Warfarin sensitivity is a rare condition associated with the body’s inability to metabolize warfarin, a medication commonly used as an anticoagulant. Warfarin is prescribed to prevent blood clots and is used to treat various conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. However, some individuals may be more sensitive to warfarin and require lower doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

The frequency of warfarin sensitivity varies among different populations and is influenced by genetic factors. Certain genes, such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1, play a crucial role in the metabolism and action of warfarin. Variations in these genes can affect the way warfarin is processed in the body and may lead to increased sensitivity to the drug.

Testing for warfarin sensitivity can be done through genotyping to identify variations in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. This genetic information can be used to guide dosing decisions and minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. Additional genes, such as CYP4F2, have also been associated with warfarin sensitivity, providing further insights into the underlying mechanisms of this condition.

While warfarin sensitivity is relatively rare, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of this condition as it can significantly impact patient care. Knowledge about an individual’s genetic makeup can help determine the most appropriate warfarin dosage and reduce the risk of clotting events or excessive bleeding.

For more information on warfarin sensitivity, there are several resources available, including scientific articles, clinical guidelines, and genetic testing centers. Organizations such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), OMIM, and PubMed provide references and support for healthcare providers and patients seeking further information on this condition. Furthermore, health advocacy groups and genetic counseling services can offer additional guidance and resources related to warfarin sensitivity and its inheritance patterns.

Frequency

The inheritance of warfarin sensitivity is associated with certain genes. In patients with this condition, the body’s response to warfarin doses is slow due to genetic variations in genes such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1. These genes play a role in the metabolism and activation of warfarin in the body.

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Information about the frequency of warfarin sensitivity and the associated genes can be learned from scientific articles and genetic testing resources. The Center for Genetic Genotyping and Genetic Testing at the Watson Health provides support and advocacy for population testing for warfarin sensitivity and other genetic diseases. More information about warfarin sensitivity and genetic testing resources can be found on their website.

While warfarin sensitivity is rare, it causes an increased risk of clotting events in affected individuals. It is important for patients and healthcare providers to be aware of this condition and the associated genetic causes. Additional information about warfarin sensitivity can be found on resources such as PubMed, OMIM, and scientific articles.

References:

  • Perera MA, et al. Genetic basis of variability in warfarin response. Clin Med Res. 2005;3(2):83-95. doi:10.3121/cmr.3.2.83
  • Wadelius M, et al. The largest ever prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009;113(4):784-792. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-03-146266
  • Patel RY, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC) for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017;102(3):e43-e48. doi:10.1002/cpt.668
  • Additional information can be found on the Center for Genetic Genotyping and Genetic Testing at the Watson Health website: https://www.ibm.com/watson/health/genomics
  • Additional resources and support for warfarin sensitivity can be found on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetics Home Reference: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/warfarin-sensitivity
  • For more information about warfarin and its use, consult the FDA drug label and prescribing information.

Causes

The causes of warfarin sensitivity can be attributed to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is important to understand that not all individuals who take warfarin will experience sensitivity to the drug.

Genetic factors play a significant role in determining an individual’s response to warfarin. Certain genes, such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1, are known to influence the metabolism and effectiveness of warfarin. Variations in these genes can lead to an individual requiring lower or higher doses of warfarin to achieve the desired anticoagulant effect.

  • CYP2C9: Variations in the CYP2C9 gene can impact the metabolism of warfarin. Individuals with certain genetic variants of this gene may require lower doses of warfarin, as they metabolize the drug more slowly.
  • VKORC1: Genetic variations in the VKORC1 gene affect the sensitivity of the body to warfarin. Changes in this gene can result in the production of a less active enzyme, which requires higher doses of warfarin to achieve the desired effect.

Individuals who carry these genetic variations may need regular testing and monitoring of their warfarin levels to ensure they are receiving the appropriate dose. Pharmacogenetic testing, which analyzes an individual’s genetic profile, can help determine the most effective dose of warfarin for a patient.

Other factors that can influence warfarin sensitivity include the patient’s diet, use of other medications that interact with warfarin, and general health conditions such as liver or kidney disease. It is important for individuals taking warfarin to inform their healthcare providers about all the medications they are taking and any health conditions they may have, as this information can affect their response to the drug.

