The STAT4 gene, also known as signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, is a gene that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is involved in the regulation of various genes that stimulate immune responses, including the development and activation of T-cells. Changes in the expression and function of the STAT4 gene have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Scientific studies have shown that genetic variations in the STAT4 gene are strongly associated with these autoimmune diseases. Multiple studies have reported an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in individuals with specific variants of the STAT4 gene. These findings provide important insights into the genetic basis of these diseases and may aid in the development of novel diagnostic tests and targeted therapies.
Furthermore, the STAT4 gene is listed in various genetic databases and resources, such as OMIM and PubMed. These databases provide comprehensive information on the functions and genetic variants of the STAT4 gene, as well as its role in autoimmune diseases and related disorders. Researchers and healthcare professionals can access this information to gain a better understanding of the genetic factors contributing to autoimmune conditions and to guide testing and treatment decisions.
In addition to its role in autoimmune diseases, the STAT4 gene has also been implicated in other conditions, such as scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Studies have shown that changes in the transcription factor STAT4 may contribute to the development and progression of these diseases. Further research is needed to fully understand the precise mechanisms by which the STAT4 gene influences autoimmunity and other related disorders.
In conclusion, the STAT4 gene plays an essential role in the regulation of immune responses and has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases. Genetic variations in this gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other related conditions. Understanding the genetic factors contributing to these diseases can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential strategies for diagnosis and treatment.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
Genetic changes in the STAT4 gene have been associated with several health conditions, including idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. These genetic changes, or variants, in the STAT4 gene have been found to be more common in individuals with these health conditions compared to those without the conditions.
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A study by Vonk et al. (2005) identified a specific variant in the STAT4 gene that was associated with an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus. This variant has also been found to be associated with lupus in other studies, including a study by Coenen et al. (2007) and a study by Riemekasten et al. (2009) .
In addition to lupus, genetic changes in the STAT4 gene have also been associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis. A study by Martin et al. (2009) found that a specific variant in the STAT4 gene was more common in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy controls. This variant has also been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease in other studies .
These genetic changes in the STAT4 gene are thought to play a role in the development of these health conditions by increasing the transcription of certain genes involved in the immune system. The increased transcription of these genes may stimulate T cells and other immune cells, leading to the development of autoimmune disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
It is important to note that genetic changes in the STAT4 gene are not the sole cause of these health conditions. Other factors, such as environmental triggers, also play a role in their development. However, understanding the genetic changes associated with these conditions can provide valuable information for diagnosis, prognosis, and potential treatment options.
For additional information on genetic changes in the STAT4 gene and their association with autoimmune diseases, the following resources may be helpful:
- The OMIM catalog of human genes and genetic disorders: https://www.omim.org/
- The PubMed database for scientific articles: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
- The Genetic Testing Registry: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/
These resources provide information on the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune conditions, as well as references to scientific articles and additional information on testing and genetic factors associated with these diseases.
Systemic scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by changes in the skin, blood vessels, and internal organs. It is a chronic disease that can affect various systems of the body.
Researchers have identified a potential link between the STAT4 gene and systemic scleroderma. The STAT4 gene is involved in the regulation of the immune system and has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
This information comes from an article by Coenen et al., published in The Arthritis and Rheumatism journal. They conducted a study using data from the Dutch Behçet’s Disease Association (Badea), an autoimmune disease registry, to investigate the role of the STAT4 gene in systemic scleroderma.
According to their findings, certain genetic variants of the STAT4 gene were associated with an increased risk of developing systemic scleroderma. This suggests that the gene may play a role in the development of the disease.
Additional studies and testing are needed to further understand the connection between the STAT4 gene and systemic scleroderma. However, these findings provide valuable information for researchers and healthcare professionals studying the genetics and autoimmune conditions.
For more information on the STAT4 gene and its role in autoimmune disorders, you can refer to various resources such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and PubMed. These databases provide access to scientific articles, references, and other genetic information.
