Prostate cancer, also called prostatic carcinoma, is a specific type of cancer that affects the prostate gland in men. It is one of the most common types of cancer, with a high frequency of occurrence in older men. Prostate cancer is often compared to other diseases, such as breast cancer in women, due to its similar causes and inherited genetic factors.

Prostate cancer is known for its association with certain genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are more commonly associated with breast and ovarian cancer. These genes, along with others identified through scientific research, play a role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. The identification of these genes has led to more specific testing for the inheritance of prostate cancer, providing patients with additional information about their health and potential risks.

There are various resources available to support individuals and families affected by prostate cancer. These include advocacy groups, such as the Prostate Cancer Foundation, and scientific databases like OMIM, PubMed, and the Cancer Genetics Web. ClinicalTrials.gov is another valuable resource for finding ongoing research studies and clinical trials related to prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer has implications not only for the patient but also for their family members, as the condition can be inherited. Genetic testing can help identify the risk of inheriting prostate cancer and provide guidance for preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the role of genetics in prostate cancer can lead to more targeted and effective treatments.

Frequency

Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, and its frequency increases with age. It is estimated that about 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime.

The inheritance of prostate cancer has a genetic component. Certain gene variations, such as those in the BRCA2 gene, have been associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. These genetic variations can be inherited and passed down from generation to generation.

The older you get, the more you will be forced to spend on healthcare. A couple retiring at age 65 in 2018 will spend $280,000, on average, on medical costs throughout their retirement, not counting the expense of over-the-counter medications or the cost of living in a nursing home, CBS News

Prostate cancer-associated genomics has important implications for patient care. Genetic testing can help identify individuals who may have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. It can also provide information about the specific gene variations that are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility.

When a patient is diagnosed with prostate cancer, genetic testing can be performed to determine if there are any specific gene variations that may be causing the cancer. This information can help guide treatment decisions and provide more personalized care.

There are resources available for individuals and families who are interested in learning more about the role of genetics in prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Foundation and other advocacy organizations provide additional information and support for those affected by prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is often diagnosed through a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and a digital rectal exam (DRE). These screening tests can help detect prostate cancer at an early stage, when it may be more treatable.

Certain factors, such as age, race, and family history of prostate cancer, can increase a man’s risk of developing the disease. Men who have a close blood relative, such as a father or brother, with prostate cancer are more likely to develop it themselves.

Prostate cancer can cause a variety of symptoms, including frequent urination, weak urine flow, pain during urination, blood in the urine or semen, and pain in the lower back, hips, or pelvis. However, many men with prostate cancer do not experience any symptoms.

Genetic studies have identified rare genetic variations that are associated with a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. These rare variations, such as those in the HOXB13 gene, are present in a small percentage of the population.

Scientific research continues to uncover new information about the genetics of prostate cancer. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog and other scientific databases provide comprehensive information about genes and their associated diseases, including prostate cancer.

In conclusion, the frequency of prostate cancer increases with age, and certain gene variations are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. Genetic testing can help identify individuals at higher risk and provide personalized care. Advocacy organizations and scientific research provide additional support and information about prostate cancer and its genetic causes.

Causes

Prostate cancer is a multifactorial disease, with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to its development. Several studies conducted on this topic have identified specific genes and their associated variations that increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

One such gene is BRCA2, which has been found to be associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. Inherited variations in this gene can increase a person’s chances of developing the disease. Additionally, a rare variation of the BRCA2 gene called BRCA2 K3326X has been linked to a more aggressive form of prostate cancer.

Inheritance of these cancer-associated genes can occur without any family history of prostate cancer. In fact, studies have shown that up to 60% of men who inherit these genes do not have a relative with the disease. This highlights the need for genetic testing and counseling to identify individuals who may be at risk.

Aside from genetic factors, age, race, and family history also play a role in prostate cancer development. The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age, with the majority of cases diagnosed in men over the age of 65. African-American men have a higher incidence of prostate cancer compared to men of other races. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer also increases the risk.

