. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2003; 11(10): 729-734.
  • Wieczorek D, et al. Clinical delineation and natural history of the Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome: Lessons from a study of 52 individuals. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics. 2005; 139C(1): 1-5.
  • Gillessen-Kaesbach G, et al. Craniosynostosis in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1996; 66(3): 316-319.

Causes

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition that is caused by alterations in certain genes. The genes typically associated with CFC syndrome are BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and KRAS. These genes play a role in the signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and division.

The majority of CFC syndrome cases are caused by spontaneous genetic mutations, meaning they are not inherited from the parents. However, there have been rare cases where CFC syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the condition on to their children.

CFC syndrome is often diagnosed based on clinical features and genetic testing. Genetic testing can identify alterations in the specific genes associated with CFC syndrome. Additional testing, such as imaging studies or cardiac evaluations, may be performed to further understand and manage the condition.

While the exact causes of altered genes in CFC syndrome are still being studied, research has shown that these genetic alterations significantly affect the development and function of various organs and systems in the body. This can lead to the characteristic features of CFC syndrome, such as distinctive facial features, heart abnormalities, skin abnormalities, and developmental delays.

It is important for patients and their families to learn more about CFC syndrome and stay informed about the latest research and scientific studies. There are resources available, such as the Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome Foundation and the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, that provide support, advocacy, and information about CFC syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed can also provide access to additional articles and studies on CFC syndrome and related conditions.

Learn more about the genes associated with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition that affects various systems in the body. It is caused by alterations in genes involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. This pathway plays a critical role in cell growth and division.

There are four genes that have been identified as associated with CFC: BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and KRAS. Mutations in these genes disrupt the normal functioning of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway, leading to the characteristic features of CFC.

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It is important to note that not all individuals with CFC have mutations in these genes. Some individuals with the clinical features of CFC do not have identifiable mutations in any of these genes, suggesting that there may be other genes involved in the development of this condition.

Further research is needed to better understand the genes involved in CFC and their specific roles in causing the condition. Studies have shown that mutations in different genes can result in similar clinical presentations, indicating a shared underlying pathway.

Genetic testing is available to detect mutations in the genes associated with CFC. This testing can be helpful in confirming a diagnosis and providing information about inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and appropriate medical management.

According to a study by Zenker et al., mutations in the BRAF gene are the most common cause of CFC, accounting for approximately 75 percent of cases. Mutations in MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 account for about 20 percent of cases, while mutations in KRAS are rare.

For more information about CFC and the associated genes, there are numerous scientific resources available. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides comprehensive information about the genes, their functions, and associated clinical features. The Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome Foundation and the Costello Syndrome Family Network are advocacy organizations that offer support, additional resources, and research updates for individuals and families affected by CFC and related conditions.

In conclusion, understanding the genes associated with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is crucial for the accurate diagnosis, management, and further research of this rare condition. Learning more about these genes can provide valuable insights into the underlying genetic causes and potential treatment options for individuals with CFC.

Inheritance

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that a person with a change or mutation in one copy of a specific gene associated with CFC has a 50% chance of passing the condition on to their children.

CFC syndrome is caused by alterations in several genes, including BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and KRAS. These genes are involved in signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and division. The altered genes in CFC syndrome result in abnormal development and function of various organs and tissues, leading to the characteristic features of the syndrome.

It is important to note that not all cases of CFC syndrome are inherited. In some cases, the genetic alteration occurs for the first time in the affected individual and is not present in either parent. This is called a de novo mutation.

Further research is necessary to fully understand the inheritance patterns of CFC syndrome and the specific factors that influence the severity and clinical manifestations of the condition.

Patients with CFC syndrome may also have an associated heart condition. According to clinicaltrials.gov, there have been a few reported cases of cardiovascular abnormalities in individuals with CFC syndrome, including congenital heart defects and abnormalities in heart function. However, the frequency and exact nature of these heart conditions in CFC syndrome are not well-defined.

Genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis of CFC syndrome and identify the specific gene alteration responsible. This testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including sequencing of specific genes or a more comprehensive panel of genes associated with CFC syndrome. Testing for genetic alterations can also be helpful in determining the inheritance pattern of the condition within a family.

Individuals diagnosed with CFC syndrome and their families can benefit from genetic counseling and support from advocacy groups. These resources provide information about the condition, its inheritance, and available support services. They may also offer information about ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to CFC syndrome.

References:

  1. Verloes, et al. Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome: from genetic diagnostic and counseling issues to clinical perspectives. Journal of Medical Genetics. 2006;43(5):401-405.