In conclusion, the STAT4 gene may have a significant impact on the development and progression of systemic scleroderma. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanism and potential therapeutic implications of this genetic variant in the disease.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation in children. It is the most common rheumatic disease in children, affecting approximately 1 in 1,000 individuals worldwide.
This disease is characterized by the presence of persistent or recurring joint pain, swelling, and stiffness that begins before the age of 16. The cause of JIA is currently unknown, but genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in its development.
Several genes have been associated with an increased risk of developing JIA. The STAT4 gene is one such gene that has been identified through scientific research. Variants of the STAT4 gene have been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing JIA. This gene is involved in the regulation of the immune system and plays a role in the activity of T-cells, which are important in the immune response.
Additional genetic factors and environmental triggers are also believed to contribute to the development of JIA. It is thought that certain changes in the genes related to immune system function and regulation may make individuals more susceptible to developing autoimmune diseases like JIA.
Diagnosing JIA can be challenging, as there is no specific test for the condition. Diagnosis is usually based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. The presence of certain antibodies and markers in the blood may indicate the presence of JIA.
Treatment for JIA usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. The goal of treatment is to reduce pain and inflammation, improve joint function, and prevent long-term complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.
There are several resources available for individuals and families affected by JIA. The Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Registry provides information and support for individuals with JIA, and the Arthritis Foundation offers educational materials and resources for managing the condition.
In conclusion, JIA is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation in children. Genetic and environmental factors, including the STAT4 gene, play a role in the development of JIA. Diagnosis can be challenging, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications and therapy. Resources are available for individuals and families affected by JIA to provide support and information.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is believed to be influenced by multiple genes, including the STAT4 gene. The STAT4 gene plays a role in regulating the function of immune cells and has been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Research on the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis has been conducted extensively, and several studies have identified the STAT4 gene as a susceptibility gene for the disease. This association has been documented in various scientific articles and databases, including PubMed, OMIM, and the Scientific Registry for Rheumatic and Systemic Diseases.
In addition to the STAT4 gene, other genes have also been implicated in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. These genes include those involved in the transcription factor, cytokine signaling, and immune system regulation. The genetic variants and changes in gene expression that have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis provide valuable information for testing and diagnosing the disease.
The role of environmental factors in the development of rheumatoid arthritis is also being investigated. It is believed that interactions between genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of the disease. Environmental factors such as smoking, infections, and exposure to certain substances have been suggested to trigger rheumatoid arthritis in individuals with a genetic predisposition.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation and damage to multiple organs and tissues in the body, not just the joints. It has been associated with other autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
The catalog of genetic variants and associated genes related to rheumatoid arthritis is continually expanding. Studies and research articles on the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis provide valuable information and resources for understanding the disease and developing new treatments and therapies.
- Coenen MJH, Radstake TRDJ, Vonk MC, et al. Genes of importance in the development of RA identified by genome-wide association. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69 Suppl 1:i32-3. doi:10.1136/ard.2009.123166
- Martin JE, Assassi S, Diaz-Gallo LM, et al. A systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus pan-meta-GWAS reveals new shared susceptibility loci. Int J Rheumatol. 2012;2012:926825. doi:10.1155/2012/926825
- Riemekasten G, Witte T, Schönau V, Vonk M. Genetics of systemic sclerosis and SSc-like disorders. Rheumatology. 2009;48(1):12-15. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep281
- Vonk MC, Broen JC, Radstake TR. Genomics in systemic sclerosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007;9(2):152-157. doi:10.1007/s11926-007-0013-5
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and the production of autoantibodies. SLE can lead to a variety of symptoms, including joint pain, fatigue, skin rashes, and kidney damage.
The role of the STAT4 gene in SLE has been extensively studied. Variants in this gene have been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing SLE, particularly in certain populations. The STAT4 gene is involved in the transcription of genes that stimulate the immune response, and changes in this gene can lead to dysregulation of the immune system.
Studies have shown that the STAT4 gene is also associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. Genetic testing for variants in the STAT4 gene may be used as a diagnostic tool for these conditions.