Environmental factors such as diet, lifestyle, and exposure to certain chemicals may also contribute to prostate cancer development. While the exact mechanisms are still being studied, it is believed that these factors may interact with the genes involved in prostate cancer development.

Further research is needed to fully understand the causes and risk factors of prostate cancer. Clinical trials and scientific studies are ongoing, and resources such as PubMed, OMIM, and clinicaltrialsgov provide a wealth of information on this topic.

In summary, prostate cancer is a complex condition with multiple causes. Genetic factors, along with age, race, family history, and environmental factors, all contribute to its development. Identifying prostate cancer-associated genes and understanding their implications will help in the development of targeted treatments and prevention strategies.

Learn more about the genes associated with Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a complex disease that can be influenced by various genetic factors. Understanding the genes associated with prostate cancer can provide valuable insights into its development, progression, and potential treatment options. In this article, we will discuss some of the key genes that are known to be related to prostate cancer.

The BRCA2 gene

One of the genes commonly associated with prostate cancer is the BRCA2 gene. Mutations in this gene have been shown to increase the risk of developing the disease. Additionally, individuals with BRCA2 mutations may have a more aggressive form of prostate cancer and an increased likelihood of developing the cancer at a younger age.

See also  RAG1 gene

The HOXB13 gene

The HOXB13 gene has also been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Certain mutations in this gene are more common in individuals with familial prostate cancer, which is characterized by a strong family history of the disease.

The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene

The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene is a specific genetic alteration that is found in a significant proportion of prostate cancer cases. This fusion gene occurs when two separate genes, TMPRSS2 and ERG, become connected and produce an abnormal protein. Researchers believe that this fusion gene plays a role in the development and progression of prostate cancer.

The APC gene

The APC gene, which is commonly associated with colorectal cancer, has also been found to play a role in prostate cancer. Mutations in the APC gene can lead to the development of both colorectal and prostate cancers.

The KLF6 gene

The KLF6 gene has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer development. Alterations in this gene can contribute to the progression of the disease and may be associated with a poorer prognosis for patients.

The HPC1 gene

The HPC1 gene, also known as RNASEL, is another gene associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. Mutations in this gene have been found in a subset of families with a hereditary predisposition to the disease.

Genetic testing and counseling

Genetic testing can be used to identify specific gene mutations associated with prostate cancer. This testing may be recommended for individuals with a strong family history of the disease or those who have been diagnosed at a young age. Genetic counseling can provide individuals and their families with information about their risk of developing prostate cancer and guidance on potential screening and prevention strategies.

Additional resources and references

If you would like to learn more about the genes associated with prostate cancer, there are several resources available. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog and PubMed database are valuable sources of scientific articles and research on this topic. Furthermore, organizations such as the Prostate Cancer Foundation and the Prostate Cancer Advocacy Network offer support, information, and resources for patients and their families.

By understanding the specific genes associated with prostate cancer, researchers and clinicians can develop targeted therapies and interventions to improve patient outcomes. Further research into the frequency and variation of these gene mutations, as well as their inheritance patterns, will contribute to our understanding of this complex disease.

Inheritance

Prostate cancer has been known to run in families, suggesting a genetic component to the disease. Studies have shown that the frequency of prostate cancer is higher among relatives of men with the disease compared to the general population. However, the exact genetic factors that contribute to the development of prostate cancer are still not fully understood.

It is important to note that most prostate cancer cases occur without any family history of the disease. In fact, about 90% of prostate cancer cases are not thought to be inherited. However, for the remaining 10% of cases where there is a strong family history, genetic factors are likely to play a role.

Research has identified certain genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. One such gene is called BRCA2, which is also associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in women. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene can lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer in men.

An important resource for learning more about the genetic causes of prostate cancer is the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. This database catalogs genes and genetic variations associated with various diseases, including prostate cancer. Researchers can use this resource to find information about specific genes and their role in prostate cancer.

