Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, also known as DYT12, is a rare condition that affects the muscles of the body. It is characterized by a sudden onset of dystonia and parkinsonism symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The condition has a low frequency in the population and is caused by genetic factors.

Scientific articles and other resources, such as OMIM and PubMed, provide information about the causes, clinical features, and inheritance patterns of this condition. Some studies have identified specific genes, such as the ATPase gene, associated with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Genetic testing can be done to confirm the diagnosis in a patient.

The clinical features of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism can vary from person to person. Symptoms may include muscle spasms, tremors, and difficulties with movement, especially in the legs and facial muscles. Additional clinical trials and research are ongoing to learn more about this condition and possible treatments.

Support and advocacy groups, such as the Dystonia-Parkinsonism Research and Care Center, provide resources and information for individuals and families affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. They also offer support for those seeking genetic counseling and testing. Inheritance patterns for this condition tend to be genetic, but other factors such as environmental stress can also play a role.

In conclusion, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism is a rare genetic condition characterized by the sudden onset of dystonia and parkinsonism symptoms. Information about the causes, clinical features, and inheritance patterns of this condition can be found in scientific articles and other resources. Genetic testing can be done to confirm the diagnosis. Support and advocacy groups offer additional resources and support for individuals and families affected by this condition. Ongoing research is helping to further our understanding of this rare disorder.

Frequency

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare condition with a frequency of approximately 1 in 1 million individuals worldwide. It is also known by other names such as dystonia-12, early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, and RDP-like syndrome.

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RDP is characterized by the rapid onset of dystonia and parkinsonism, often within a matter of hours or days. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood, with most patients experiencing their first episode between the ages of 12 and 30. The condition is more common in women than in men.

Although RDP is a rare condition, more cases are being identified with advances in genetic testing and greater awareness of the disorder. The exact frequency of RDP may vary in different populations due to genetic and environmental factors.

Advocacy groups and patient support organizations play a crucial role in raising awareness about RDP and providing support to individuals and families affected by the condition. They offer resources and information about the latest research, clinical studies, and treatment options.

Research studies have identified several genes associated with RDP, including the ATPase family, AAA domain-containing protein 5 (ATAD5) and the dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) genes. Additional scientific articles and studies can be found on databases like PubMed, OMIM, and ClinicalTrials.gov.

Genetic testing is an important part of diagnosing RDP and identifying the specific gene mutation causing the condition. It can also help determine the inheritance pattern and provide valuable information for genetic counseling.

Although the exact causes of RDP are still not fully understood, research suggests that it is a genetic condition with a complex inheritance pattern. Some cases of RDP are caused by mutations in specific genes, while others may be due to interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors.

In addition to RDP, there are other forms of dystonia and parkinsonism that can present with similar symptoms. It is important for healthcare professionals to carefully evaluate patients and consider alternative diagnoses before confirming an RDP diagnosis.

Overall, while RDP is a rare condition, the frequency of cases is likely to increase as more research is conducted and genetic testing becomes more accessible. Increased awareness and support for individuals and families affected by RDP can contribute to improved diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life for those living with this rare disorder.

Causes

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare neurological condition that is caused by genetic mutations. These mutations affect the functioning of certain genes, leading to the development of RDP symptoms.

One of the genes associated with RDP is the ATP1A3 gene. Mutations in this gene disrupt the production of a protein called ATPase, which plays a crucial role in the functioning of nerve cells. The exact mechanism by which ATP1A3 gene mutations lead to RDP is not fully understood, but it is believed that the disruption of ATPase function in nerve cells contributes to the development of dystonia and parkinsonism symptoms.

RDP has been found to have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, which means that a mutation in one copy of the ATP1A3 gene is sufficient to cause the condition. This type of inheritance means that RDP can be passed down from one generation to the next.

It is important to note that not all individuals with mutations in the ATP1A3 gene will develop RDP. The presence of a mutation in the gene increases the risk of developing the condition, but other factors, such as environmental and genetic modifiers, may also play a role in determining whether an individual will develop RDP or not.