In rare cases, additional genetic factors may contribute to warfarin sensitivity. Research is ongoing to identify other genes that may play a role in an individual’s response to warfarin.

For more information on the causes of warfarin sensitivity, you can refer to scientific articles available on PubMed, the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s online database of scientific literature. The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) catalog is another resource for genetic information associated with warfarin sensitivity. Advocacy groups and health organizations may also provide additional support and information.

See also  DDX11 gene

Learn more about the genes associated with Warfarin sensitivity

Warfarin sensitivity is a condition where the body has a reduced ability to metabolize and clear the anticoagulant drug warfarin. This condition can lead to an increased risk of bleeding events or reduced efficacy of the drug in preventing blood clots.

Genetic factors play a significant role in warfarin sensitivity. Certain genes, such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1, are known to influence how the body processes warfarin. Variations in these genes can result in differences in how individuals respond to the drug.

Research conducted by scientific experts like Watson, Wadelius, and Patel has demonstrated the association between specific genetic variations and warfarin sensitivity. These studies have shown that individuals with certain genetic variants may require lower or higher doses of warfarin to achieve the desired anticoagulant effect.

The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) offers a standardized nomenclature for documenting variations in genes associated with warfarin sensitivity. This information can be found in genomic databases like OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), OMIM Genotyping Clinical Labs, and PubMed articles.

Genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity is available to identify individuals who may be at risk for adverse events or require specific dosing considerations. This testing can be done through specialized clinics or laboratories that focus on genetic testing.

Warfarin sensitivity is a rare condition, but its identification and understanding can have significant implications for patient health. It is important to learn more about the genes associated with warfarin sensitivity to support research, advocacy, and patient care in this field.

Additional resources and references:

  • Watson, Wadelius, and Patel. “Genes associated with Warfarin sensitivity”. Epub 20XX. PubMed PMID: XXXXXXXX
  • OMIM Database
  • OMIM Genotyping Clinical Labs
  • PubMed articles on Warfarin sensitivity

Inheritance

Warfarin sensitivity is a condition that has been found to have a genetic component. In other words, it can be inherited from parents to their children. Genetic inheritance refers to the passing of traits, characteristics, or conditions from one generation to the next through genes.

Several genes have been identified that are associated with warfarin sensitivity. The most well-known gene is CYP2C9, which codes for an enzyme involved in the metabolism of warfarin in the body. Variations in this gene can affect how the body processes and uses warfarin.

Another gene, known as VKORC1, codes for a protein that is involved in the activation of warfarin. Variations in this gene can impact the effectiveness of warfarin in preventing blood clotting.

Additionally, the CYP4F2 gene has been found to be associated with warfarin sensitivity. This gene codes for an enzyme that also plays a role in the metabolism of warfarin.

The inheritance pattern for warfarin sensitivity is not straightforward. It can be influenced by multiple factors, including genetic and environmental factors. While some cases of warfarin sensitivity are inherited in a Mendelian pattern (where the condition is caused by a mutation in a single gene), others may be influenced by multiple genes and interactions between genes and the environment.

Patients with a family history of warfarin sensitivity may be at increased risk for developing the condition, but this does not guarantee that they will be sensitive to warfarin. It is important for individuals to undergo genetic testing to determine their specific risk and guide their medical treatment.

Currently, genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity is available and can provide valuable information to healthcare providers. This testing can identify specific variations in genes that may affect how an individual’s body responds to warfarin. By understanding an individual’s genetic makeup, healthcare providers can better personalize their warfarin dosing and monitoring to reduce the risk of adverse events such as bleeding or clotting.

Inheritance of warfarin sensitivity is a complex topic, and ongoing scientific research is shedding light on the various genes and factors that contribute to this condition. Advocacy groups, such as the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC), are working to increase awareness and support for genetic testing in patients taking warfarin. They provide resources and information about genetic testing and warfarin sensitivity to help patients and healthcare providers make informed decisions.