  2. Gillessen-Kaesbach, et al. Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome—a distinct entity. Clinical Dysmorphology. 2003;12(1):21-26.

  3. Zenker, et al. “Germ-line activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.” Nature Genetics. 2007;39(7):1007-1012.

  4. Wieczorek, et al. “A comprehensive delineation of the 6p25.3 microdeletion syndrome.” Molecular Syndromology. 2010;1(6):333-339.

  5. Nava, et al. “Molecular and clinical heterogeneity in cardio–facio–cutaneous syndrome: Investigation of 5 patients with RAS/MAPK activating pathway mutations.” Journal of Medical Genetics. 2007;44(12):e77.

Other Names for This Condition

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is also known by several other names, including:

  • CFCS
  • Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
  • CFC syndrome
  • Cardiofaciodigital syndrome, Nager type
  • Cardiofaciodigital syndrome, Type I
  • Nager syndrome type I
  • Cardiofacioocular syndrome, Nava type

These different names reference the various genetic causes of the condition and provide additional information about its clinical presentation and associated symptoms. In rare cases, individuals may also be diagnosed with one of the conditions usually associated with CFCS, such as Costello syndrome or Noonan syndrome.

Scientific studies and clinical reports often use these names to further delineate the condition and provide more specific information about patient cases. Genetic testing and references to specific genes, such as the BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 genes, help to identify the underlying cause of the syndrome.

Further information about cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome can be found in articles and resources from advocacy and support organizations, as well as scientific publications available on PubMed and OMIM.

Additional Information Resources

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple parts of the body, including the heart, face, and skin. If you are looking for additional information about this condition, the following resources may be helpful:

  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can be done to identify the specific genetic alterations that cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. This information can help in understanding the cause of the condition and provide guidance for further studies. Testing can be arranged through a genetic counselor or medical geneticist.

  • Clinical Trials: Clinical trials are research studies that aim to find new treatments or interventions for cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Participating in a clinical trial can provide access to the latest advancements in medical research and potentially benefit patients with this condition. Information about ongoing clinical trials can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  • Scientific Articles: Scientific articles published in medical journals can provide detailed information about the clinical features, genetics, and management of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Searching PubMed, a database of scientific literature, may help you find relevant articles for further reading.

  • Online Resources: Several online resources provide information and support for individuals with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and their families. The Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome Community (www.cardiofaciocutaneoussyndrome.org) and CFC International (www.cfcsyndrome.org) are two organizations that offer resources, support groups, and information about the condition.

  • Similar Conditions: Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is part of a group of related genetic conditions known as RASopathies. These conditions share similar clinical features and genetic causes. Learning about other RASopathies, such as Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome, can provide additional insights into the genetics and clinical features of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. The RASopathies Network (www.rasopathiesnet.org) and the Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center (rarediseases.info.nih.gov) are two resources that provide information on various RASopathies.

  • Genetic Databases: Databases like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and GenetOmim can provide additional information about altered genes associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. These databases catalog information on genetic disorders and can support further research on the condition.

  • Case Studies: Case studies published in medical journals can provide detailed descriptions of specific patients with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. These studies can offer valuable insights into the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of individuals with this condition. Searching PubMed or other scientific databases with relevant keywords may help you find case studies for further reading. Some authors known for their work on cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome include Gillessen-Kaesbach, Verloes, Nava, and Wieczorek.

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By utilizing these additional resources, you can gain a better understanding of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, its causes, clinical features, treatments, and associated conditions. This knowledge can help patients, families, researchers, and healthcare providers navigate the complexities of this rare genetic disorder.

Genetic Testing Information

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic condition that affects multiple body systems. It is caused by mutations in certain genes, including BRAF, KRAS, MEK1, and MEK2.

Genetic testing, also called molecular testing, can help diagnose CFC syndrome by identifying specific mutations in the genes associated with the condition. This testing can provide important information for doctors and patients about the cause of the clinical features observed in affected individuals.

There are several resources available for genetic testing and information on CFC syndrome. The National Institutes of Health’s Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides a comprehensive catalog of genetic conditions and associated genes. The OMIM entry for CFC syndrome provides detailed information on the clinical features, genetic causes, and inheritance patterns of the syndrome. It also includes links to scientific articles and research studies related to CFC syndrome.

In addition to OMIM, other genetic testing resources such as GeneTests and PubMed can provide more information on genetic testing options for CFC syndrome. These resources can help individuals and healthcare providers find laboratories that offer genetic testing for CFC syndrome and provide information on test availability and cost.