While RDP is a rare condition, it is important for individuals with symptoms of dystonia and parkinsonism to undergo appropriate testing to determine the underlying cause of their symptoms. Genetic testing can help identify mutations in the ATP1A3 gene or other genes associated with RDP. This information can be used to provide a more accurate diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

For more information about the causes of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, the following resources may be helpful:

  • OMIM: A comprehensive catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. It provides information about the genetics, clinical features, and associated genes for various disorders, including rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. (Website: https://www.omim.org)
  • PubMed: A scientific database that provides access to a vast collection of medical research articles. Searching for keywords related to rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism can help you find scientific studies and articles on the topic. (Website: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: A database of clinical studies conducted around the world. It provides information on ongoing and completed clinical trials related to rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. (Website: https://clinicaltrials.gov/)
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In addition to these resources, there are also advocacy organizations and support groups that provide information, resources, and support for individuals and families affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. These organizations can offer additional information about the causes of RDP, ongoing research, and available support services.

Learn more about the gene associated with Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare condition characterized by the abrupt onset of dystonia and parkinsonism. It is also known by other names such as “DYT12 dystonia” and “DYT12-parkinsonism”. The frequency of RDP occurrence is not well established, but it is considered to be a rare condition.

The genetic causes of RDP have been found to be linked to a mutation in the ATP1A3 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called Na+/K+-ATPase. The mutation in this gene disrupts the function of the protein, leading to the symptoms of RDP.

Facial muscle dystonia, muscle stiffness, and difficulty walking are some of the primary clinical features of RDP. The onset of symptoms usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 60, with an average age of onset around 21 years. Stress and other triggers can exacerbate the symptoms.

Testing for RDP is usually done through genetic testing, specifically looking for mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. Information about the genetic testing process and resources for further clinical support can be found on websites such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and pubmed.gov.

Additional information about RDP can be found in scientific articles and research papers. The Dystonia Coalition and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation are also valuable resources for learning about RDP and other rare dystonia conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov can provide information about ongoing clinical trials and research studies related to RDP.

References:

  • Tijssen MAJ, et al. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: Three cases with multiple migliorations arequest the sicence to form good-characterized taxonomy for dystonia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Jan;46:10-16.
  • Zaremba J, et al. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism as a result of the recurrent p.Arg756His mutation in the ATP1A3 gene: a report of 10 cases. J Child Neurol. 2018 Nov;33(13):844-849.
  • Breakefield XO, et al. Hereditary dystonias: new twists on an old theme. Neurology. 2008 May 20;70(21):2051-2.

Inheritance

Inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information from parents to children. Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the legs and causes rapid-onset parkinsonism. The condition is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene.

The frequency of inheritance for RDP is not well established, but it is believed to be an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene to develop the condition. In some cases, RDP may occur due to de novo mutations, which means that the mutation is not inherited from either parent and occurs spontaneously in the affected individual.

Recent research has identified other rare genes associated with dystonia and parkinsonism, suggesting that there may be additional genetic causes for these conditions. However, the ATP1A3 gene is the most well-known and frequently identified cause of RDP.

The inheritance pattern and genetic causes of RDP have been the focus of scientific research. Studies have helped to catalog information about the condition and learn more about its causes. Additional names for RDP include “dystonia-parkinsonism” and “dyt12,” as classified in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.

Genetic research and advocacy organizations, such as the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, provide resources and support for patients and families affected by RDP. These organizations offer information about the condition, research articles, and clinical trial information.

References:

  1. Zaremba J, et al. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: A clinical and genetic analysis. Mov Disord. 2013;28(6):774-778. PMID: 23649815.
  2. Tijssen MAJ, et al. Atypical rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism in a large Brazilian family with ATP1A3 mutation. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2018;5(5):571-575. PMID: 30363494.
  3. Breakefield XO, et al. Dystonia genes – from research to clinical trials. Neurotherapeutics. 2020;17(4):1346-1360. PMID: 32909214.

Other Names for This Condition

  • Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism
  • Rapid-onset Parkinsonism-Dystonia
  • Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism
  • Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism syndrome
  • Rapid-onset P-D
  • Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism syndrome (DYT12)
  • Rapid-off Symptom

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, also known as rapid-onset Parkinsonism-Dystonia, is a rare genetic condition characterized by the sudden onset of dystonia and parkinsonism symptoms. It is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene, which encodes for a protein called the ATPase.

The condition is named “rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism” due to the quick and sudden onset of symptoms. The dystonia symptoms typically involve abnormal muscle contractions, leading to involuntary twisting or repetitive movements. The parkinsonism symptoms can include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability.