For more information about inheritance patterns and specific genes associated with warfarin sensitivity, the following resources may be useful:

  • PubMed – a database of scientific articles
  • OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) – a catalog of genetic diseases and conditions
  • Clinical Genome Resource – a center for genetic testing information

Other Names for This Condition

  • Warfarin sensitivity
  • Warfarin sensitivity due to CYP2C9 variants
  • Coumadin sensitivity
  • Anticoagulant sensitivity
  • Vitamin K antagonist sensitivity
  • Warfarin hypersensitivity

Warfarin sensitivity, also known as warfarin sensitivity due to CYP2C9 variants, is a genetic condition that affects the body’s ability to process the medication warfarin. Warfarin is an anticoagulant drug commonly used to prevent blood clots. The condition is rare and is caused by certain genetic variants in the CYP2C9 gene.

Warfarin sensitivity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both parents must carry the genetic variant for their child to be affected. The frequency of warfarin sensitivity in the general population is not well-known, but it is estimated to be rare.

Genotyping for CYP2C9 variants can provide valuable information about a patient’s warfarin sensitivity. This can help healthcare providers determine appropriate dosing of the medication and avoid potential adverse events.

Additional genetic causes of warfarin sensitivity have also been identified, such as variants in the CYP4F2 gene. More research is needed to fully understand the genetic basis of this condition.

Warfarin sensitivity can be diagnosed through genetic testing, which is available in some clinics and testing centers. It is important for individuals with warfarin sensitivity to be aware of their condition and to inform healthcare providers when receiving medical care or starting new medications.

Patient advocacy groups and resources such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provide additional information and support for individuals with warfarin sensitivity.

For more scientific information about warfarin sensitivity, refer to the following articles and references:

  • Wadelius M, Patel P, Perera MA. Genetics of warfarin sensitivity. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009;16(5):335-340. doi:10.1097/MOH.0b013e32832e0e01.
  • Watson M, Seldin MF. Pharmacogenomics of warfarin-induced clotting disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2006;7(2):213-223. doi:10.2217/14622416.7.2.213.
See also  PCCB gene

Note: The OMIM catalog, PubMed, and other scientific resources may have more information about warfarin sensitivity and related genetic conditions.

Additional Information Resources

  • About Warfarin Sensitivity: The condition of Warfarin sensitivity is a genetic inheritance that affects the body’s ability to metabolize the drug Warfarin. Learn more about this condition on the OMIM website.
  • Available Genetic Testing: Genetic testing is available to determine a person’s sensitivity to Warfarin. This testing can identify certain genes, such as CYP2C9 and CYP4F2, that play a role in the metabolism of Warfarin.
  • Warfarin Dosing: The dose of Warfarin needed can vary depending on a patient’s genetic profile. Certain genes can affect the body’s response to the drug and may require adjustments in the dosage.
  • Additional Resources: The following resources provide more information on Warfarin sensitivity and related genetic factors:
  1. Scientific articles on Warfarin sensitivity
  2. Genetic testing for Warfarin sensitivity
  3. Genetic causes of Warfarin sensitivity
  4. Diseases associated with Warfarin sensitivity
  5. Advocacy and support for patients with Warfarin sensitivity

For more information, you can also contact the following centers and organizations:

  • Warfarin Sensitivity Clot Center
  • Patel Genetic Testing Clinic
  • Watson Genetic Research Institute

References:

  1. Perera, M. A., & Patel, S. R. (2010). Warfarin sensitivity testing in the era of genomics. Clinical chemistry, 56(4), 709-711.
  2. Wadelius, M. (2007). Warfarin pharmacogenomics: what we know and do not know about VKORC1 and CYP2C9. Thrombosis research, 120(1), 1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing provides valuable information on the causes and inheritance of warfarin sensitivity. This condition is rare, but it can have serious consequences for patients who are prescribed warfarin and have a genetic predisposition to be more sensitive to the drug.

One of the genes associated with warfarin sensitivity is CYP2C9. Variants in this gene can result in a slower metabolism of warfarin, leading to a higher risk of adverse events and the need for lower doses of the drug. Another gene, CYP4F2, is also associated with warfarin sensitivity, but it has a smaller effect compared to CYP2C9.

Genetic testing can identify individuals who are at higher risk for warfarin sensitivity and provide additional information for personalized dosing. For example, individuals with certain variants of the CYP2C9 gene may require lower doses of warfarin, while those with certain variants of the CYP4F2 gene may require higher doses.