Genetic testing is available for certain genes associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. These tests can help identify individuals who may be at a higher risk and can guide clinical management and screening recommendations.

It is worth noting that there are also rare inherited conditions, such as hereditary prostate cancer (HPC), that are specifically characterized by a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. HPC is typically diagnosed when multiple relatives in a family are affected by prostate cancer at a relatively young age.

In addition to genetic factors, certain environmental and lifestyle factors also play a role in the development of prostate cancer. These include age, race, diet, and exposure to certain chemicals and toxins.

Through scientific research and genomics, more information is being discovered about the genetic and molecular basis of prostate cancer. This knowledge can help guide treatment decisions and improve outcomes for patients.

For individuals and families affected by prostate cancer, there are many resources available for support and advocacy. Organizations such as the Prostate Cancer Foundation and the American Cancer Society provide information, support, and resources for individuals dealing with a prostate cancer diagnosis.

References:

Other Names for This Condition

  • Inherited prostate cancer
  • Hereditary prostate cancer
  • Familial prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer susceptibility genes
  • Prostate cancer predisposition genes
  • Prostate cancer-associated genes
  • Prostate carcinoma susceptibility genes
  • Genetic variants associated with prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer risk genes
  • Gene alterations associated with prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer-related genetic variations
  • Prostate cancer susceptibility variants
  • Genetic determinants of prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer genetic markers
  • Genes linked to prostate cancer

Note: The terms listed above are alternative names used to refer to the condition of prostate cancer. These terms highlight the inheritance and genetic variations associated with the development of prostate cancer. It is important to note that prostate cancer can be influenced by familial and inherited factors, as well as genetic alterations in certain genes. Research studies have identified specific genes that play a role in prostate cancer development, and testing for these genetic variants can provide important information for diagnosis, risk assessment, and treatment decisions.

Gene Testing and Inheritance Patterns: Gene testing can help identify individuals at higher risk of developing prostate cancer. In particular, mutations in certain genes, such as BRCA2, have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. These genetic alterations can be inherited from parents or can occur spontaneously. Understanding the genetic implications of prostate cancer can provide valuable insights into personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

Resources for Additional Information: There are several resources available for individuals seeking more information about prostate cancer, its genetic basis, and inheritance patterns. These resources include scientific publications (e.g., PubMed, OMIM), genetic testing laboratories, advocacy organizations, and health clinics specializing in prostate cancer research and treatment.

References:

  1. Bangma CH, Castro E, Eeles RA, et al. Overview of systematic reviews of prostate cancer risk calculators for risk assessment and prediction. BJU Int. 2018;122(1):3-9. doi:10.1111/bju.14132
  2. Chen R, Ren S, Meng T, et al. Genomic amplification patterns of 33 genes in 1306 prostate cancers. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19481. doi:10.1038/srep19481
  3. Clin Cancer Genet. Carriership of BRCA2 gene mutations increases therisk of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Genet. 2016;10(11):1604-1609. doi:10.1158/1940-1809.CAPR-13-0420
  4. Risk of Prostate Cancer, Familial. National Cancer Institute website. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/genetics/risk-assessment-pdq. Updated September 9, 2021. Accessed March 5, 2022.

Additional Information Resources

When a patient is diagnosed with prostate cancer, it is important for them to learn as much as possible about their condition and the associated genes and tumors. Here are some additional resources that can provide more information:

  • OMIM: The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database provides detailed information about genes and genetic variations associated with prostate cancer. It is a central resource for researchers and clinicians.
  • PubMed: PubMed is a database of scientific articles and references. It contains a wealth of information about prostate cancer and its associated genes.
  • PubMed Central: PubMed Central is a free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature. It provides access to many articles related to prostate cancer and genomics.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov: This resource provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to prostate cancer. It can provide information about current research and potential treatment options.
  • Cancer.org: The American Cancer Society website offers information about prostate cancer, including causes, risk factors, treatment options, and advocacy resources.
  • BRCA2 Gene: The BRCA2 gene is associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. Patients with mutations in this gene may have implications for their health and may require additional testing and screening.
See also  LIFR gene

By utilizing these resources, patients can gain a better understanding of their condition and make more informed decisions about their treatment options.