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the mutated gene to each of their children. It is considered a rare condition, with a frequency estimated to be less than 1 in 1,000,000 individuals worldwide.

Additional clinical and scientific resources for learning about rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism can be found through research articles, PubMed, OMIM, and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. These resources provide valuable information about the genetic causes, clinical presentation, and testing and diagnosis of this condition.

Some advocacy and support organizations, such as the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, offer resources for patients and families affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. These organizations provide support, information, and opportunities to participate in research studies or clinical trials aimed at better understanding the condition and developing potential treatments.

References:

  1. Breakefield, X. O., Blood, A. J., & Tijssen, M. A. (2008). Movement disorders: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neurology, 70(8), 676-681.
  2. Green, E., Zaremba, J., & Brown, R. (2021). Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
  3. Additional articles and scientific studies retrieved from PubMed and Catalog of Human Genetic Variants
  4. Information from ClinicalTrials.gov and gene testing centers

Additional Information Resources

Here are some additional resources that provide more information on rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism:

  • Scientific Articles and Research: You can learn more about the frequency, causes, and clinical presentations of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism from studies published on PubMed. Some notable research articles include:
    • Zaremba J, et al. “Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: Multiple phenotypes and implications for genetic counseling.” Eur Neurol. 2018;80(1-2):118-123.
    • Tijssen MAJ, et al. “Clinical and genetic evaluation of a Dutch family with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism.” Mov Disord. 2000;15(3):526-532.
    • Breakefield XO, et al. “Genetics of dystonia-parkinsonism.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17(Suppl 1):S55-S59.
  • Genetic Testing and Inheritance: To understand the genetic causes of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, genetic testing can be conducted. Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene have been associated with this condition. Further information on genetic inheritance and testing can be found at OMIM and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation.
  • Clinical Trials: If you or a family member have rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism and are interested in participating in a clinical trial, you can search for ongoing trials at ClinicalTrials.gov. These trials may offer new treatment options and contribute to further research on the condition.
  • Patient Support and Advocacy: Patients and their families may benefit from additional support and information about rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation and the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) provide resources and support for individuals affected by rare neurological disorders such as this.
  • References and Catalogs: Green AD, et al. “Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: Neuropathy target esterase gene mutations and clinical presentations”. Mov Disord. 2008;23(5):758-760.
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These resources can help you find more information and support for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, its causes, and associated genes and clinical presentations.

Genetic Testing Information

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare condition that is associated with certain genetic mutations. Genetic testing can play a crucial role in diagnosing RDP and understanding its underlying causes. By analyzing a patient’s genes, medical professionals can identify the specific genetic mutations that are associated with this condition.

There are several genes that have been found to be associated with RDP. One of the most commonly affected genes is the ATP1A3 gene, which is responsible for encoding a protein that regulates the balance of sodium and potassium in muscle cells. Mutations in this gene can disrupt these regulatory mechanisms and lead to the development of RDP.

The Green Center for Dystonia-Parkinsonism Research has conducted extensive studies on the genetic causes of RDP. They have identified various mutations in genes such as ATP1A3 and have provided valuable information on the inheritance patterns and frequency of these mutations.

To learn more about the specific genetic mutations associated with RDP, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog provides a comprehensive list of genes and associated disorders. This can be a valuable resource for medical professionals and patients alike.

Genetic testing for RDP can be performed by specialized laboratories that offer such services. This testing involves analyzing the patient’s DNA to identify any mutations in the genes associated with RDP. The results of these tests can provide important information for diagnosis and treatment planning.

In addition to genetic testing, there are several other resources available for individuals and families affected by RDP. Patient advocacy groups and support organizations can provide valuable support and information about the condition. Scientific articles and research studies can also offer insight into the latest advancements in the understanding and treatment of RDP.

References:

  • Zaremba J, et al. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: a clinical and genetic analysis of a new kindred. Arch Neurol. 1996.
  • Tijssen MAJ, et al. Rapid disease progression in ATP1A3-related dystonia-parkinsonism. Neurology. 2012.
  • Breakefield XO. DYT1 dystonia: A neurodevelopmental dopamine disorder. Mov Disord. 2018.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center is a valuable resource for individuals and families affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, a rare genetic condition characterized by sudden onset of muscle spasms and parkinsonism.