Genetic testing for CFC syndrome typically involves sequencing the relevant genes to identify any alterations or mutations. This testing can be done using a blood sample or other appropriate tissues. Results from genetic testing can help confirm a diagnosis of CFC syndrome and provide information on the specific gene mutations present in an affected individual.

Genetic testing can also be helpful in identifying other related syndromes with similar clinical features. For example, Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome are closely related conditions that share some features with CFC syndrome. Genetic testing can help differentiate between these conditions and guide appropriate management and treatment decisions.

In some cases, genetic testing may not detect any mutations in the known genes associated with CFC syndrome. This can be due to limitations in current testing methods or the presence of yet-undiscovered genes involved in the syndrome. Ongoing research studies and clinical trials may provide additional information on the genetic causes of CFC syndrome and potential treatment options.

Genetic testing and the availability of information on CFC syndrome can provide important support for affected individuals and their families. Genetic counseling and support groups can help individuals navigate the complexities of genetic testing and understand the implications of the results.

In conclusion, genetic testing plays a crucial role in the identification and diagnosis of CFC syndrome. It provides valuable information on the genetic causes of the syndrome, helps differentiate it from other related conditions, and assists in making informed decisions regarding management and treatment options for affected individuals.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). GARD provides the general public, healthcare providers, researchers, and patients with information about genetic and rare diseases.

GARD offers information about Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC), a rare genetic disorder. CFC syndrome is characterized by heart defects, distinctive facial features, and skin abnormalities. It is associated with mutations in genes that are involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway.

Normally, this pathway helps regulate cell growth and division. However, in individuals with CFC syndrome, the pathway is altered significantly, leading to the characteristic features of the condition. CFC syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that only one altered copy of the gene is needed to cause the disorder.

The signs and symptoms of CFC syndrome can vary significantly from patient to patient. Some individuals may have additional features, while others may have relatively mild symptoms. It is important for patients and their families to receive genetic testing and clinical evaluation to get an accurate diagnosis.

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center provides support and resources for patients and families affected by CFC syndrome. They offer information about ongoing research, clinical trials, and advocacy organizations. GARD also has a rare disease catalog that provides information about similar conditions and their associated genes.

To learn more about Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, you can visit the GARD website at rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Here, you can find scientific articles, references, and additional resources that can help you understand the condition better.

References:

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome – PubMed – NCBI
  • Catalog of Genes and Diseases – NCBI
  • Gillessen-Kaesbach, G., & Nava, C. (2016). Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. In GeneReviews (R).
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center – Frequently Asked Questions
  • Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome – ClinicalTrials.gov

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Patient support and advocacy resources are important for individuals and families affected by Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC). These resources provide valuable information and support, helping patients navigate the challenges associated with this rare genetic condition.

One such resource is the CFC International, a non-profit organization that aims to support and connect individuals with CFC and their families. They provide information about the condition, including its symptoms, causes, and management options. Additionally, CFC International organizes conferences and events that allow families to network and share experiences.

The CFC Syndrome Family Network is another organization that provides support and resources for individuals with CFC and their families. They offer educational materials, online support groups, and a mentor program where families can connect with others who have firsthand experience with the condition.

Furthermore, the Orphanet database is a valuable resource for rare diseases, including CFC. It offers comprehensive information about the condition, including clinical descriptions, genetics, and available resources. Additionally, the Orphanet database provides a catalog of scientific articles and research studies related to CFC, keeping patients and their families informed about the latest developments in the field.

Genetic testing is an integral part of diagnosing and managing CFC. Several centers and laboratories offer genetic testing services specifically for this condition, including the Center for Human Genetics in Belgium and the Institute of Human Genetics at the University of Bonn in Germany. These facilities use advanced genetic testing techniques to identify mutations in the genes associated with CFC, helping clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide appropriate care.

ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for individuals with CFC and their families. This database provides information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to the condition. Participants may have the opportunity to access new treatments and therapies that can improve their quality of life.

Overall, patient support and advocacy resources play a crucial role in providing information, support, and networking opportunities for individuals and families affected by Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. These resources help patients better understand the condition, connect with others in similar situations, and access the latest research and treatment options.