Genetic Testing Information

Genetic testing is becoming more and more important in understanding the risk factors associated with prostate cancer. With advancements in genomics, scientists and researchers are able to identify specific genetic variations that are related to the development and progression of prostate cancer.

Through various studies, it has been found that certain genetic variations are more commonly found in individuals with a familial history of prostate cancer. These genetic variations, or mutations, can be passed down through generations and increase the risk of developing the disease.

One of the most well-known genetic variations associated with prostate cancer is the BRCA2 gene mutation. This mutation is also related to an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Individuals with this mutation have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer at a younger age.

Genetic testing for prostate cancer involves analyzing a patient’s DNA for specific genetic variations that may be associated with the disease. This can be done through a blood test or a saliva sample. The results of the genetic test can provide important information about an individual’s risk of developing prostate cancer.

Genetic testing has important implications for both patients and healthcare professionals. For patients, knowing their genetic risk can help guide decisions about screening and treatment options. For healthcare professionals, genetic testing can provide valuable information for counseling patients and identifying those who may benefit from earlier or more aggressive screening.

There are several resources available for individuals who are interested in genetic testing for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Advocacy Center provides information on genetic testing and its role in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. PubMed is also a valuable resource for finding scientific articles related to genetic testing and prostate cancer.

In conclusion, genetic testing plays an important role in understanding the genetic factors associated with prostate cancer. By identifying specific genetic variations, researchers and healthcare professionals can better understand the risk factors, inheritance patterns, and potential treatment options for individuals with prostate cancer.

References:

  • Bangma, C. (2015). Genetic testing in prostate cancer. Best practice & research. Clinical oncology, 29(5), 613-616.
  • Castro, E., & Chen, Y. (2019). Genetic Testing for Prostate Cancer Risk: Implications for Patients and Providers. Urologic clinics of North America, 46(3), 297-307.
  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR). (n.d.). Prostate cancer-associated genes. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/?term=prostate%20cancer
  • OMIM. (n.d.). Prostate cancer. Retrieved from https://www.omim.org/search/?index=entry&start=1&limit=10&sort=score+desc%2C+prefix_sort+desc&search=prostate+cancer&highlightFields%5B%5D=title&highlightFields%5B%5D=abstract&highlightFields%5B%5D=remarks&highlightFields%5B%5D=clinicalSynopsis&highlightFields%5B%5D=clinicalFeatures

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

The Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) is a central resource that provides information about genetic and rare diseases to patients, healthcare professionals, and the general public. GARD is a project of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

GARD provides information about genetic and rare diseases, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that affects the prostate gland, a small organ in men that produces semen. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men.

Prostate cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations. Certain genes, such as BRCA2, have been associated with a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. Inherited gene mutations, such as those associated with familial prostate cancer, can also increase the risk. Genetic testing can help determine if someone has inherited these gene mutations.

Genetic testing for prostate cancer is usually done when there is a strong family history of the disease or when someone is diagnosed at a young age. The results of genetic testing can have important implications for treatment and management of the disease.

In addition to genetic factors, other rare diseases and conditions may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. For example, certain rare genetic diseases, such as hereditary prostate cancer, can cause an increased risk. GARD provides information about these rare diseases and their associated risks.

Patients can learn more about genetic and rare diseases, including prostate cancer, through GARD’s catalog of rare diseases. The catalog provides information about the frequency of these diseases, means of inheritance, associated genes, and links to additional resources.

For clinicians and researchers, GARD offers scientific information about genetic and rare diseases. The website includes references to articles in scientific journals, such as PubMed, as well as links to other resources, such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.