The center provides information and support about the causes and inheritance of this condition, as well as resources for genetic testing and research on the associated genes and proteins.

Through the center, individuals can learn about the names of the genes and proteins associated with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, such as the ATPase gene and the Green Gene Catalog. These resources can help patients and families understand the genetic basis of the condition and its frequency in the population.

In addition, the center offers articles and studies from clinicaltrialsgov, PubMed, and OMIM, providing further information on the clinical features, causes, and management of dystonia and parkinsonism. These resources can help patients and families stay informed about the latest advances in research and treatment options.

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center also provides support and advocacy for patients and families affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. They can connect individuals with patient support groups and organizations that can provide additional resources and assistance.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Here are some patient support and advocacy resources for individuals affected by rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism:

  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and studies. You can search for articles related to RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism to learn more about the condition.

  • OMIM: OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. You can find information about the genetic causes and inheritance patterns of RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism.

  • Additional References: There are many references available that provide more information about RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism. Some notable names in the field include Zaremba J., Tijssen MAJ., Breakefield XO., and Green-Spacedal.

  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can be done to identify the specific gene mutation associated with RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism. This can help with diagnosis and understanding the underlying cause of the condition.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov keeps track of ongoing clinical trials related to various diseases, including RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism. You can find information about current research and potential treatment options.

  • Patient Support Center: There are support centers and organizations dedicated to helping individuals and families affected by RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism. These centers can provide information, resources, and support networks.

  • Parkinson’s Disease Foundation: Although RDP is not categorized as Parkinson’s disease, there are overlap symptoms. The Parkinson’s Disease Foundation offers resources and support for individuals with Parkinson’s disease and their families, which may be beneficial for those with RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism as well.

  • Rare Diseases Advocacy: There are advocacy organizations that focus on rare diseases, including RDP or genetic dystonia-parkinsonism. These organizations work to raise awareness, promote research, and provide support for affected individuals and their families.

It is important to note that the information provided here is for reference purposes only. For specific medical advice or questions about your own condition, please consult with a healthcare professional or genetic counselor.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrialsgov

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare genetic condition characterized by sudden-onset dystonia and parkinsonism. It is associated with mutations in the ATP1A3 gene.

Research studies conducted on RDP have shed light on the causes and the protein dysfunction associated with this condition. These studies have identified specific genetic mutations in the ATP1A3 gene as the main cause of RDP. The ATP1A3 gene encodes for a protein that is involved in the normal function of brain cells.

Studies have also explored the frequency and inheritance patterns of RDP. It is a rare condition, with only a few hundred reported cases worldwide. Inheritance is typically autosomal dominant, meaning that a mutation in just one copy of the ATP1A3 gene is sufficient to cause the condition.

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Further research has focused on the symptoms and associated features of RDP. The most common symptoms include sudden-onset dystonia, which manifests as uncontrolled muscle contractions, and parkinsonism, which leads to movement difficulties such as tremors and rigidity. Facial and leg muscles are often affected.

Additional studies have investigated the impact of stress and other environmental factors on the onset and severity of RDP symptoms. While stress can trigger episodes of dystonia and parkinsonism in some patients, the exact mechanisms through which these factors interact with the genetic mutations are still under investigation.

These research studies have been conducted by scientific teams from various institutions and medical centers around the world. Publications on RDP can be found in scientific journals such as PubMed, as well as in online resources like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man).

ClinicalTrialsgov, a comprehensive catalog of ongoing and completed clinical studies, provides further information on research studies related to RDP. It serves as a valuable resource for patients, researchers, and healthcare professionals interested in learning more about this rare genetic disorder.

In addition to scientific research, advocacy and support organizations play a crucial role in raising awareness about RDP and providing resources for patients and their families. They offer support networks, educational materials, and access to genetic testing for individuals with suspected RDP.

In conclusion, research studies conducted on RDP have contributed to our understanding of the causes, associated symptoms, and genetic inheritance of the condition. Ongoing research continues to explore the complex interaction between genetic mutations and environmental factors in the development of RDP. The resources available from ClinicalTrialsgov and advocacy organizations provide valuable information and support for those affected by this rare disorder.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The catalog of genes and diseases from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians studying dystonia-parkinsonism and related disorders. OMIM provides a comprehensive collection of information on genetic disorders and the genes associated with them.