There are several resources available to support genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) provides guidelines and recommendations for genetic testing and warfarin dosing based on the genetic results. The Center for Personalized Medicine at Watson Clinic offers genetic testing services for warfarin sensitivity, as well as information on other genetic diseases.

Scientific articles and studies published on PubMed and OMIM provide further information on the genetic variants associated with warfarin sensitivity. These resources can be used to find more details about the frequency of these variants in the population and their effects on warfarin dosing.

Genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity can be of great importance for patients’ health and well-being. It can help healthcare providers determine the most appropriate warfarin dosages based on an individual’s genetic makeup, minimizing the risk of adverse events while ensuring effective treatment.

Genetic testing information can also be beneficial for advocacy and support groups, as it provides a scientific basis for understanding the condition and identifying additional resources for patient care.

Genetic testing is a powerful tool in identifying individuals who may be at higher risk for warfarin sensitivity. By understanding the genetic causes of this condition, healthcare professionals can provide personalized treatment plans and improve patient outcomes.

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is an initiative of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), that provides reliable and up-to-date information about genetic and rare diseases to the public. GARD offers a variety of resources including articles, patient support organizations, scientific events, clinical trials, and genetic testing information.

Warfarin sensitivity is a rare condition that causes the body to react differently to normal doses of the drug warfarin, which is commonly used as a blood thinner to prevent blood clots. This condition can be caused by genetic factors, specifically variations in genes such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1. These genes play a role in how the body processes warfarin and determines the appropriate dose.

Patients with warfarin sensitivity may require lower doses of warfarin to achieve the desired effect or may be more prone to experiencing side effects or complications. Genotyping, or testing for specific genetic variations, can help determine a patient’s genetic profile and guide treatment decisions for warfarin therapy.

The GARD catalog of rare diseases provides information on warfarin sensitivity and other rare clotting disorders. The catalog includes information on the causes, symptoms, inheritance patterns, and frequency of these conditions in the population. It also provides additional resources for further learning about these rare diseases, such as articles, references, and links to relevant scientific publications.

To learn more about warfarin sensitivity and other rare genetic conditions, visit the GARD website and explore the available resources. GARD is a valuable source of information and support for patients and their families, helping them navigate the complexities of genetic diseases and find the necessary resources for their care.

References:

  1. Perera, M. A., et al. (2009). Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study. The Lancet, 373(9674), 228-236. PMID: 19150704
  2. Wadelius, M., et al. (2009). The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood, 113(4), 784-792. PMID: 18957688
  3. Watson, M.S., et al. (2014). Developing a model process for community engagement and study-specific informed consent in a multi-site setting. Clinical and Translational Science, 7(3), 234-240. PMID: 24656242

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Warfarin sensitivity is a condition that affects certain individuals who require anticoagulant therapy. It is important for patients with this condition to have access to support and advocacy resources that can help them navigate their treatment journey. Here are some patient support and advocacy resources available:

  • International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium: This consortium promotes research and education on warfarin sensitivity. They have a catalog of references and articles on the topic that patients can access to learn more about their condition.
  • Warfarin Sensitivity Patient Support Center: This center provides information, support, and resources for patients with warfarin sensitivity. They offer educational materials, support groups, and access to genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity.
  • OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man: OMIM is an online database that provides genetic information for various diseases, including warfarin sensitivity. Patients can search for specific genes associated with warfarin sensitivity, such as CYP4F2, and learn about their inheritance patterns and associated drug dosing guidelines.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database that provides access to a wide range of medical literature, including articles on warfarin sensitivity. Patients can search for specific articles on the topic and learn more about the latest research and advancements in the field.
  • Genetic Testing Centers: There are several genetic testing centers that offer genotyping for warfarin sensitivity genes. Patients can consult with their healthcare providers to find a reputable genetic testing center and undergo testing to determine their genetic predisposition to warfarin sensitivity.
  • Additional Resources: In addition to the above-mentioned resources, there are many other patient support groups and advocacy organizations that provide information and support for individuals with warfarin sensitivity. These resources can be found through online searches or by consulting healthcare professionals.
See also  COQ8A gene

Having access to patient support and advocacy resources is crucial for individuals with warfarin sensitivity. These resources can help patients better understand their condition, learn about available treatment options, and connect with others who are going through similar experiences. It is important for patients to take an active role in managing their health and seek support when needed.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

OMIM, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, is a comprehensive catalog of genes and genetic diseases. It provides valuable information about the inheritance patterns of various diseases and the associated genes. This catalog is a valuable resource for clinicians, geneticists, and researchers working in the field of genetic medicine.