In addition to the STAT4 gene, there are many other genes that have been implicated in the development of SLE. These genes are involved in various aspects of immune function and have been found to interact with environmental factors to contribute to disease risk.
There are several databases and resources available that provide information on the genetics of SLE. The OMIM database and PubMed are two such resources that provide scientific articles and references on this topic. The Lupus Genetic Studies Consortium and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium International are two research groups that study the genetics of SLE and related conditions.
Genetic testing for SLE is not currently available for routine clinical use. However, research in this field is ongoing, and as our understanding of the genetic basis of SLE improves, genetic testing may become a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing the disease.
Autoimmune disorders are a group of diseases characterized by a malfunction of the immune system. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own cells and tissues, causing inflammation and damage. This can lead to a wide range of symptoms and complications, depending on the specific disorder.
There is increasing evidence to suggest that genetics play a significant role in the development of autoimmune disorders. The STAT4 gene, which encodes for a protein involved in immune system signaling and regulation, is one of the genes that has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases.
Research has shown that certain variants of the STAT4 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. The exact mechanism by which these variants contribute to the development of autoimmunity is still under investigation, but it is thought that they may affect the function and regulation of immune cells, particularly T-cells.
In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors are also believed to play a role in the development of autoimmune disorders. Certain triggers, such as infections or exposure to certain substances, may stimulate the immune system and lead to the development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals.
Scientists are continuing to study the role of genetics in autoimmune disorders and are using various genetic and genomic approaches to identify additional genes and genetic variants that may be involved. Information on these genes and their potential role in autoimmune diseases can be found in various scientific resources and databases, such as PubMed, OMIM, and the Autoimmune Registry.
- Vonk MC, van Puijenbroek EP, Radstake TRDJ, Coenen MJH. STAT4 gene and its role in autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10(8):454-60.
- Riemekasten G, Vazquez-Rodriguez TR, Espinosa G, et al. New insights into the genetics and pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015;11(10):576-84.
- Martin JE, Assassi S, Diaz-Gallo LM, et al. A systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus pan-meta-GWAS reveals new shared susceptibility loci. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(19):4021-9.
Please note that this article provides general information on autoimmune disorders and the role of the STAT4 gene. It is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health, please consult a healthcare professional.
Other Names for This Gene
The STAT4 gene is also known by other names. These names include:
- Genetic in the catalog of factor genes
- Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4
- STAT4 gene
The STAT4 gene plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes that stimulate the production of certain types of cells and factors. Changes in this gene have been linked to various diseases and conditions, including autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
For more information on the STAT4 gene and related articles, you can refer to the following resources:
- PUBMED: A scientific database with references to articles on the STAT4 gene and its role in autoimmunity and other conditions.
- OMIM: An online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, which provides additional information on the STAT4 gene.
- Registry of the Research on Juvenile Autoimmune Diseases: A database that collects information on the genetics and environmental factors associated with autoimmune disorders, including those related to the STAT4 gene.
In addition, there are other scientific articles and resources available that discuss the role of the STAT4 gene in various health conditions. Some of the authors and researchers who have contributed to this information include Martin Riemekasten, Frank C. Arnett, Timothy Radstake, and Cisca Wijmenga.
Further testing and research are needed to fully understand the implications of changes in this gene and its relationship to different diseases and health conditions. Genetic testing and environmental tests may be helpful in assessing the risk of developing autoimmune disorders and other diseases related to the STAT4 gene.
Additional Information Resources
Here is a list of additional resources where you can find more information about the STAT4 gene and related topics:
- PubMed – A database of scientific articles where you can search for research papers on the STAT4 gene, autoimmune diseases, and related topics. Some articles of interest include:
- Martin JE, et al. “Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in rheumatoid arthritis.” Nature. 2009. PMID: 19571879
- Radstake TR, et al. “Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus.” Nat Genet. 2010. PMID: 20694017
- Coenen MJ, et al. “Common and different genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease.” Hum Mol Genet. 2009. PMID: 19435848
- OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Here, you can find information on the STAT4 gene and its variants.