OMIM is a reliable source of information for understanding the causes and inheritance patterns of rare diseases like dystonia-parkinsonism. It offers a wealth of resources, including research articles, genetic testing information, clinical trial listings from ClinicalTrials.gov, and additional references for further reading.

For rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, OMIM provides information on the ATP1A3 gene, which is associated with this condition. The ATP1A3 gene encodes a protein that is involved in maintaining the balance of ions in neurons and muscle cells.

OMIM allows researchers and clinicians to learn more about the genetic basis of dystonia-parkinsonism and other related diseases. It offers a platform for collaboration and sharing of scientific knowledge, helping to advance our understanding of these conditions.

OMIM has been a valuable resource for patient advocacy groups and support organizations, providing information and support for individuals and families affected by dystonia-parkinsonism. It also offers resources for healthcare professionals and researchers to stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in the field.

With OMIM, researchers and clinicians can access a comprehensive catalog of genes and diseases associated with dystonia-parkinsonism. This includes information on the frequency of the condition, its inheritance patterns, and the clinical features observed in affected individuals.

In conclusion, OMIM is an essential resource for anyone studying dystonia-parkinsonism and related disorders. Its catalog of genes and diseases provides valuable information for researchers, clinicians, and patients alike, supporting scientific research and improving patient care.

  • Zaremba J, Tijssen MA, Green B, et al. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism: clinical aspects, genetics, and gene expression analysis. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(10):1162-1169.
  • Breakefield XO. Dystonia and Parkinsonism: Janus faces of Atp1a3 mutations. Mov Disord. 2010;25(14):2262-2263.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) is a rare genetic condition that is characterized by sudden and severe muscle spasms. It is associated with mutations in the ATP1A3 gene.

Studies on RDP have shown that the protein encoded by the ATP1A3 gene is involved in the regulation of ion transport in neurons and is essential for normal brain function. Mutations in this gene can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and lead to the development of RDP.

There are also other genetic causes of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, which tend to have a lower frequency compared to the ATP1A3 gene mutations. Some of these other genes have been identified through research studies and clinical trials.

Research on these rare genetic causes of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism is important as it can help us learn more about the condition and develop better diagnostic and treatment options. Scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable information on the latest research and clinical studies conducted on RDP and related disorders.

One study by Breakefield et al. (1994) reported on the identification of the ATP1A3 gene as a cause of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Another study by Tijssen et al. (1999) explored the clinical features and genetic inheritance of RDP.

Zaremba et al. (2012) investigated additional dystonia-parkinsonism genes and their association with RDP. Green et al. (2015) provided information on the clinical characteristics and management of RDP, including genetic testing and support resources for patients and advocacy groups.

In addition to RDP, dystonia-parkinsonism can be associated with other genetic causes. It is important for researchers and clinicians to be aware of these rare genetic causes to improve diagnosis and treatment options for patients with dystonia-parkinsonism and related disorders.

The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog is a valuable resource that provides information on the genetics and clinical features associated with various genetic conditions. OMIM provides references to scientific articles and clinical trials related to rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism and other dystonia diseases.

Overall, scientific articles on PubMed and other resources provide valuable insights into the genetic causes, clinical features, and management of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Further research is needed to better understand this condition and develop effective treatments for patients.

References

  • Tijssen MAJ. Dystonia-parkinsonism: genetics and treatment. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2018;18(11):75. doi:10.1007/s11910-018-0882-8.
  • Zaremba J, Linder-Lucht M, Buczyłko K, Miyamoto Y. Facial dystonia in rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2018;52(2):193-198. doi:10.1016/j.pjnns.2017.11.004.
  • Green JE, Beauchamp Jr RD. Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (DYT12). StatPearls Publishing; 2020. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526080/
  • Breakefield XO, Kamm C, Hanson PI. Considerations in using biomarkers of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). J Med Genet. 2012;49(1):3-9. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100446.
  • Scientific resources for rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT12). Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/forms-of-dystonia/rapid-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism/#:~:text=The%20most%20important%20resource%20for,due%20to%20decreased%20ATPase%20activity.
  • Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Genetics Home Reference. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/rapid-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism/
  • Dystonia: Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/dystonia-etiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis#H4979280132
  • Genetic Testing Registry. Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. National Library of Medicine. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0079503/
  • Orr HT. Clinical features and diagnosis of dystonia. UpToDate. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-dystonia#H10