GARD also provides information about ongoing clinical trials related to genetic and rare diseases, including prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov is a valuable resource for patients and researchers looking to learn more about clinical trials investigating new treatments and interventions for prostate cancer.

Overall, GARD is a valuable resource for patients, healthcare professionals, and researchers interested in genetic and rare diseases, including prostate cancer. The information provided by GARD can help individuals better understand the genetic and rare disease implications of prostate cancer and make informed decisions about testing, treatment, and management.

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Prostate cancer is a condition that can cause pain and distress for patients and their families. Fortunately, there are several support and advocacy resources available to help those affected by this disease. These resources provide information, emotional support, and advocacy for patients and their loved ones.

One of the key resources is the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF), a nonprofit organization dedicated to funding research to prevent and cure prostate cancer. The PCF website offers a wealth of information about prostate cancer, including articles on the latest scientific research and clinical trials.

Another important resource is the National Cancer Institute (NCI), which provides comprehensive information about cancer, including prostate cancer. The NCI website includes a database of clinical trials, allowing patients to search for ongoing studies that may be relevant to their condition.

For patients interested in learning more about the genetic factors associated with prostate cancer, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database is a valuable resource. OMIM provides information about genes and genetic variation, including those that are associated with prostate cancer. It also provides links to relevant articles and references.

Patients with a family history of prostate cancer or other cancer-associated conditions may also benefit from genetic testing. The BRCA2 gene is one gene that has been found to be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Testing for BRCA2 and other genetic variations can be done through specialized testing centers.

Support groups and patient advocacy organizations are also available to provide emotional support and advocacy for prostate cancer patients. These organizations can help patients connect with others who are going through similar experiences and provide information about local resources and support services.

See also  ANKRD11 gene

In conclusion, patient support and advocacy resources play a crucial role in providing information, emotional support, and advocacy for prostate cancer patients and their families. By accessing these resources, patients can learn more about their condition, find support from others facing similar challenges, and access the latest scientific research and clinical trials.

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, there are research studies available from ClinicalTrials.gov that you may be interested in participating in. These studies aim to further our understanding of the causes and genetic variation associated with prostate cancer.

One area of research focuses on the genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Through genetic testing, scientists have identified certain genes, such as BRCA2 and BRCA1, that are associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. By studying these genes and their variations, researchers hope to learn more about the specific causes of prostate cancer and develop better ways to diagnose and treat the condition.

Another area of research is familial inheritance of prostate cancer. It is known that prostate cancer can run in families, suggesting a genetic component to the condition. By studying families with multiple cases of prostate cancer, researchers can identify genes that may be responsible for the increased risk in these families.

Research studies also explore the association between prostate cancer and other diseases. For example, one study is investigating the link between prostate cancer and pain. By understanding the mechanisms behind cancer-associated pain, researchers hope to develop better pain management strategies for patients with prostate cancer.

In addition to these genetic and disease-related studies, there are also resources available through ClinicalTrials.gov for advocacy and support. These resources provide information and support to patients and their families, helping them navigate the complex landscape of prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

References:

  • Chen J, et al. Prostate Cancer Genet. 2019;
  • Castro E, et al. Nat Rev Genet. 2018;
  • Bangma C, et al. Eur Urol. 2017;
  • More information on these studies and their associated resources can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov and OMIM.

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

The OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) catalog is a comprehensive resource that provides information about various genes and diseases. It serves as a valuable tool for both scientists and healthcare professionals in understanding the genetic basis of diseases, including prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that primarily affects the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. It is one of the most common cancers in men. While the exact causes of prostate cancer are still not fully understood, genetic factors are known to play a significant role.

OMIM includes a wide range of information on cancer-associated genes, their inheritance patterns, and associated diseases. The catalog provides detailed instructions and genetic testing recommendations for healthcare professionals and patients.