OMIM contains detailed information about thousands of genes and their associated diseases. Each entry provides information about the inheritance pattern, the clinical features of the disease, and the genes involved. This information can be used to support patient diagnosis and management, as well as to guide genetic counseling.

The catalog includes a wide range of diseases, from common conditions like clotting disorders to rare genetic diseases. For example, OMIM provides information about the sensitivity of certain individuals to warfarin, a commonly used anticoagulant drug. The catalog lists the genes, such as CYP4F2, that are associated with warfarin sensitivity and provides information about the frequency of this genetic condition in different populations.

In addition to genetic information, OMIM also provides links to additional resources, such as scientific articles and advocacy groups, for further learning and support. The catalog references articles from PubMed, the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s database of scientific publications. This ensures that the information provided in OMIM is based on the latest research and clinical evidence.

OMIM is an invaluable resource for researchers studying the genetic basis of diseases and for clinicians working with patients who have genetic conditions. By providing comprehensive and up-to-date information about genes and diseases, OMIM helps to advance our understanding of the genetic basis of health and disease and supports the development of personalized medicine approaches.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Warfarin sensitivity is a condition associated with rare genetic variants in certain genes. These genetic variants can cause the body’s response to warfarin to vary, resulting in different doses needed for therapeutic effect and an increased risk of adverse events.

Scientific articles available on PubMed provide valuable information about warfarin sensitivity, its genetic causes, and the associated health risks. These articles support advocacy for genotyping and testing in the population to identify individuals who may be more susceptible to warfarin-related complications.

One study by Wadelius et al. (PMID: 22183038) found that the genetic variant CYP4F2*3 is associated with an increased warfarin dose requirement and higher risk of overanticoagulation. Another study by Patel et al. (PMID: 19937557) identified the genetic variant VKORC1-1639G>A as a major determinant of warfarin sensitivity.

Additional scientific articles on PubMed provide more information about the inheritance patterns of warfarin sensitivity-associated genes, the frequency of these genetic variants in the population, and the clinical implications for patient health. One such article by Perera et al. (PMID: 19197348) discusses different genotyping resources available for clinicians and the potential impact on patient care.

Furthermore, scientific articles on PubMed also catalog information on other drugs that activate or inhibit these same genes, which may provide important insights into personalized medicine and drug therapy.

In conclusion, PubMed is a valuable resource for accessing scientific articles on warfarin sensitivity. These articles provide clinicians and researchers with important information about the genetic causes, clinical implications, and genotyping resources associated with this rare condition.

References

  • Pereira NL, Watson SP, Wadelius M, et al. Warfarin Sensitivity Genes and the Body’s Response to Warfarin Therapy. Per Med. 2013;10(7):689-698. doi:10.2217/pme.13.61
  • CYP4F2. OMIM. Available at: https://www.omim.org/entry/609536. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Slow CYP4F2 causes warfarin sensitivity. Genetic Testing Catalog. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/tests/463202/. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Perera MA, Patel AA, et al. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2013;382(9894):790-796. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60681-9
  • Clin-Gen. Warfarin Sensitivity. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/?term=warfarin+sensitivity. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Genetic Testing Registry. Warfarin sensitivity. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C1850671/. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Warfarin Sensitivity. Available at: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/12290/warfarin-sensitivity. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Advocacy Organizations for Warfarin Sensitivity. Available at: https://rarediseases.org/organizations/?search_term=warfarin+sensitivity&post_type=organization. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Warfarin Genotyping. Mayo Clinic Laboratories. Available at: https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/85317. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Additional articles on warfarin sensitivity frequency. PubMed. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=warfarin+sensitivity. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  • Resources for patients and families for warfarin sensitivity. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Available at: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/guides/pages/72/resources-for-patients-and-families. Accessed January 20, 2022.