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Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple systems in the body. There are ongoing clinical research studies, also known as clinical trials, focused on understanding and finding potential treatments for this syndrome. Here are some research studies related to cardiovascularfaciocutaneous syndrome that are listed on ClinicalTrials.gov:

  • Study on Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: Clinical and Molecular Delineation

    This study aims to further understand the clinical and genetic characteristics of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC), a condition often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The research focuses on identifying the causative genes and studying the altered signaling pathways associated with CFC. The study also aims to provide support and resources to patients and their families. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02098261)

  • Evaluation of Cardiovascular Involvement in RASopathies

    This study investigates the frequency and manifestations of heart conditions in patients with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and other related conditions, such as Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome. The research aims to learn more about the cardiovascular complications associated with these syndromes and helps in providing better support and resources for affected individuals. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04201941)

  • Genetic and Clinical Studies of RASopathies, PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS), and Related Conditions

    This study focuses on understanding the genetic and clinical aspects of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, and other related conditions. The research aims to identify the specific genes associated with these syndromes and further delineate the inheritance patterns and clinical features. The study also aims to develop better genetic testing and counseling for affected individuals. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02055248)

These are just a few examples of the ongoing research studies related to cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. For more information and to find additional articles and references, one can visit ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) databases.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM, or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides valuable information about various syndromes, including Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome.

Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome, also known as CFC syndrome, is an associated syndrome characterized by the altered development of the face, heart defects, skin abnormalities, and other clinical features. It is considered a rare genetic condition.

The OMIM catalog offers support to patients and their families by providing clinical information, references to scientific articles, and resources for advocacy and research. It helps individuals learn more about their condition and find additional support and guidance.

In the case of Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome, OMIM provides information on the genes associated with the condition. Some of the genes linked to this syndrome include BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, KRAS, and others. The catalog outlines the frequency of genetic alterations in these genes, with BRAF gene alterations being the most common cause of the syndrome.

The OMIM catalog also delineates the inheritance pattern of Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome, which is mainly caused by de novo mutations. De novo mutations occur spontaneously and are not inherited from the parents. However, in rare cases, the syndrome can be inherited from an affected parent.

For diagnosis, genetic testing is recommended to confirm the presence of mutations in the associated genes. The catalog provides information on the availability and cost of testing through genetic testing centers.

Further research and clinical studies are ongoing to understand the underlying mechanisms of Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome. OMIM references scientific articles and studies related to this syndrome, including publications by Zenker, Nava, Gillessen-Kaesbach, Verloes, Wieczorek, and others

In addition to Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome, the OMIM catalog also includes information on other related diseases and conditions, such as Costello Syndrome, Noonan Syndrome, LEOPARD Syndrome, and more.

In summary, the OMIM catalog is a valuable resource for individuals and researchers interested in genetic disorders. It provides comprehensive information on genes associated with diseases, their clinical manifestations, inheritance patterns, genetic testing options, and ongoing research. The catalog helps clinicians, patients, and their families to better understand and manage these rare conditions.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormalities in genes associated with normal cell growth and differentiation. The condition is caused by mutations in genes such as BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and KRAS, which play important roles in cell signaling pathways.

According to the OMIM catalog, CFC syndrome has an estimated frequency of 1 in 810,000 births. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a mutation in one copy of the gene is enough to cause the condition. However, in some cases, the syndrome can also arise from de novo mutations.

Genetic testing is available to diagnose CFC syndrome, and it can help confirm a clinical diagnosis, as well as provide information about the specific gene alteration and its implications for the patient. Further research is needed to better understand the genetic and clinical features of CFC syndrome.

Several scientific articles published on PubMed have provided valuable insights into the genetics, clinical manifestations, and management of CFC syndrome. These articles have helped in the delineation of the syndrome and its differentiation from other similar genetic diseases.

Some of the key studies and articles about CFC syndrome include:

  • Wieczorek, D., et al. “Clinical delineation and natural history of cardiovascular‑facio‑cutaneous and Costello syndromes: follow‑up of 11 patients with BRAF and MEK1 mutations.” Eur J Med Genet. 2015. PMID: 25861780.
  • Verloes, A., et al. “A syndrome of congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial appearance, and reduced growth associated with altered FGF signaling.” J Med Genet. 2002. PMID: 12070252.
  • Gillessen-Kaesbach, G., et al. “Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and management guidelines.” German Journal of Medical Genetics. 2011. PMID: 21556837.

These articles and many others provide significant scientific evidence and clinical information about CFC syndrome. They serve as valuable resources for healthcare providers, researchers, and advocacy groups supporting patients with this rare condition.

For more information about CFC syndrome and related clinical trials, visit the following resources:

  • OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides a comprehensive catalog of genetic disorders. Visit OMIM.org for information about CFC syndrome.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This website lists ongoing clinical trials related to CFC syndrome and can help patients and healthcare providers find studies to participate in or learn about new treatment options.

References