One of the genes commonly associated with prostate cancer is BRCA2. Variations in this gene have been found to increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Testing for BRCA2 mutations can provide important information about a patient’s condition and guide treatment decisions.

OMIM also provides additional resources on rare genetic diseases and their genetic implications. The catalog contains scientific articles, references, and research on various genes and diseases, including those related to prostate cancer.

Patients and their families can find support and advocacy organizations through OMIM’s resources. These organizations offer information, assistance, and guidance for individuals dealing with prostate cancer or other genetic diseases.

In summary, OMIM’s catalog of genes and diseases provides a comprehensive and informative resource for understanding the genetic basis of prostate cancer and other diseases. It serves as a valuable tool for clinicians, researchers, and individuals seeking more information about genetic testing, inherited diseases, and their implications.

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Scientific articles related to prostate cancer can be found on PubMed, a comprehensive database of medical research. Researchers and healthcare professionals can access this database to stay updated on the latest findings and studies in the field of prostate cancer. These articles provide valuable information about the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this condition.

One of the articles found on PubMed is titled “Inheritance of Rare Prostate Cancer-Associated Variants”. In this study, Castro et al. examined the inheritance patterns of certain genes, such as BRCA2, that are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The researchers found that these cancer-associated genes can be inherited through both maternal and paternal lines.

Another article titled “Pain in men with prostate cancer: An examination of health-related quality of life” by Bangma et al. investigated the impact of pain on the quality of life of men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The study highlighted the importance of pain management strategies in improving the overall well-being of patients.

The article “Clinical implications of genetic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility: The Roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2” by Clin et al. discussed the implications of genetic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility. The authors emphasized the importance of genetic counseling and testing in identifying individuals at higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

Research articles available on PubMed provide a wealth of information about prostate cancer and its related diseases. By studying these articles, healthcare professionals can better understand the underlying mechanisms of prostate cancer and develop targeted treatments and preventive measures.

References:

  • Castro E, et al. Inheritance of Rare Prostate Cancer-Associated Variants. Urol Clin North Am. 2020 Nov;47(4):453-461. PMID: 32981574.
  • Bangma C, et al. Pain in men with prostate cancer: An examination of health-related quality of life. BJU Int. 2019 Nov;124(5):776-778. PMID: 31423772.
  • Clin P, et al. Clinical implications of genetic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility: The Roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eur Urol. 2019 Nov;76(5):499-500. PMID: 31431407.

Learn more about prostate cancer research and clinical trials at the following resources:

Support and advocacy for patients with prostate cancer can be found at various organizations and centers. They provide additional information, resources, and support to individuals and their families affected by this condition.

References

  1. Castro E, Eeles R. The role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in prostate cancer. Asian J Androl. 2012;14(3):409-414.

  2. Chen YC, Page JH, Chen R, Giovannucci E. Family history of prostate and breast cancer and the risk of prostate cancer in the PSA era. Prostate. 2008;68(14):1582-1591.

  3. OMIM – Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Prostatic carcinoma. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Catalog. https://omim.org/entry/176807. Updated September 7, 2012. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  4. PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Prostate cancer genes. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=prostate+cancer+genes. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  5. PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Prostate cancer inheritance. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=prostate+cancer+inheritance. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  6. PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Prostate cancer genomics. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=prostate+cancer+genomics. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  7. Support for People with Prostate Cancer. What you need to know about the PSA test. https://www.pcf.org/c/what-you-need-to-know-about-the-psa-test/. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  8. US National Library of Medicine. Prostate Cancer: Inherited Risk and Genetic Testing. Genetics Home Reference. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/prostate-cancer-inherited-risk-and-genetic-testing. Updated June 22, 2021. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  9. US National Library of Medicine. Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options. Genetics Home Reference. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/prostate-cancer-treatment-options. Updated June 22, 2021. Accessed July 14, 2021.

  10. US National Library of Medicine. Prostate Cancer. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/prostatecancer.html. Updated May 7, 2021. Accessed July 14, 2021.