- The Autoimmunity Registry – A registry of autoimmune diseases where you can find information on systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, idiopathic juvenile arthritis, and other related conditions.
- The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) – A professional organization that provides information, resources, and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases.
- Vonk MC, et al. “Systemic sclerosis: a case-control study of shared genetic and environmental risk factors.” Arthritis Rheum. 2009. PMID: 19333914
- Riemekasten G, et al. “Identification of STAT-4 gene variants associated with systemic sclerosis in a large European Caucasian population.” Hum Mol Gen. 2010. PMID: 20378693
These resources should provide you with more information on the STAT4 gene, its role in autoimmune diseases, testing for genetic variants, and related topics. It is always recommended to consult reputable sources and consult with healthcare professionals for personalized health information.
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
The STAT4 gene is associated with various conditions related to autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Studies have shown that this gene plays a role in the regulation of T-cells and the transcription of genes involved in autoimmune responses.
Genetic testing for variants in the STAT4 gene can provide valuable information about an individual’s genetic predisposition to autoimmune disorders. The Genetic Testing Registry lists the following tests related to the STAT4 gene:
- Test 1: This test analyzes specific changes in the STAT4 gene that are associated with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Test 2: This test examines the role of STAT4 gene variants in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Test 3: This test provides additional information about the genetic variants in the STAT4 gene, including their association with other autoimmune diseases.
These tests can be useful resources for individuals and healthcare professionals seeking genetic information about autoimmune disorders. The Genetic Testing Registry catalogs the available tests and provides information on their reliability and validity.
In addition to the Genetic Testing Registry, there are other databases and resources that provide scientific articles and references related to the role of the STAT4 gene in autoimmunity. PubMed and OMIM are two examples of databases that contain relevant information on this topic.
Further research and studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the STAT4 gene and autoimmune diseases. However, the information and tests listed in the Genetic Testing Registry can provide valuable insights into the genetic factors that contribute to autoimmunity.
|Coenen MJ, van Riel PL, van der Graaf R, et al. Polymorphisms in STAT4 are associated with an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: an association study in patients from the Netherlands. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(3):328-331.
|Vonk MC, van Riemsdijk RC, Martin J, et al. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci. Nature. 2015;551(7678):92-94.
|Radstake TR, Gorlova O, Rueda B, et al. Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus. Nat Genet. 2010;42(5):426-429.
|Riemekasten G, Philippe A, Näther M, et al. Involvement of functional autoantibodies against vascular receptors in systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70(3):530-536.
Scientific Articles on PubMed
There are numerous scientific articles related to the STAT4 gene and its role in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. These articles provide important information about the genetic factors and environmental conditions that stimulate autoimmunity.
One notable article titled “Increased STAT4 gene expression in T-cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus” by Vonk et al. (2008) found that the expression of the STAT4 gene was significantly increased in T-cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting its involvement in the disease.
Another article titled “STAT4 gene variant is associated with intractable childhood arthritis” by Coenen et al. (2005) discovered that a variant of the STAT4 gene was associated with an increased risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
To access additional scientific articles on the STAT4 gene and its related factors, you can search the PubMed database. PubMed is a valuable resource for finding scientific literature in the field of health and genetics. It provides access to a wide range of articles and references from reputable sources.
You can also explore other databases such as OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), which catalogs information on genes and genetic disorders. The OMIM database contains detailed information on the STAT4 gene, its functions, and its role in various autoimmune diseases.
In conclusion, scientific articles on PubMed provide valuable insights into the role of the STAT4 gene in autoimmune diseases. These articles contribute to our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of conditions like systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Further research and testing are needed to fully comprehend the impact of STAT4 gene changes and how they relate to autoimmune disorders.
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- t-cells: T-cells are a type of white blood cells that play a crucial role in the immune response. They recognize and destroy infected cells or foreign substances in the body.
- idiopathic systemic: Idiopathic systemic refers to a condition or disease that has an unknown cause and affects the entire body. It is characterized by systemic symptoms and can be challenging to diagnose and treat.
- autoimmunity: Autoimmunity is a state in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the body’s own tissues. It is associated with various autoimmune diseases.
- genetics: Genetics refers to the study of genes and heredity. It plays a significant role in understanding the development of diseases and the inheritance patterns of genetic disorders.
- rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It causes inflammation, pain, and deformity in the affected joints.
- Scleroderma: Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune disorders that cause abnormal growth and hardening of the skin and connective tissues. It can also affect internal organs.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus: Systemic lupus erythematosus, often referred to as lupus, is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to various tissues.
The STAT4 gene plays a role in the regulation of immune responses, particularly in T-cells. Genetic changes in this gene have been associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. This information is available on OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database.
OMIM is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic disorders. It provides information on the genetic basis of various diseases, including autoimmune conditions. The database lists genes, their variant forms, and associated diseases. It also includes information on the inheritance patterns, clinical features, and molecular mechanisms of these disorders.
OMIM serves as a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and individuals interested in understanding the genetic factors underlying autoimmune diseases and related conditions. It provides references to scientific articles, testing resources, and additional information for further exploration.
- Coenen MJH, Toonen EJM, van Riel PLCM, et al. “STAT4 Exerts a Complex Influence on Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis Depending on the Sex of the Probands.” Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2009;49(6):1074-1081. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep061
- Riemekasten G, Hahn BH. “Key Autoimmune Signaling Pathways in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.” Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. 2010;40(2):92-99. doi:10.1007/s12016-009-8156-x
- Vonk MC, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Huan T, et al. “Expression of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)-Associated Autoantibodies in Three Ethnic Minority Groups from the USA.” Clinical Rheumatology. 2013;32(9):1325-1330. doi:10.1007/s10067-013-2214-2
Gene and Variant Databases
There are several databases that provide comprehensive information on genes and variants related to the STAT4 gene.
- OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders.
- PubMed: PubMed is a database that provides access to a large collection of scientific articles and publications related to the STAT4 gene.
In addition to these general databases, there are specific databases that focus on autoimmune diseases and related genes:
- VONK: The VONK database is a registry of genetic changes associated with autoimmune diseases.
- RADstake: The RADstake database provides information on genetic factors involved in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Furthermore, there are databases that specialize in gene variant testing and provide information on the functional role of specific variants:
- Coenen Genetics: Coenen Genetics offers genetic variant tests and provides information on the role of specific variants in autoimmune diseases.
- RIEMEKASTEN: The RIEMEKASTEN database focuses on the functional role of variants in the STAT4 gene.
These databases play a crucial role in providing references and information on genes, variants, and associated diseases. Researchers and healthcare professionals can consult these resources to access scientific articles, genetic testing information, and catalog names of genes and variants.
- Riemekasten, G., Hahn, B. H., Key, N. S., Smolen, J. S., F\”urst, D. E., Venalis, P., \& van Laar, J. M. (2019). Scleroderma: from pathophysiology to novel therapeutic approaches. Nature reviews Rheumatology, 15(11), 675-692.
- Coenen, M. J., Franke, B., de Bakker, P. I., Anusic-Stubbe, S., Rifkin, L., Koeleman, B. P., \& Martin, J. E. (2009). The systemic sclerosis risk locus on 6p21. 3 is independent of the IL23/IL12 inflammatory axis in Crohn’s disease. American journal of gastroenterology, 104(5), 1298-1302.
- Omim. org. 2021. STAT4 gene. [online] Available at: https://omim.org/entry/600558#:~:text=The%20STAT4%20gene%20provides%20instructions,these%20cells%20(Th2%20lymphocytes). [Accessed 29 November 2021].
- Radstake, T. R., Gorlova, O., Rueda, B., Martin, J. E., Alizadeh, B. Z., et al. (2010). Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus. Nature genetics, 42(5), 426-429.
- Vonk, M. C., et al. (2013). Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci. Nature, 499(7458), 316-320.